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University of Colorado 

Historical Collections 

JAMES F. WILLARD 
Editor 

Volume III 




Volume II 

ISaccessIoSedi 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2015 



https://archive.org/details/experinnentsincolOOjanne 



DENVER PUBLIC LfBRAf?r 



Experiments 
In Colorado Colonization 

1869-1872 



Selected Contemporary Records 
relating to 

The German Colonization Company and the 
Chicago-Colorado, St. Louis-Western 
and Southwestern Colonies 




Edited by 
JAMES F. WILLARD, Ph.D. 
and 

COLIN B. GOODYKOONTZ, Ph.D. 



Of the Department of History 
University of Colorado 



BOULDER 
1926 



Copyright 1926 
by 

Univergity of Colorado 



THE HAKTMANN'SRUOEnUN CO., OENVEN 



PREFACE 



In this companion volume to Willard's The Union Colony at 
Greeley^ Colorado, published by the University of Colorado in 
1918, an attempt has been made to publish all the pertinent 
historical documents that could be found regarding four early 
Colorado colonies: the German Colony in the Wet Mountain 
Valley, the Chicago-Colorado Colony at Longmont, the St. Louis- 
Western Colony at Evans and the Southwestern Colony at Green 
City. In addition a short section has been included on minor 
miscellaneous colonies of the same period. In the case of news- 
papers, items that were purely personal have been omitted. 

The spelling and punctuation of the writers of the records 
and of the printers in the case of the newspapers have been re- 
produced as they were found, except that obvious typographical 
errors have been corrected, and that when newspapers used larger 
or heavier type, not capitals, for the headings of their articles, 
these have been changed to capitals in the text in order to insure 
uniformity of emphasis. 

All words and sentences in brackets have been supplied by 
the editors. Whenever a heading is followed by a numeral re- 
ferring to a footnote, it is the original heading. 

In the preparation of this volume the editors have received 
the assistance of many people in Longmont, Greeley, Boulder, 
Denver, Pueblo, Evans, Westcliffe and elsewhere, to whom ac- 
knowledgment of indebtedness is gratefully made. Among others 
the following have been especially helpful in various ways: Dr. 
Grace van Sweringen Baur and Professor William Baur of the 
University of Colorado translated the Nielsen account book; 
Mr. Emil Nielsen of Pueblo and Mr. Carstens Kuhnrath of West- 
cliffe, members of the German Colony, related their personal ex- 
periences and placed at our disposal their papers and pictures; 
to Mr. C. W. Boynton of Longmont we are indebted for the loan 
of a copy of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Chicago-Colorado 
Colony; Mr. Frank S. Byers placed at our disposal the letter 
copy books of his father, WilHam N. Byers; Mr. Walter L. Wilder, 



vi 



PREFACE 



editor of the Pueblo Chieftain, allowed the use of the back files of 
this paper; Messrs. James B. Phillips and A. J. Allen of the 
Weld County Abstract and Investment Company of Greeley 
helped us trace real-estate transfers in Evans and Green City. 

The material in this volume was gathered mainly by Mr. 
Willard; the introduction was written by Mr. Goodykoontz; both 
editors shared in the preparation of the material for the press. 

J. F. W. 

C. B. G. 



CONTENTS 



Pages 

Preface...^ v-vi 

Introduction ix-xxxvii 

Colonization in Colorado: General 1- 26 

German Colonization Compan}^ 27-133 

Chicago-Colorado Colony 135-330 

St. Louis- Western Colony 331-396 

Southwestern Colony 397-421 

Miscellaneous Colonies 423-468 

Index 469-483 



V 



INTRODUCTION 



In 1869 Samuel Bowles, editor of the Springfield Republican, 
wrote regarding Colorado : ''The two things she lacketh chiefly now 
are appreciation at the East and women ; what she has of both are 
excellent, but in short supply; but the Railroad will speedily fill 
the vacuums."^ In both cases the shortage can be easily ex- 
plained: that of the women because Colorado was still a frontier 
mining territorj^; that of appreciation at the East because the 
mining industry had not. in 1869, fully recovered from a depression 
of five or six years standing. 

Depression 

This depression in the mining industry was the result chiefly 
of overspeculation and of despair born of failure to extract gold 
profitably from the Colorado ores. By 1863 the gulches had been 
so carefully examined that placer mining was no longer of much 
importance. 2 In many mines, after the disintegrated quartz near 
the surface had been worked, quartz-mining ceased to be pro- 
ductive about the same time. Stamp mills, such as had been used 
successfully on leaner ores in California and Nevada, saved only 
a small fraction of the rich Colorado sulphides. It was a baffling 
and tantalizing situation. There was plenty of gold in the hills 
but no one seemed to know how to get it. Obviously capital from 
the outside and new mining and metallurgical processes were needed 
for the development of the Colorado mines. The richness of the 
ores attracted capital, and a period of speculation, "of waste, 
of careless and unintelligent work, and as little of it as possible, 
of living by wit instead of labor, of reliance upon eastern capital 
instead of home industry, set in. Men who knew little about 
metallurgy came forward with new processes for extracting gold 
from refractory ores. Some of these new processes were un- 
scientific in character; some were too expensive to be practicable. 

»BowIes, Our New West, 195. 
»Hollister, The Minet of Colorado, 122. 
•Bowles. Our New Weii, 179. 

ix 



X 



INTRODUCTION 



Money spent on them was largely wasted. The inevitable result 
was the collapse of the mining industry in Colorado. Mines were 
abandoned, mills stopped, the population of the territory de- 
creased, while ''eastern capital, tired of waiting for promised re- 
turns, dried up its fountains; and the secrets of the rich ores 
seemed unfathomable."^ As late as 1871 a visitor noticed many 
evidences of this collapse: 

Crumbling walls and tottering chimneys of 'played out' reduction works; 
ponderous, broken, and rusted machinery and curious shaped furnaces, whose 
fires have been extinguished for years, meet the eye everywhere and chill the 
hearts of capitalists anxious to invest in the rich mines of these mountains. 
The fact that mining has survived these terrible trials and disasters is proof 
of its inherent vitality in Colorado, and a pledge of its future prosperity. 2 

The mining development of the territory was retarded also by 
the high prices paid for labor, food and other supplies. The 
shortage of labor during the Civil War and the war-time deprecia- 
tion of the currency affected prices and wages throughout the whole 
of the North. In addition Colorado suffered from a lack of 
adequate transportation facilities. Mining machinery and sup- 
plies were hauled across the plains by ox-teams at great expense. 
Even a large part of the food consumed by the early Colorado 
miners came from Missouri valley towns, and it was not until 
about 1867 that home-grown produce had much effect upon local 
prices. 

Furthermore the Indians were troublesome on the plains and 
along the foothills of the Rockies at the close of the Civil War. 
The rush of miners into the Pike's Peak country had been in dis- 
regard, if not in defiance, of Indian treaties. The Cheyenne and 
Arapaho had been brushed aside by the 'Tifty-niners." The 
treaty of Fort Wise (1861), by which these tribes were given a 
barren stretch of land in eastern and southern Colorado, did not 
satisfy them. To be permitted to occupy an unattractive portion 
of their ancestral territory by the whites, whose mushroom settle- 
ments at the base of the mountains, supplied by a continual stream 
of stage coaches and freighters' wagons, were permanent encroach- 
ments on their hunting grounds, incensed these aborigines. But 

iBowles, Our New West, 179. 

*Tice, Over the Plains and on the Mountains, 225. 



INTRODUCTION 



xi 



stage coach and pony express were forerunners of railroad survey- 
ors and construction gangs, and the railroad presaged for the 
Indians extermination or submission to the whites. 

In 1864 and for several years thereafter eastern Colorado 
suffered greatly from Indian depredations. Stage coaches, freight- 
ers, and emigrant parties along the Platte and Smoky Hill routes 
had to pass through a danger zone several hundred miles wide. 
Ranchers living along the Platte from Denver to Julesburg and 
beyond, and those east and south of Denver were intermittently 
exposed to attack. ^ To punish the Indians for their hostile con- 
duct a party under the command of Major Downing attacked a 
Cheyenne village at Cedar Bluffs in the spring of 1864, and in 
November of the same year Colonel Chivington's men fell upon a 
larger band of the same nation on Sand Creek, near Fort Lyon, in 
a manner that led unfriendly critics to refer to the affray as a 
massacre. The Indians had been punished enough to make them 
angry and resentful but not enough to break their power, as is 
shown by the fact that a desultory war with the Cheyenne and 
Arapaho lasted until 1869.^ 

Better Days 

In 1869 the outlook in Colorado was brighter than it had been 
for several years. The estimated value of the gold and silver 
bullion produced in the territory in that year was almost double 
the amount produced in 1866, although the figure for 1869 was still 
far below that for 1864.^ The Indians were no longer a serious 
menace along the main routes to Colorado or to the dwellers 
on the eastern slope. The agricultural possibilities of the territory 
had been established; a speaker at the Fourth Annual Exhibition 
of the Colorado Agricultural Society estimated the market value 
of the grain, vegetables, dairy products and hay produced in 
Colorado in 1869 at three and a half million dollars — almost as 
much as the output of the mines for that year. ^ The approach of 
the railroad promised a solution of the transportation problem. 
By the end of 1867 the Union Pacific had reached Cheyenne; 

lYoung, Across the Plains in '65, 122 ff. 

*Paxson, Last American Frontier, 225-263; 284-323. 

sFossett, Colorado, (1876 ed.), gives the output for 1864 at $5,000,000; 1866, $2,000,000; 1869, 
$3,800,000. 

*Rocky Mountain News, Sept. 25, 1869. 



xii 



INTRODUCTION 



in 1869 a branch road, the Denver Pacific, was completed from 
Cheyenne to Evans on the South Platte forty-eight miles north 
of Denver; in June, 1870, this line was finished to Denver. The 
completion of the Kansas Pacific to Denver in August of the same 
year gave that city its second railroad. 

Both the Denver Pacific and the Kansas Pacific were land 
grant railroads. Unfortunately for them a large part of their land 
lay in the region known, even as late as the close of the Civil War, 
as 'The Great American Desert." In 1867 General John Pope, 
who was in command of the Department of Missouri, which in- 
cluded Colorado, wrote in one of his reports that there was a belt 
of land never less than five hundred miles wide stretching from 
Canada to Mexico along the base of the mountains which was 
''beyond the reach of agriculture, and must always remain a great 
uninhabited desert." This region was, he said, "utterly unpro- 
ductive and uninhabitable by civilized man." ^ On the other hand, 
some observers were already beginning to doubt the existence of 
a desert in the region forever condemned by General Pope. 
Bayard Taylor wrote in 1866: 

I am fast inclining toward the opinion that there is no American Desert 
on this side of the Rocky Mountains. Belts of arid and sandy soil there 
certainly are, but I doubt if any of these are more than fifty miles in breadth, 
while there are many points where an unbroken line of habitable territory 
may be followed from the Missouri to the base of the mountains. ^ 

The old notion died slowly, however, and before Easterners 
could be induced to buy railroad land or take up public land 
along the railroad, it was necessary to educate them in regard to 
the nature of the country, and to point out the opportunities 
that awaited farmers in the semi-arid regions of the West, and 
especially in Colorado. The land selling agency for the railroads 
was a subsidiary organization known as the National Land Com- 
pany. It carried on an extensive advertising campaign in news- 
papers and farm journals, and issued descriptive pamphlets and 
circulars. It and the other agencies interested in securing agri- 
cultural settlers for Colorado emphasized the prodigious crops 

^Houae Ex. Doc., 39 Cong., 1 Seas. No. 76, 2. 
*Taylor, Colorado: a Summer Trip, 41. 



INTRODUCTION 



xiii 



which bore witness to the fertihty and richness of the soil; the 
superiority of irrigation over reliance on Providence in the matter 
of rain; and the steady market in the mining camps for what was 
raised on the farms. After due allowance has been made for the 
natural exaggeration of interested persons, the fact remains that 
astonishingly large crops were raised in the early days in Colorado. 
One takes more seriously the statements in the local newspapers 
and in the advertising circulars of the various colony companies 
when one reads the prediction made in 1869 by an intelligent, 
disinterested observer from the East that agriculture would always 
be the dominant interest in Colorado. Samuel Bowles's predic- 
tion was based on his observation and on the experience of the men 
who had tried farming in Colorado. He wrote: 

Full one third of the territorial extent of Colorado, — though this third 
average as high as Mount Washington, — is fit, more, rich for agricultural pur- 
poses. The grains, the vegetables and the fruits of the temperate zone grow 
and ripen in profusion; . . . The soil yields wonderfully, north and south. 
There was authentic evidence of 316 bushels of corn to the acre in the neigh- 
borhood of Denver last season; 60 to 75 bushels of wheat to the acre are fre- 
quently reported; also 250 bushels of potatoes; and 60 to 70 of both oats and 
barley. These are exceptional yields, of course, and yet not of single acres, 
but of whole fields, and on several farms in different counties. Probably 30 
bushels is the average product of wheat; of corn no more, for the hot nights 
that corn loves are never felt there; of oats say 50, and of barley 40, for the 
whole State. Exhaustion of the virgin freshness of the soil will tend to de- 
crease these averages in the future; but against that we may safely put im- 
proved cultivation and greater care in harvesting. . . . The irrigated 
gardens of the upper parts of Denver fairly riot in growth of fat vegetables; 
while the bottom lands of the neighboring valleys are at least equally pro- 
ductive without irrigation. Think of cabbages weighing from 50 to 60 pounds 
each! And potatoes from 5 to 6 pounds, onions 1 to 2 pounds and beets 
6 to 10! Yet here they grow, and as excellent as big.^ 

The appeal to the prospective settler was not entirely in 
terms of gold and silver, of crops and markets; the climatic ad- 
vantages of Colorado received their share of attention. The num- 
ber of sunny days in a year had early been counted; the stimulating 
effects of the dry, cool air had been noted; recoveries of health 
verging on the miraculous had been reported. ^ 

iBowIea, Our New Wett, 189-191. 

>Cf. Chicago-Colorado Colony, Constitution and By-Law8, post p. 158. 



xiv 



INTRODUCTION 



At the time when Colorado, hopeful of future greatness, stood 
ready with outstretched arms to welcome newcomers, would-be 
pioneers throughout the East, the South and the Middle West 
were looking toward the frontier. The Civil War had retarded 
but had not stopped the Westward Movement, At the close of 
the War many factors tended to accelerate the movement of people 
to the West: the process of readjustment in the North, the dis- 
organized state of society in the South, the building of the first 
transcontinental railway, the more liberal land policy of the federal 
government as shown in the passage of the Homestead Law, the 
high prices of agricultural products, all these forces acted directly 
or indirectly to induce many people to follow Horace Greeley's 
oft-quoted advice to young men. And to those who wanted to 
go West and grow up with the country no frontier territory 
seemed to offer greater opportunities than Colorado. 

The Colony Idea 

The majority of those who went West at this time, as at all 
times in the nineteenth century, went as individuals, or in family 
groups or as temporary members of a loosely organized band 
hastily formed for protection or companionship on the journey. 
Most pioneers were too individualistic to bind themselves to a 
group of socialistic or semi-socialistic character. To be sure, 
socialistic experiments such as at New Harmony has been tried on 
earlier frontiers, and group or colony migration was not unknown. 
In New England in the colonial period new towns on the frontier 
had been normally established through community action. In the 
Old Northwest such transplanted New England towns as Marietta, 
Ohio, and Vermontville, Michigan, could be found. And then 
there were the Mormons ; of all examples of group migration to the 
frontier, theirs was the most important and stupendous. 

There were advantages as well as disadvantages in group mi- 
gration and settlement. On the one hand, the colony furnished 
from the outset community life, schools and churches ; sometimes 
attempts were made to exclude undesirable persons so that the 
colony might be a select and homogeneous group ; colonists usually 
had the advantage of lower freight and passenger rates on the 
railroads. On the other hand, the man who joined a colony was 



INTRODUCTION 



XV 



not entirely his own master. He helped pay the expenses of a 
locating committee, and was settled down in a place which it se- 
lected. In the distribution of town lots and farms there were 
many opportunities for dissatisfaction and misunderstandings. 
The colonist entrusted the management of a share of his property 
to other men who were sometimes inefficient or dishonest. 

Even with all the advantages that came from living in a 
homogeneous community whose affairs were efficiently adminis- 
tered, there were disappointments because colonists had some- 
times been led to expect the impossible or improbable. A visitor 
to Colorado in the summer of 1871 pointed out the fact, frequently 
overlooked, that an agricultural colony on the edge of civilization 
was bound to pass through a period of rather primitive economic 
conditions. As he said: 

It would be a nice thing if a hundred or a thousand persons of small 
means, but large hearts, and noble aspirations, could locate upon a territory 
now of no intrinsic value, and to all of which their very presence would give 
a marketable value of ten, fifty, or even a hundred dollars an acre. How 
easily and rapidly people would then pass from straightened circumstances 
to competence and even affluence. 

There is no doubt that after years of patient endurance, and hoping 
against hope in many instances, this will be the case, but the sanguine colonist 
sees all this realized at once, without any trial of waiting and tiring of patience; 
with no hardships to be borne, nor any privations to be endured. He supposes 
that in a new country labor is scarce, and therefore must be in demand, and 
that the products of his industry and skill will find a ready market. All this 
is a delusion which sad experience will dispel. If a vacancy for a colony, with 
all these advantages, could be found in the heart of a civilized community, 
all these dreams and expectations would be speedily realized; but out on the 
vast Plains, surrounded by a domain inhabited only by the wolf, the coyote, 
roaming beasts of prey and wild animals, and where the only towns and 
villages are those of the prairie dog, the conditions forbid such instant realiza- 
tion. There a man with the inventive genius of a Watt or a Fulton, with 
strong arms, willing mind, and skillful hands, is practically reduced to in- 
action, because there is no use for their skill or talents and no demand for any 
article they can produce. Such a community necessarily is without money 
because it produces nothing that brings money; and all cash that accidently 
finds its way there is sent abroad to obtain necessaries. Trade within the 
community is thus reduced to bartering and its industry diverted to doing 
'chores.' Such ever has been and always must be the case of isolated com- 
munities beyond the pale of civilization. ^ 



»Tice, Over the Plaint and on the Mountains, 143-144. 



xvi 



INTRODUCTION 



The life of the Colorado pioneer of 1870, when compared with 
that of his grandfather or great-grandfather in Kentucky or Ohio 
or Tennessee eighty or ninety years earlier, seems tame and unin- 
teresting. He rode part or all of the way to his new home on the 
railroad; the Indian problem was, on the whole, not a serious one, 
and, besides, there was no dense, gloomy forest to shield the 
lurking savage. The railroad, the telegraph and the post office 
made it easy for him to communicate with the outside world. 
Nevertheless, pioneering in Colorado called for exactly the same 
traits of character — courage, faith, persistence — that had won 
victories on earlier frontiers.^ One of the founders of the Union 
Colony at Greeley wrote as follows of the early days in the most 
successful of all Colorado colonies : 

Doubts chased each other through our minds as the fleet antelope chased 
its fellow across the broad prairies. Fears came with the morning sunbeams 
and were not dispelled when the shadows of night fell down upon us. 
Can the reader imagine the situation? The chosen ground was unbroken 
for miles, and the winds of unnumbered centuries had blown off the light soil, 
leaving a coat of gravel over the surface not covered by grass, or cactus. 
This grass was short and brown, and presented to the eye no evidence of 
nutritive qualities, while the cactus did not then wear the variegated blossoms 
that make it attractive to the eye, while its prickly armour in no way com- 
mended it to the touch. There were days when from fifty to one hundred 
persons arrived, hardly bringing with them provisions, tents, blankets, or any 
of the necessaries of life. They could barely protect themselves from the cold 
winds, or still colder night air. No canals had been dug, no water was run- 
ning, and in all the town there was but one well. Those were dark days for 
colonization in Colorado. Some there were who seemed to forget that it was 
the work of the colony to create a city, who expected to see one already built, 
with houses and stores, mills and factories, schools and churches, — in fact, 
all the adjuncts of a settled civilization. Disappointments set their teeth 
upon edge, and kindled bitter feelings of animosity in their hearts. Tongues 
wagged, not wisely or well. Men had come to colonize, but not waiting to 
investigate, to examine the location, to test the capabilities of the soil, they 
remained to curse only so long as the next train east delayed its going. ^ 

On the basis of the degree of community action, Colorado 
colonies may be divided into three classes: co-operative, semi- 
co-operative and non-co-operative. There was only one co- 

iCf. Turner, The Frontier in American History, 309. 
»Pabor, Colorado at an Agricultural State, 32-33. 



INTRODUCTION 



xvii 



operative cololl3^ In the German Colonization Society the labor 
and capital of the members were merged, and it was their intention 
to labor jointly for the common good for a period of five years. 
The Union Colony at Greeley, the Chicago-Colorado Colony at 
Longmont and the St. Louis-Western Colony at Evans were semi- 
co-operative in that certain undertakings, especially irrigation 
projects, were under the control of the colony as a whole. The 
Southwestern Colony at Green City was ostensibly semi-co- 
operative; as will be shown later it was really a town development 
company, and its only community action appears to have been an 
attempt to dig a ditch. By a non-co-operative colony is meant 
such a movement as that of the Kentucky Emigration Society 
or the Georgia Colony in which there was informal group migra- 
tion and settlement but no co-operation in the purchase and de- 
velopment of land. After the colony movement became popular, 
town site companies such as the Fountain Colony at Colorado 
Springs, and the companies that laid out and developed Platteville, 
Monument and Pueblo took over the colony name in order to 
attract purchasers although the distinguishing characteristics of 
a colony were lacking.^ 

German Colonization Company 
Of these colonies the first in point of time and in many re- 
spects the most interesting was the German Colonization Com.pany 
organized in Chicago in August, 1869, by Carl Wulsten, a Prussian 
who had served in the Union Army during the Civil War and who 
was one of the editors of the Siaats Zeitung of that city. Wulsten's 
plan was to found somewhere in the West a colony for poor Ger- 
mans. To quote his own words: ''In 1869, the writer, propelled 
by a desire to ameliorate the physical condition of the poorer class 
of Germans, who were condemned by a cruel fate to work in 
greasy, ill- ventilated and nerve-destroying factories of the great 
city of Chicago, formed a band of about a hundred into a colonj^, 
took them and their families out of the nauseous back alleys and 
cellars of the over-crowded Garden City (sic!) and brought them 
to 'El Mojada'."2 

iCf. Willard, The Union Colony at Greeley, Colorado, xiv-xix. 

2Prof. Carl Wulsten, "El Mojada, or the Wet Mountain Valley," in Binckley & Hartwell, Southern 
Colorado, 107. 



xviii 



INTRODUCTION 



Wulsten believed that through co-operation the cost of moving 
to the West and getting settled in a new community could be great- 
ly reduced, thus making it possible for people who could not other- 
wise afford it to take advantage of the federal government's liberal 
land policy. With Wulsten communism was a means toward an 
end — the economic independence of the individuals who embarked 
on this venture. Quite clearly he had no desire to establish an 
ideal society on the frontier or to conduct the colony permanently 
on a co-operative basis. 

According to the constitution, the purpose of the German 
Colonization Company was the occupation of government or 
railroad land situated somewhere west of the Mississippi river and 
between the 42d and 35th degrees of north latitude. The number 
of members in the society was to be at least sixty and not over 
two hundred and fifty; the conditions of membership were good 
moral character, sound physical and mental health, an age between 
twenty-one and forty-five years, and the payment of a membership 
fee of $250. The money thus obtained was to be used for defraying 
the cost of transporting the members and their families to the site 
of the colony, for the purchase of land, provisions, tools, stock and 
seed, for the erection of cabins and colony buildings, for the de- 
velopment of the land, and as capital for industrial and commercial 
enterprises. In a memorial presented to Congress early in 1870, 
Wulsten made the estimate that it would take at least $690 to 
move a family of four from New York or Chicago to the 'Tar 
West," to buy the necessary stock, tools and seed, and to maintain 
it until the first crop could be raised on the ''homestead." Yet 
he proposed, through the supposed economies of co-operation, to 
do much more than this with less money per family. In addition 
to the uniform membership fee of $250 some of the colonists in- 
vested part or all of their savings in the enterprise taking a note 
for the additional amount which was, according to the constitu- 
tion, to bear interest at the rate of ten per cent per annum. Each 
member had credited to his account also the value of the labor 
performed by him from day to day. The skilled and the unskilled 
seem to have received the same credit — two dollars — for a day's 
work. On the other hand, the member was charged on the books 
of the company for his transportation, his food, clothes and all 



INTRODUCTION 



xix 



other supplies obtained. The members were not allowed to trans- 
act business outside the society on their own account. All in- 
dustries, including agriculture, were to be conducted on a co- 
operative basis for five years; at the end of that time the assets 
of the company were to be divided among the members or their 
heirs. It was understood that those who withdrew before the 
expiration of this period were to lose what they had invested in 
time, labor and money in the undertaking. It was hoped that 
after five years the colony would be firmly established, and that 
the wealth created by their labor and presence in the new com- 
munity would be sufficient to secure economic independence for 
each one of the colonists. The constitution provided for the 
usual officers; the first incumbents were Carl Wulsten, president; 
Albert Philip, secretary; and T. Merten, treasurer. 

In November, 1869, a locating committee composed of 
Wulsten, Theodore Heinlein and Rudolphe Jeske came out to 
Colorado in search of a location. In view of the fact that Colonel 
C. N. Pratt, General Agent in Chicago for the National Land Com- 
pany, had given aid in the formation of the colony and that he 
was the local representative in Chicago for the German Colony 
after the members moved to Colorado, it seems strange that a 
site was not selected within the probable limits of railroad land 
grants. Little is known about the movements in Colorado of 
the locating committee. They visited Cafion City and while 
there were advised to investigate the Wet Mountain Valley 
which lies to the south of Canon City between the Wet Mountains 
and the Sangre de Christo range. This valley, drained by the 
Texas and Grape creeks, is about twenty-five miles long and ten 
miles wide; the elevation varies from 7500 to 9000 feet above sea 
level. It was, and still is, an excellent grazing country. Grass 
and water are abundant. There were a few settlers in the north 
end of the valley in 1869, and at least one crop of wheat and oats 
had been raised there when it was visited by the Germans who were 
spying out the land. It was believed that the streams would fur- 
nish power for mills; there was some thought of mining, although 
no discoveries of gold or silver had as yet been made in this region. 
The Wet Mountain Valley or El Mojada was selected on account 
of its agricultural, commercial and mining possibilities, but the 



XX 



INTRODUCTION 



romantic beauty of the valle}^, compared by Wulsten to the Aue7i in 
Switzerland, probably enhanced its worth in the eyes of these 
Germans. 

Wulsten and his associates might have taken land under the 
homestead system or by pre-emption but preferred not to do so 
because those laws took cognizance only of individuals. A 
petition was sent to Congress, after the site was selected, asking 
for a grant of forty thousand acres of public land in the Wet 
Mountain Valley — a tract large enough to provide a quarter- 
section of land for each one of the prospective two hundred and 
fifty members of the company. Assuming that each member 
of the company were entitled to take up government land under 
the existing laws, no more public land would have passed into 
private hands than would have been the case if each one had 
come to Colorado by himself and taken land in the regular manner. 
Wulsten's proposal, in brief, was to modify the Homestead Law 
so as to make it apply to organized companies of settlers. In 
support of this plan Wulsten pointed out that it would encourage 
compact settlement; if each settler were allowed to pick out the 
best unoccupied quarter-section he could find, the colonists would 
be so scattered that they would be exposed to attack, and would 
be deprived of all the advantages of community life. In this 
petition to Congress the proposed colony town was called Colfax, 
a tribute to the man then Vice-President of the United States.^ 

Without waiting for a favorable reply from Congress, a party 
of about three hundred Germans, ^ men, women and children, left 
Chicago on February 8, 1870, in a special train on the Chicago and 
Alton Railroad. The}^ took with them their household furniture, 
live stock, farming implements, seed, artisans' tools, and ma- 
chinery for a grist mill, a saw mill, and a sash and door factory. 
From St. Louis to the ''end of track" at Fort Wallace in western 
Kansas, they traveled over the Kansas Pacific Railroad. Here 
there was a delay of about two weeks, while they waited first for 
the arrival of ox-teams purchased in Colorado by the locating 
committee, and then while they learned how to drive the oxen. 
From Fort Wallace to their destination they had also the use of 

^Sen. Mis. Doc, 41 Cong., 2 Sess. No. 22. Sarial 1408. 
*There were at least two Danes in the company. 



INTRODUCTION 



xxi 



government wagons drawn by six-mule teams. To facilitatp the 
movement from the end of the railroad to Colfax, and to secure 
protection against the Indians, Wulsten had successfully sought aid 
from the War Department and from the territorial governor of 
Colorado. The Secretary of War authorized the use of govern- 
ment wagons for the transportation of the colonists, provided a 
mihtary escort from Fort Lyon to the destination, and allowed the 
colonists to use government tents until they could build cabins 
for themselves. Governor McCook of Colorado issued commis- 
sions in the territorial militia to the officers of the military com- 
pany organized among the Germans and shipped to them at least 
three boxes of rifles and two thousand cartridges. 

On account of these favors the government was subjected to 
criticism and the Germans to ridicule. The Colorado Chieftairiy 
SL Democratic paper published in Pueblo, took the lead in criti- 
cising the policy of the government. It pointed out that the 
''old settlers" in Colorado, who had come before the days of rail- 
roads when the population was sparce and when there had been 
serious trouble with the Indians, had found in difficult to prevail 
upon the authorities to furnish arms for the protection of their 
homes, much less to furnish military escorts and government 
wagons. But now, continued the Chieftain, 

when a party of emigrants propose to ride on a railroad train across the Plains, 
into the settlements of the Territory, and travel thence to their destination 
through a thickly settled country, over a road filled with freight teams, and 
a daily line of coaches running over it, past two military posts; a region of 
countrj', in short, through which there is now no more danger in travelling 
than these emigrants would encounter between New York city and Boston, 
a man goes to Washington and proposes to come out here and make a settle- 
ment, and call it after the Vice-President of the United States, he is rewarded 
with immediate smiles, the ear of the government is bent listening, and the 
great Secretary of War is made tcrcome down, and he forthwith sends orders 
to military posts all along the line to furnish escorts of troops, arms and 
rations, to cover the march of these Teutons along through the peaceful corn- 
fields of Pueblo and Fremont counties.^ 

The action of the government was unusual only in the amount 
of help given to the Germans. It was not the first time that sol- 
diers had been used to protect emigrants or traders in the West : 



^Colorado Chieftain, Feb. 24. 1870. 



xxii 



INTRODUCTION 



military escorts had been provided for a short time on the Santa 
trail ; soldiers stationed along the Oregon trail had frequently 
accompanied emigrant parties for short distances or through some 
especially dangerous stretch of territory. In addition to being 
unusual, it was charged by hostile critics that the government's 
action was unnecessaiy and, furthermore, unwise in that it gave 
outsiders an erroneous impression about the dangers of a journey 
to Colorado. By 1870 the danger from Indian attack in eastern 
Colorado had practically disappeared but it is not surprising that 
city dwellers from Chicago should have been apprehensive about 
their safety in passing through a region so recently the scene of 
Indian warfare. The bad blood engendered by the attacks on 
Wulsten and the Germans in the Chieftain led in a short time to 
the McBride-Wulsten shooting affray which is described ade- 
quately in the excerpts from newspapers reprinted below. 

In March, 1870, the Germans reached their destination and 
went to work at once breaking ground and putting in crops, build- 
ing houses, roads and bridges. Temporary cabins were erected by 
the company to house the colonists. A colony garden of thirty 
acres was planted. The land around Colfax ^ was surveyed and lots 
about one acre in size were distributed among the members. The 
petition to Congress for a joint land grant did not receive favorable 
notice ; consequently, until individual colonists could take up land 
under the regular land laws, the Germans were squatters on the 
public domain. 

From time to time conflicting reports about the success of the 
German colony came down from the Wet Mountain Valley. 
Some correspondents emphasized the industry and thrift of the 
Germans and marvelled at the rapidity with which they had built 
their cabins and put in their crops. That there was friction 
among them could not be denied because in July, after a report 
had been made by an investigating committee, the colony was 
reorganized. Wulsten, who had gone to Washington on behalf 
of the proposed land grant, was not deposed but he was the center 
of the disturbance and in September resigned as president of the 
colony. By autumn temporary failure was apparent; some of 



iThe site of Colfax was on what is now the Hartbauer ranch seven or eight miles south of Silver Cliff. 



INTRODUCTION 



xxiii 



those who had not already abandoned the colony were afraid that 
they might starve during the coming winter if help from the out- 
side were not obtained. In October a petition was sent to Gover- 
nor McCook asking for government rations. In November or 
December supplies were sent to the Germans by the business men 
of Denver, and the condition of the colonists was relieved somewhat 
by the fact that during the winter their saw mill was operated 
for the manufacture of shingles which were sold to Ferd. Barn- 
dollar & Co. of Pueblo. Late in December the colony store — 
and with it the records of the colony — burned. It is difficult to 
say just when or how the colony came to an end. Some of the 
colonists had left in the late summer, autumn or early winter for 
Pueblo, Caflon City or Denver. Some stayed on until the 
following spring. Others remained in the valley, made an in- 
formal division of the movable propert}'^, took up government land 
and became prosperous. A few of the original colonists and many 
of their descendants are still to be found in the Wet Mountain 
Valley. 

There are several reasons for the failure of the German 
Colonization Company. Their inexperience as farmers, the delay 
in getting in the first crop, the early frost in the summer of 1870, 
all helped make their first attempt at farming a failure. Those 
who stayed to try again found that wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, 
small fruits and practically all vegetables except tomatoes can be 
grown in the Wet Mountain Valley. Wulsten, the leader, was 
hot-headed, arbitrary, domineering, excitable and impracticable. 
There were obvious advantages in co-operation but sufficient care 
was not taken to guard against some of the equally obvious dis- 
advantages. The skilled and the unskilled, the lazy and the 
energetic seem to have been put on the same footing; all received 
the same credit on the company's books for a day's labor. Natur- 
ally the capable and industrious were dissatisfied. As one of the 
surviving members expressed it a few years ago: "There was too 
much Kommunismus." 

About eight years after the disruption of the colony, Wulsten, 
who was then acting as a civil and mining engineer in Rosita and 
Silver Cliff, wrote an article in which he called attention to the 
prosperity of those members of the colony who had stayed in the 



xxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



valley he had helped select for them. ''Collectively a failure/' 
wrote Wulsten, ''it has individually become a distinct success, 
for every family which entered 'El Mojada' is today in perfectly 
independent circumstances." ^ 

Union Colony 
Next in point of time came the famous Union Colony which 
was organized in New York in December, 1869, by Nathan 
Meeker, agricultural editor of the New York Tribune. The 
colony town of Greeley, which was established in the spring of 
1870, was named after the editor of the Tribune, who had long 
been interested in projects of a humanitarian nature, and who had 
naturall}^ given aid and encouragement in the launching of this 
colon}^ undertaking. Inasmuch as the Union Colony records 
were published in the first volume of this series,- no attempt will 
be made here to discuss its interesting history. The fame and 
success of the experiment at Greeley called attention to the colony 
plan of settlement, and before the close of the year 1870 other 
colonies had been started on the plan of the Union Colony. 

Chicago-Colorado Colony 
Of these the first and most im^portant was the Chicago- 
Colorado Colony which was organized in Chicago in November, 
1870, largely through the efforts of Colonel C. N. Pratt, General 
Agent for the National Land Company. Some time in September, 
1870, he received a letter from William N. Byers, Denver agent 
for his company, in which six colony sites to the north of Denver, 
and within the bounds of the Denver Pacific land grant, were 
described briefly. Obviously Colonel Pratt was trying to work up 
a colony for Colorado because on October 14 he gave a free lunch 
to newspaper men and other interested persons; the food served 
was, according to newspaper reports, entirely from Colorado. On 
November 17 Bj-ers wrote him that Mr. Meeker and General 
("Cameron, the one president and the other vice-president and man- 
ager of the Union Colonj^, had gone to Chicago to aid him in his 
colony scheme. 

iProf. Carl Wiilsten, "El Mojada, or the Wet Mountain Valley," in Binckley & Hartweli. Souihern 
Colorado, 107. 

^Willard, The Union Colony at Greeley, Colorado. University of Colorado Historical Collections, vol. I, 
Colony Series, vol. L 



INTRODUCTION 



XXV 



In the course of his prehminary preparations Colonel Pratt 
had interested some prominent citizens of Chicago in the project 
as is shown by the names of some of the men who were present 
at the meeting held on November 22 at which the new colony was 
organized. This meeting was called to order by Mr. Sidney 
Howard Gay, of the Chicago Tribune, — perhaps with the thought 
that the Chicago paper should stand sponsor for the new colony 
as the New York Tribune had supported the one at Greeley; 
ex-Lieutenant Governor William Bross of Illinois was chosen 
chairman of the meeting and Mr. J. P. Reynolds, formerly secre- 
tary of the lUinois State Agricultural Society, was made secretary. 
Among those present were Nathan Meeker and General Cameron 
of Greeley who spoke, the one on the origin, the other on the 
methods, of the Union Colony, and on the opportunities for farm- 
ers in Colorado. A letter from Governor McCook of Colorado, 
who had been recently in Chicago and who may have helped 
Colonel Pratt arouse interest in the colony, was read commending 
the project. At this meeting the following officers were elected: 
president, the Reverend Robert Collyer, a prominent Unitarian 
preacher of Chicago; vice-president, Sidney Howard Gay of the 
Chicago Tribune; treasurer, William Bross, formerly Lieutenant 
Governor of Illinois; secretary, Colonel C. N. Pratt. In addition 
to these officers the Executive Committee was composed of the 
following men who were also chosen at this time: Mr. George 
S. Bowen of Bowen, Hunt & Winslow, dry goods merchants of 
Chicago; Mr. H. D. Emery, editor of the Prairie Farmer; and Mr. 
S. D. Kimbark. Seventeen joined the colony at the first meeting 
by the payment of the initiation fee of five dollars. It was an- 
nounced that others might join on application at the Chicago 
office of the National Land Company. 

According to the constitution, which seems to have been 
adopted by the Executive Committee sometime within the next 
two weeks, only temperate people of good moral character could 
become members of the colony. As in the Union Colony the ini- 
tiation fee was put at five dollars and the membership fee at one 
hundred and fifty dollars. The sum of one hundred and fifty-five 
dollars, however, as both the Union Colony and the Chicago- 
Colorado Colony were to learn from experience, was not sufficient 



xxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



to buy the land promised to the colonists and to irrigate it prop- 
erly. Memberships in the Chicago-Colorado Colony were limited 
to one thousand; each member was entitled to select a tract of 
land within the colony limits, the size of which was to vary from 
five to forty acres depending on the distance from the town site. 
Members also had the privilege of purchasing one business and 
one residence lot at a cost of twenty-five to fifty dollars per lot 
according to location. All the farm lands were to be put under 
water at the expense of the colony. Members were also entitled 
to buy undistributed land at a price to. be fixed by the Executive 
Committee, provided, however, that no individual should own 
more than one hundred and twenty acres of land under irrigation 
ditches built by the colony. 

A campaign for members was started at once. A descriptive 
pamphlet was prepared, and, according to newspaper reports, 
about one thousand copies were distributed before the colony was 
one month old. Ninety-four members joined before January 1, 
1871 ; by the end of May, 1871, there were 390 names on the mem- 
bership list. Of these 151 gave Ilhnois as the state of their resi- 
dence. Colorado took second place with eighty-nine names. The 
large number of ' 'colonists" from Colorado is explained by the 
fact that most of the people already living in or near Burlington, 
the site chosen for the colony, joined it. Massachusetts was 
given as the state of thirty-six; from Michigan there were eighteen; 
from New York, seventeen; from Wisconsin, eleven; from Con- 
necticut, ten. Twelve other states — mostly northern — and Can- 
ada were represented by members ranging in number from one 
to eight. Not all of those who took out memberships came to 
Colorado. Several prominent business and professional men of 
Chicago became members of the colony with no thought of settling 
in the West: with some it was an investment; others thought of 
the good they could do by helping found an agricultural colony. 

In January, 1871, the locating committee consisting of Mr. 
H. D. Emery, editor of the Prairie Farmer, Judge Seth Terry of 
Rockford, Illinois, and Mr. J. P. Kelley of -New York, personal 
representative of Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson of that city, who had 
taken out twenty-five memberships for the benefit of her poorer 
friends, accompanied by Mr. H. J. Hall of Chicago and Mr. W. 



INTRODUCTION 



xxvii 



Holly, visited prospective sites between Denver and Greeley. 
On this tour of inspection they were guided by William N. Byers 
of Denver. The site selected was near Burlington in the north- 
east corner of Boulder County. It was a region of good farming 
land, well watered by the St. Vrain, Left Hand and Boulder 
creeks. A contemporary observer, who had no interest in the 
colony, approved the location, writing: 

I think the location the best of any colony in the territory, since it is 
contiguous to the mountains, where it must eventually find a market for its 
products, and adjacent to the settlements that extend along the mountain 
range the entire width of the territory. It is convenient to coal both at Erie 
and Boulder, is supplied with lumber from the mountains, and is well watered.^ 

The choice of the locating committee was approved by the 
members of the company at a meeting held in Chicago early in 
March and the name Longmont was given to the new colony town 
which was laid out about half a mile north of the hamlet of Bur- 
lington. 

In March, 1871, the colonists began to arrive in Longmont. 
By the middle of April nearlj^ one hundred persons were living in 
the Colony House, a temporary lodging place erected by the 
company for the use of members and their families until they 
could erect houses or cabins for themselves. At a time when there 
was fear that enough of the members would not be on the ground 
in time to put in the spring crops, there was talk of planting part 
of the land as a colony farm; this co-operative experiment was not 
tried, however, because of the early arrival of the colonists. 
Colony activities were confined to such undertakings as the pur- 
chase and distribution of town and farm lots, digging irrigation 
ditches, the laying out and beautifying of the colony town, and 
governing it until it was incorporated in 1873. 

In April, in order to expedite the distribution of land, the 
method of apportionment laid down in the constitution was modi- 
fied. It was voted that 350 members should be allowed, in full 
satisfaction of membership, to pre-empt or homestead eighty acres 
of government land within the bounds of the colon}", that these 
lands should be put under water at the expense of the colony, 

»Tice, Over the Plains and on the Mountains, 149. 



xxviii 



INTRODUCTION 



and that members who chose this option should also be given an 
''average" residence lot to be designated by the trustees. It was 
also voted that fifty members should be allowed to take three 
town lots — one business lot and tv/o residence lots, or one resi- 
dence lot and two business lots — to satisfy their membership. 

Few of the original officers of the colony came to Colorado. 
Although absentee rule worked no great hardship on the colonists, 
this anomalous situation was ended on May 2 when new officers 
were chosen mainly from the resident members. Judge Seth Terry 
was elected president; Burton S. Barnes, vice-president; Frank 
C. Garbutt, secretary; and John Townly, treasurer. To the 
Executive Council were added at this time William Bross of Chi- 
cago, Joseph Mumford, E. J. Coffman and Rienzi Streeter. 

On June 8, 1871, it was announced that 415 colonists were in 
Longmont and vicinity, and that fifty or sixty buildings had been 
erected. Judging by contemporary accounts the building in which 
the early colonists took greatest pride was the Town Hall and 
Library, the gift of Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson of New York. Mrs. 
Thompson, the fairy god-mother of the young colony, paid a visit 
to Longmont in June, 1871, and gave a strawberry festival to 
celebrate the opening of the Library to which she had given some 
three hundred books. To Colonel Pratt the colonists were in- 
debted for the bell which hung in the tower of the building and 
for the organ which graced the ''Lyceum Room." 

The founders of Longmont intended that it should be a pleas- 
ant place in which to live. On an early map' of the colony town 
approximately three blocks are set aside for a "Lake Park" — per- 
haps to remind Chicagoans of Lake Michigan. A visitor to Long- 
mont in June, 1871, states that work was then in progress on an 
artificial lake in the northwest part of the town. On account of 
the scarcity of water this project was soon abandoned; in this 
instance the triumph of utility over beauty was so complete that 
even the memory of the lake has almost disappeared from Long- 
mont. On this map two other parks are shown — Thompson Park 
and Collyer Park. Another square is marked "Reserved for 

iThis map, a copy of which is at the University of Colorado, is not dated; it probably was made in 
1871. See post p. 218. 



INTRODUCTION 



xxix 



University,"^ while two squares are set aside for "Countj^ Build- 
ings" and six "Church Lots" are shown in choice locations. 

In July, 1871, according to an advertising pamphlet issued by 
the colony, Longmont was in a flourishing condition. It was 
stated that 275 plots of land, varjdng in size from five to forty 
acres, had been taken up, as well as 357 residence lots and 307 
business lots. Of eight-foot irrigation ditches, fourteen miles 
nad been constmcted ; of four-foot ditches, nine miles. Practically 
all the lines of business and all of the professions that one would 
expect to find in any well established town of this period were 
already represented in Longmont; indeed, the medical profession 
with its four practitioners must have been overcrowded since, as 
the colony promoters assure us, Colorado was a ver^^ healthful place 
in which to live. 

The Chicago-Colorado Colonj^ was fortunate in its location, 
in the character of its earh^ settlers and, on the whole, in its man- 
agement. It had its ups and downs, however. As at Greeley 
the combined initiation and membership fee of S155 proved to be 
inadequate to pay for the land purchased from the railroad com- 
pany and for the construction of the necessary ditches. Being 
able to pay only about ten per cent of the contract price of the 
railroad lands, the colon}' assigned the lands to the settlers, who 
were expected to pay the balance due. Owing to irregularities in 
filing on government land others of the colonists found that their 
land titles were in dispute.'^ The ditches that had been built 
proved inadequate to water all of the land under them, and a 
plague of grasshoppers in the summer of 1871 added to the troubles 
of the farmers. David Boyd, historian of the Union Colonj^ 
attributed the difficulties in the early days in Longmont to the 
fact that the leaders did not intend to make Colorado their home 
and that the people had no ''great principle to rally around." 
Greeley found this principle in its devotion to temperance and 
morals. Longmont was temperance town, according to the con- 
stitution of the colony, but, says Boyd, its adhesion to pro- 

^Burlingtoii had already aspired to become a university town; in the territorial legislature in January, 
1870, an attempt had been made to change the site of the proposed University of Colorado from Boulder 
City to Burlington. Willard, "The Early Days of the University of Colorado," in University of Colorado 
Studies, X, 19. 

2Pu£Fer, "The Organization and Early History of Longmont," MMS. Thesis in University of Colorado 
Library. 



XXX 



INTRODUCTION 



hibition was only half-hearted and ''it was but a short time after 
the settlement was made, until one of their papers commenced 
to advocate the opening of saloons for financial reasons."^ 

St. Louis-Western Colony 

On November 29, 1870, one week after the first meeting of the 
Chicago-Colorado Colony, a similar project was launched at 
Ayres Point, ^ Illinois. The leader in this movement was the 
Reverend Andrew C. Todd of Ayres Point, who had been in Colo- 
rado in the summer of 1870, and who had become interested in 
the organization of a colony among his friends and parishioners 
of the Reformed Presbyterian (Covenanted) Church. At first 
the colony was called the Western Colony but during the winter 
of 1870-1871 the headquarters of the organization was moved to 
St. Louis, and the name changed to the St. Louis- Western Colony. 
In the organization of this colony two agents of the National Land 
Company, Colonel C. N. Pratt and William N. Byers, were in- 
terested as was also Mr. J. H. Pinkerton of Greeley, a trustee 
of the Union Colony. The interest of the National Land Company 
and its agents is obvious; while in Colorado in the summer of 1870 
Mr. Todd had talked to Byers, and later corresponded with him, 
about a colony site eight or ten miles east of Denver within 
the Kmits of the Kansas Pacific land grant. Pinkerton's interest 
in the enterprise was not so apparent at the time. Boyd of 
Greeley suggests that Pinkerton, because he could not have his 
own way in the Union Colony, wished to establish a rival to 
Greeley near at hand.^ However that may be, Pinkerton, who 
had been brought up near Ayres Point, proposed to Byers, Den- 
ver agent for the National Land Company, that he be permitted 
to return to Illinois and help work up the proposed colony, and 
be given a share of the commissions from the sale of land in case 
the colony settled within the limits of the railway land grants. 
At first Byers did not take kindly to the suggestion but Pinkerton 
was finally allowed to go to Ayres Point with the understanding 
that he receive transportation from the National Land Company 

iBoyd, A History: Greeley and the Union Colony of Colorado, 185. 
^Ayres Point is now known as Oakdale; it is in Washington County. 
3Boyd, A History: Greeley and the Union Colony of Colorado, 174. 



INTRODUCTION 



xxxi 



and pay for services actually rendered. Pinkerton was present 
at the meeting at which the Western Colony was organized, and 
was chosen one of the trustees of the compan3^ As Byers pointed 
out in a letter written in 1872, Pinkerton expected to be recom- 
pensed for his time and trouble by inducing the prospective 
colonists to settle in and around the town of Evans in which he was 
interested. 

Evans had been laid out in the autumn of 1870 by men in- 
terested in the Denver Pacific Railroad Company. From October, 
1869, to June, 1870, it was the southern terminus of this railroad, 
and during these months enjoyed a period of boom prosperity. 
Buildings were erected in Evans, and men speculated in town lots 
with the expectation that it would become the chief town between 
Denver and Cheyenne. When Evans was laid out it was known 
that it would not long remain the terminus of the Denver Pacific 
but men saw no reason why the town at the crossing of the Platte 
should not become the metropolis of northern Colorado even 
though the railroad were finished to Denver. Evans was the 
county seat of Weld County; it was in the midst of a rich farming 
district and was far enough from Denver to have a large area 
tributary to it. In spite of these advantages and prospects Evans 
was as dead by mid-summer 1870 as it had been lively in the au- 
tumn of 1869. As had been expected the railroad line had been 
completed to Denver, and Evans had lost the advantage that 
came to the town at the *'end of track." The unexpected hap- 
pened, however, and a rival town, Greeley, was started only four 
miles away. It was the establishment of Greeley, which grew 
''like Jonah's gourd during the summer of 1870," that deprived 
Evans of its chance to grow into an important town. So dull 
were times in Evans and so brisk was business in Greeley that 
buildings were moved from Evans to Greeley in the early days of 
the Union Colony. As a reporter for the Daily Colorado Tribune 
put it: "Your correspondent has been informed that nearly every 
house in Evans is for sale and can be purchased by the Greeley 
colony. Cities rise and fall like bubbles on the water, and as 
Greeley rises, Evans falls. "^ But what of the men who had laid 
out Evans, and who had speculated in town lots? They found 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, May 26, 1870, in Willard, The Union Colony at Greeley, 259. 



xxxii 



INTRODUCTION 



relief, as Pinkerton had hoped, in the St. Louis-Western Colony. 
Pinkerton had come back to Colorado as a member of the locating 
committee of this colony. On the committee with him were Mr. 
Todd, Mr. C. F. Hartman, later editor of the Evans Journal, and 
three others. Largely through Pinkerton 's influence, Evans was 
selected as the site of the colony. Evans had its good and its 
bad points as a colonj^ town. It w^as doubtful whether another 
town would thrive so near Greelej^; the gambling hall and liquor 
saloons of Evans did not furnish a suitable environment for a 
community of Covenanters. On the other hand, the land around 
Evans was good, and water was at hand for irrigation. The 
Denver Land Association, a subsidiary company of the Denver 
Pacific Railroad Company, which at this time owned most of 
the unsold lots in Evans, offered favorable terms. It agreed to 
give the colony a two-thirds interest in all its unsold land in Evans 
in return for which the colony was to sell all the lots and pay the 
Land Association one-third of the money received. In addition 
the colony agreed to bu}^ 1,600 acres of land adjoining Evans for 
$12,000. The colony was also to locate one hundred heads of 
families in and around Evans w^ithin one year, and was to con- 
struct an irrigation ditch for the use of the town. The money 
the colony derived from the sale of its interest in the tov«m lots 
was to be spent in the improvement of Evans. 

Although a copy of the constitution of the St. Louis- Western 
Colony has not been found by the editors of this volume, an ex- 
amination of the records of the Clerk of Weld County indicates 
that the colonists in return for a membership fee of $150 were 
each entitled to a tract of farm land adjoining Evans; these tracts 
were five or ten acres in size, depending on the location. Ac- 
cording to newspaper summaries of the constitution, members of 
the colony had also the privilege of buying additional lands at 
reduced prices and, of course, of taking up government land under 
the pre-emption or homestead law^s. As at Greeley and Long- 
mont irrigation ditches were built by the colony: the first ditch 
was finished in June, 1871; the contract for the first section of the 
second ditch was let in October of that year. 

For a time Evans prospered. In the summer of 1871 esti- 
mates of the number of people in the town varied from 500 to 



INTRODUCTION 



xxxiii 



650. The rivalry of Greeley, however, was too great a handicap 
to be overcome. The business management of the St. Louis- 
Western Colony was not good. ''Andrew C. Todd, though an 
excellent preacher and a man of many personal attractions, was 
not a man to head what was essentially a business enterprise."^ 
To men opposed to the use of intoxicating liquors, the fate of Evans 
was just what might have been expected from its tolerant attitude 
toward saloons and pool halls. As one of the men of Greeley 
wrote, ''It is not often that neighboring towns start out with such 
entire coincidence of time and natural advantages, that the fact 
that the inhabitants of one may and those of the other may not 
manufacture or sell intoxicating beverages constitutes the only 
essential distinction between them." This writer, Boyd, adds, 
however, that the character of the soil was in favor of Greeley and 
expresses the opinion that the Union colonists were people of 
greater energy, courage and resourcefulness than their Evans 
neighbors. 2 Andrew^ C. Todd, founder of the colony, is reported 
to have said shortly before he left Evans in 1890, after twentj^ 
years service as pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, that 
"the Devil had a mortgage on the town and it looked like he would 
foreclose it." 

SOUTHW^ESTERN CoLONY 

In the case of the Southwestern Colon}^ the sale of lots in 
the colony town of Green City so overshadowed all other aspects 
of the venture that it hardly deserves the name of a colony. It 
was really a town site speculation. The promoter was Colonel 
D. S. Green of Memphis, Tennessee, formerly of the firm of Green 
and Glaze of Denver. The "colony" was organized in Memphis 
in the autumn of 1870. Some of the differences between this 
colony and the Union Colony or the Chicago-Colorado Colony are 
shown by a comparison of their constitutions; more important dif- 
ferences appear in their histories. According to the constitution of 
the Southwestern Colony there was no initiation fee and no farm 
land was secured by the payment of the membership fee of one hun- 
dred dollars. The members were promised, however, one lot in the 
town site, one share in the joint stock colony farm, special trans- 

iWillard, "Evans and the Saint Louis Western Colony," in The Trail, March, 1919, 11. 
*Boyd, A History: Greeley and the Union Colony, 180-181, 



xxxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



portation rates to the colony, the privilege of locating under the 
pre-emption or homestead laws 160 acres of government land in 
the vicinity of the colony, and a water right adequate for the irri- 
gation of 160 acres of farm land and the town lot. In addition 
each member had the privilege of buying as many town lots as he 
pleased and not more than fifty shares in the colony farm. Each 
member was liable to a further tax of not more than fifty dollars 
for the purpose of defraying the cost of digging irrigation ditches 
and ''for other expenses." It is obvious that one of the induce- 
ments held out to members — the privilege of taking up govern- 
ment land in the vicinity of the colony — was of no real value since 
the same right belonged to other citizens of the United States 
irrespective of their membership in this colony. The land, how- 
ever, was not worth much without water, and the colony did 
promise to irrigate the land of its members. Each member of the 
colony was a member also of a subsidiary organization, which 
probably existed only on paper, called the Colony Joint Stock 
Farm. This company, according to the prospectus, was to ad- 
minister for one year a tract of land set aside as a colony farm. 
At the end of one year, or later if by consent the arrangement 
were continued for a longer time, the stock and produce raised on 
the farm were to be sold and the proceeds divided among the 
shareholders. This plan, which apparently was suggested as a 
temporary expedient to insure a crop the first year, seems not to 
have been put into effect. 

A location for the colony was selected on the Platte river 
about twenty-seven miles below Greeley near the site of the present 
town of Masters. Inasmuch as this was outside the district of 
railroad land grants, the colonists expected to get land from the 
government. The colony owned no land except the site of the 
town which was held for a time in the name of David S. Green, 
President of the Board of Trustees. Colonel Green, founder of 
the colony, filed on two half-sections of government land^ and 
this was divided into lots for the colony town which was named 
Green City or Greensboro. In the office of the Weld County 
Abstract Company at Greeley there is preserved a copy of the 

IN. Vi of Sect. 29 and the S. Vi of Sect. 20, T. 4 N.. R. 61 W. 



INTRODUCTION 



XXXV 



original plat of the town dated 1872. Two hundred and thirty- 
four blocks or squares were laid out into 5,456 lots of which all 
but ninety-six were 25x150 feet in size. The streets were laid out 
in checker board fashion. The east and west avenues were num- 
bered; the north and south streets were named after certain states, 
mainly southern and western. In the center of the town there 
was to be a public square while four blocks in the four quarters 
of the town were reserved for parks to which were given the names 
Monte Vista, Loma, Waverly and Richmond. 

Taking advantage of the colony idea and the get-rich-quick- 
spirit, Colonel Green and his associates began to sell lots in the 
new paper town. To Peter B. Wills, ''General Superintendent of 
the Colony," Green turned over by deed dated June 24, 1871, 896 
town lots. On August 11, 1871, 506 lots were sold by the pro- 
moter to Thomas M. Barna of Shelby County, Tennessee. An- 
other of the associates was Alexander Pace. These men were sub- 
speculators ; they sold lots to bona fide colonists and to others who 
expected to get rich from their holdings in Green City. An idea 
of the magnitude of the business done by these men is obtained 
from an examination of the real estate transfer records of Weld 
County. Between June 4, 1871, and July 28, 1871, Peter B. Wills 
deeded 174 lots in Green City to sixteen different residents of 
Petersburg, Virginia. The number of lots purchased by one per- 
son, in this particular series of transactions, varied from one to 
seventy-two ; the considerations mentioned in the deeds from $20 
to $1800. Boyd's estimate that the promoter and his associates 
received at least $60,000 from the sale of lots seems not to be an 
overstatement of the facts. ^ Obviously an extensive advertising 
campaign was carried on by the managers of the "colony," es- 
pecially in the southern and border states. The purchase of a 
town lot confered membership in the colony, and membership en- 
titled the purchaser to reduced rates from the East to Colorado. 
Some joined the colony on account of this inducement. Others 
expected that Green City would become an important town — 
perhaps a great river port. One advertising lure, which the editors 
have not been able to verify by documentary evidence, was a 



»Boyd, A History: Greeley and the Union Colony, 189. 



xxxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



circular showing a picture or engraving of a steamboat tied to a 
wharf in Green City!^ 

The colonists began to arrive in Green Cit}^ in the spring of 
1871. In June of that year it was reported that sixty-five or sev- 
enty were on the ground ; throughout the summer glowing reports 
about the colony and its prospects appeared from time to time in 
the Denver papers. In December, 1871, there was a note in the 
Greeley Tribune stating that the Green City colonists ''were passing 
through the Winter well, and that they expected large accessions 
from England next Spring." 

If Greeley grew as Jonah's gourd. Green City withered almost 
as rapidly. In the light of what has been written about the meth- 
ods of the promoters of the Southwestern Colony, it is evident that 
the venture was foredoomed to failure. An attempt was made to 
dig an irrigation ditch but this came to nothing because the ditch 
was so long and ran through so much sandy soil that practically 
all the water disappeared into the ground before it reached its 
destination. The bona fide colonists soon came to feel that they 
were victims of mismanagement and fraud. In 1872 the colony 
was reorganised, Colonel Green being removed from the presi- 
dency; the name of the town was changed from Green City to 
Corona. Under the new management and name an attempt was 
made to establish the colony on a firm basis — but in vain. The 
panic of 1873, the postponement of construction of a railroad 
along the Platte from Denver to Julesburg, and an inadequate 
supply of water for irrigation are some of the reasons given for the 
failure of the colony even after its management passed from the 
hands of speculators into the control of men really interested in 
colonization. Of Green City not a trace remains at the present 
time. 

The success of certain colonies and the pubUcity given the 
movement led quickly to an indiscriminate use of the term. News- 
papers soon began to refer to any group of prospective settlers, 
even if small and unorganized, as a colony. The promoters of 
new towns took advantage of the colony idea to interest people 



iMr. A. J. Allen of the Weld County Abstract Company states that he has seen this advertisement 
and that letters are still received occasionally by his company from people asking if deeds to lots in Green 
City have any value. 



INTRODUCTION 



xxxvii 



in their offerings. In the section of this volume headed "Mis- 
cellaneous Colonies" a few excerpts from newspapers are reprinted 
to illustrate the local interest in colonies and the wide variety of 
projects called by that name. Of these miscellaneous colonies 
the Georgia group perhaps best deserved the name of a colony, but 
even here there was no community action in the occupation of 
land. The Georgians did settle in the same vicinity, Huerfano 
County, but this action can be explained by their desire to keep 
alive old friendships. The town development companies were not 
real colonies even though they sometimes took that name. Their 
business was legitimate and they served a real need in the young 
territory. Some of the towns laid out in this manner have flour- 
ished, notably South Pueblo, Colorado Springs and Fort Collins. 
To others, such as Platteville, New Memphis and Monument, 
fate was not so kind. Out of a mass of material available on the 
town companies of this period, a pamphlet on Platteville and two 
articles on the "Fountain Colony" at Colorado Springs have been 
included in the last section of this volume. 

In August, 1871, the Denver Tribune estimated that 2725 
people were living in the various colony towns in the territory, 
and that within the preceding twelve months Colorado had gained 
fully five thousand inhabitants as a result of the colony movement.^ 
The colonists, on the whole, were good, substantial citizens — ex- 
cellent stuff out of which to build a State. 



Werner Daily Tribune, Aug. 8, 1871. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 
GENERAL 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 
GENERAL 

AN ACTi 

Amendatory of Chapter Eighteen of the Revised Statutes 

OF Colorado concerning Corporations. 
Be it enacted by the Council and House of Representatives 
OF Colorado Territory : 

SECTION 1. That in addition to the companies or cor- 
porations which may now be formed or organized under the pro- 
visions of the act to which this is amendatory, any three or more 
persons may associate themselves together for the purpose of aid- 
ing, encouraging and inducing immigration to this Territory; and 
such company, when organized according to the provisions of this 
act, may purchase, acquire, hold, possess, sell, convey and dispose 
of lands, town lots, and other property, whether real, personal or 
mixed. 

SEC. 2. Such incorporated companj^ shall be formed and 
organized in the same manner as required by section one of the 
chapter to which this act is amendatorj^; and the provisions of 
said chapter and all acts amendatory thereto shall apply to such 
incorporated companies, as far as the same are applicable; and 
such incorporated companies shall be invested with and entitled 
to the same powers, rights and privileges as are other companies 
which have been or may be incorporated under such chapter or 
any of the acts amendatory thereto. 

SEC. 3. Any company formed and organized under the pro- 
visions of this act, may continue in existence for the period of 
thirty years. . . . 

[Opportunities in Colorado.] 
^But there is a constant demand for honest labor, and those 
who have no capital but their muscle, cannot do better than in 

^General Laws, Joint Resolutions, Memorials and Private Acts, Pasted at the eighth session of the Legis- 
UHu Assembly of the Territory of Colorado. . . 1870, p. 13. 

"Farrell, Ned E., Colorado, the Rocky Mountain Gem, As it is in 1868 (Chicago, 1868), 59-60. 

1 



2 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Colorado. If they do not get above their business when they 
arrive, they need not starve, as they are doing by thousands in 
our large cities and in Europe. Co-operative clubs might be 
formed in every settlement in the east, of 10 or 20 persons, assess- 
ing the members enough to pay the expenses of one or two of the 
party, who could go ahead and select a location for the balance. 
This would be a saving of time and expense on the part of many, 
who can ill afford to spend a hundred dollars and their time for 
the trip, but could work and help pay for some one else to go in 
their stead. 



OUR FIRST DECADE^ 



An Address Delivered at the Fourth Annual Exhibition of the 
Colorado Agricultural Society at Denver, Saturday, 
September 25, 1869, by W. R. Thomas. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: — The annual exhibi- 
tions of this society have always been events of interest and pleas- 
ure to all who are concerned in the material growth and progress 
of Colorado. While the present occasion is no exception to the 
three which have preceded it, it may also serve to mark another 
event of more than usual significance in our history. Ten years 
have passed since the first settlement of Colorado — ten years of 
adventure, toil and hardship; ten years of perse verence, hope and 
industry; ten years of progress; ten years of promise, never so 
promising as now when, standing at their close, we review the 
past, and gather new hope and new encouragement for the future. 
To us this period must always be one of peculiar interest; and at 
this time, amid these evidences of growth and prosperity, and with 
this large assemblage, representing every branch of our productive 
industry, I know of no theme so appropriate, as that which shall 
illustrate our social and material progress, and sum up the results 

of OUR DECADE. 

In my remarks on this occasion, I shall not coni&ne myself to 
Agriculture alone. If I understand correctly, Mr. President, the 



Waily Rocky Mountain News, September 25, 1869, p. 2. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



3 



purposes and aims of this Society, its object is to promote all our 
territorial industries, and to encourage production in every de- 
partment of our material wealth. Such being the case, no annual 
address would be complete without a Uberal review of our progress 
in mining, manufactures, and pastoral pursuits. Especially would 
this be true on this particular occasion, and at this particular period 
of our history. Regarding agriculture, however, as the true basis 
of all national wealth, and the true foundation of material 
growth, I shall naturally give it that preference which its im- 
portance imperatively demands. 

The agricultural portions of Colorado divide themselves into 
three great sections, separated by natural geographical boundaries, 
and each constituting a system of valleys with rich lands and an 
abundant supply of water. The valley of the Arkansas river is 
the largest and most extended of these sections, and may properly 
be termed the first. The second is the valley of the Platte and its 
branches, while the third will be found in the valley of the Rio 
Grande and its branches, beyond the Sangre de Christo range. 
Along all of these streams, and especially along their numerous 
tributaries which flow from the mountains, are rich and fertile 
bottom lands and productive uplands capable of raising all of the 
grains and every variety of vegetables. The necessity for irriga- 
tion, however, has thus far confined settlements almost entirely 
to the valleys, and it is only within the past three years that 
our farmers have begun to discover that the high lands are equally 
as valuable for purposes of agriculture, as those which lay on 
the immediate banks of streams. This fact should be followed by 
another statement, and that is that all of our lands are valuable 
for agriculture wherever they can be reached with water sufficient 
for irrigation. Our available farming lands, therefore, are limited 
by the amount of water which our streams can furnish. How 
many acres this may be, I have no reliable data for estimating, 
but the number of acres which can be reached with water by a 
judicious system of irrigation has been estimated by an eminent 
engineer to be 4,000,000, and I think can safely be placed at 
6,000,000. With the construction of Artesian wells, the amount of 
arable land would be limited only by our boundaries, excepting, of 
course, portions of our mountainous region. The soil of these 



4 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



plains is unsurpassed in fertility. Enriched by the flow from these 
mountains for centuries, it awaits only the labor of the husband- 
man, and the fertilizing power of water to yield the richest returns 
to industry. The great American desert still stands upon the map. 
The makers of school geographies have not 3'et crossed the plains 
or visited the Rocky Mountains. But you, citizens of Colorado 
and pioneers of the republic, have taken possession of this so- 
called desert but which is really the heart of the great central 
region of the continent, a country rich in the resources of a nation, 
and which yields the largest returns to well-directed labor. You 
have transformed the desert plain into a garden; have introduced a 
new system of agriculture ; have produced enough to feed our own 
people and sent the surplus to make the bone and muscle for the 
men who built the Pacific railway; have met all the demands of 
the government for supplies for its troops within the Territory, 
and in some cases outside of it; have sold your vegetables on the 
Missouri river at a profit, and astonished the merchants of St. 
Louis and Chicago with your wheat and flour; and finally have 
made a collection of products here to-day which is the admiration 
of all visitors, but to those who read of it it will seem only like 
an idle tale. 

The present season has been one of unexampled prosperity. 
The crop for 1869 is larger than for any preceding year, and upon 
a careful estimate will reach the following figures : Wheat, 675,000 
bushels; corn, 600,000 bushels; oats and barley, 550,000 bushels; 
vegetables and potatoes, 350,000 bushels; which with the hay and 
dairy product, will have a market value of not less than three and 
one-half millions of dollars. This is an increase of at least one- 
third over 1868. The average of the yield of grain to the acre 
is far above that of the older States. Wheat can be safely placed 
at from twenty-eight to thirty bushels per acre; oats and barley 
at thirty-five bushels; corn at forty bushels, and potatoes at one 
hundred bushels. With a more careful culture of the soil, a more 
general use of fertihzers, and greater care in irrigation, these 
averages can not only be maintained but increased. To these 
subjects our farmers pay too little attention. The desire for large 
farms is too prevalent, and too many choose to cultivate largely, 
rather than to cultivate well. Many reasons can be assigned for 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



5 



this: High wages and high prices, a desire to become suddenly 
rich, and the large yield already obtained even from insufficient 
culture, are all causes which have led our Colorado farmers to 
adopt a too careless method of cultivating the soil. These evils 
do not, however, exist in our Territory alone, but are common in 
all new States. . . . 

Turning from agriculture, in which so much has been accom- 
plished, the mineral resources and the mining development of 
Colorado naturally claim our attention, as the next topic of in- 
terest. When I assert that within our Territory are rich lodes of 
gold and silver, as well as extensive deposits of iron, copper, lead 
and coal, I repeat only what is well known to every person within 
the hearing of my voice. The past ten years have been one con- 
tinued period of discovery, each year adding to our knowledge of 
the wealth which lays imbedded in yonder mountains. In its de- 
velopment we have only made a beginning. There, in those Rocky 
Mountains, are mines of sufficient magnitude to employ all the 
surplus labor and capital of the nation. In the work of opening 
these mines fair progress has been made, but not so great as it 
ought to have been had a wiser course been pursued, and economj^ 
in the use of money, well-directed labor, and judicious management 
been the ruling characteristics, rather than reckless expenditure 
and wild, ungovernable speculation. To discuss past errors in 
the conduct of our gold and silver mining, however, is not my 
duty here to-day. The good times are at hand and for two 3^ears 
past mining has been steadily advancing to the basis of a legitimate 
business and has been conducted with greater care and economy, 
and with more system and intelligence. The increase in our yield 
of bullion is ample evidence of this fact. In 1868 our bullion 
product was between $2,750,000 and $3,000,000, while in 1869, 
I believe I may safely say that it will reach $4,000,000. This 
amount is at least double that of 1867. With the present activity, 
the reduction which has been made in expenses of all kinds, a con- 
tinued economy, and the growing familiarity of our people with 
methods of mining and reducing ores, there is no reason why we 
may not expect a similar increase in next year's production. 
The gold and the silver are there — those mountains are rich in the 
precious metals, and await only capital and labor to yield up their 



6 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



treasure to the hand of industry, and pour their hidden weahh 
into the lap of the nation's commerce. 

Our coal mines have been developed to an extent more than 
sufficient to supply all the wants of the Territor^^ When our 
railways are completed and a new impetus given to our various 
industries, they will be more than capable of yielding enough to 
supply any demand for the combined purposes of manufacturing, 
smelting, railways, and for fuel for the fire-side. These coal beds, 
which crop out all along the base of the mountains, are among the 
most valuable of our resources, and their existence assure us that 
no fear of a future scarcity of fuel need ever be felt, and also of a 
large amount for export. 

In the development of our iron, copper and lead mines but 
little has been accomplished, but enough has been done to assure 
us that these metals exist here in large quantities; and the day is 
not far distant, when the market demand shall be sufficient, and 
labor and capital more abundant, when they will be turned to 
account, and add new sources of wealth and income to our people. 

The mining resources of Colorado have not only opened to 
the Territory and to the nation new promises of wealth, but they 
have guaranteed a new pursuit to the young men of the country. 
To manage a mine successfully requires not only business capacity, 
but scientific ability. Here then is a pursuit, which no person 
can sneer at, which no man can call dishonorable, uniting various 
classes of ability, and inviting the young men of the nation to turn 
their attention from the already over-crowded professions to pro- 
ductive industry, to a pursuit which like agriculture, unites prac- 
tice with science, and mental labor with bodily activity. 

It has been said, Mr. President, that there is rivalry between 
mining and agriculture, and disputes exist in our Territory as to 
which is our leading pursuit. I must assert here to day, sir, that 
no such rivalry exists in fact. Both are prominent branches of 
production, both are elements of wealth and prosperity for the 
individual and the state as well as for the nation. Each depends 
on the other, the miner on the farmer for his supplies, the farmer 
on the miner for his market. One cannot languish without the 
other will feel a corresponding depression. . . . 

A gentleman, now dead, but whose far sighted business ca- 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



7 



pacity and enthusiastic confidence in the future growth and prog- 
ress of Colorado has never had a superior among our citizens — I 
refer to Major W. F. Johnson — once remarked to your speaker: 
''Sir, if every blade of grass on yonder plains were blades of gold, 
I would not regard them so valuable as I do now." ''Why so?" 
I asked, not catching at once the idea he intended to convey. 
"Because, sir," he said emphatically, "the gold would soon be 
gathered up by men; there would be no new crop, while those 
blades of grass will be renewed every year and will furnish grazing 
for countless herds for years to come. Those pastures are among 
the greatest of our resources, and stock growing, Sir, will become 
the most profitable business in Colorado." The aptness of the 
illustration and the prophetic truth of the remark struck me 
forcibly at the time, and I stand here to-day to give expression 
to the same idea, and to repeat the same assertion. In every 
portion of our Territory, from the Cach a-la-Poudre to the Rio 
Las Animas, on the "divide," on the Arkansas and the Platte, in 
the San Luis Valley and in the parks, within the foot hills of the 
mountains, and far down the valleys and streams which flow west- 
ward toward the Pacific, grow rich and nutritious grasses sufficient 
to feed and fatten thousands of herds of horses, cattle, sheep and 
goats, and presenting opportunities for successful and profitable 
stock raising never before offered to any people. Within three 
years these opportunities have been attracting more especial at- 
tention, are being taken advantage of, and our people now begin 
to realize how great a future is opened to the stock growing in- 
terests of Colorado. I am informed by intelligent stock men, that 
an animal can be raised to the age of five years at a total cost not 
exceeding $10, or an average expense of $2 per year. The only 
outlay is for herding, and for occasional feeds of hay during ex- 
treme cold winters. With this small expense, the margin for 
profit will at once be seen to be so large that we are able to compete 
successfully with Eastern stock growers, and can supply the mark- 
ets of Chicago, St. Louis and even New York, with beef at a less 
price and with a larger profit to ourselves than any community 
in the country. In anticipation of our railway connections, large 
packing houses are being projected at convenient points, and the 
day is not far distant when the citizens of eastern States and cities 



8 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



will be fed upon the beef which was raised upon these plains and 
fattened upon these grasses, and which for varied qualities of ex- 
cellence is not surpassed in the world. 

For sheep and wool-growing also, our opportunities are un- 
equalled, and these mountains, both along their base and within 
their foot hills and their valley's, are capable of being made one of 
the greatest wool-producing sections of the countrj^, the cheapness 
with which it can be produced being equalled only by the fineness 
of its quality. Already much has been done in this branch of 
production, and during the present season over 1,000,000 pounds 
of wool have been shipped to eastern markets at a profit, and is an 
evidence of what will be done in the future. 

With such facilities for grazing, it would be strange indeed if 
our dairy business had not assumed the large proportions which 
it has. Our rich and abundant grasses, pure water, and favorable 
chmate render Colorado one of the best butter and cheese making 
countries in the world. Already our people are supplied with their 
own home made dairy products, and with increased market de- 
mands, we shall not only do this but will be able to export to less 
favored States. 

In noticing briefly our manufacturing interests I have only 
time to say, that in this branch of industry we have made a be- 
ginning. In different portions of the Territory are flouring mills, 
saw mills, lathe and shingle and planing mills, tw^o foundries, two 
pottery works, works for the manufacture of fire and building 
brick, wagon and carriage manufactories, a tannery, and other 
establishments of lesser note, all in successful operation. Woolen 
mills and large iron foundries are projected, and the former is now 
in process of erection. Colorado has every advantage for becoming 
a flourishing manufacturing State. Here is the water power. 
Here is the coal for making steam. Here also are the raw mate- 
rials, produced here cheaplj^, and which can be manufactured here 
cheaply. What more is needed save that market demand which 
will be an inducement to the capitalist to invest his money. When 
that demand comes, and it is coming, my friends, coming with the 
railways, coming with the people who are looking to our Territory 
and wishing to make their homes with us, coming with the future 
as it opens to us new days of prosperity, then shall we see the rise 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



9 



of manufactures in Colorado and reap the benefits which always 
follow in their track. 

Summing up, then, the results of our first decade, we have 
every reason to be proud of the past, and to rejoice at the present. 
In ten years we have opened a new country, and laid the founda- 
tions of a new State. We have developed by our industry four 
great sources of national wealth — agriculture, mining, manufac- 
tures, and stock growing. In their progress a taxable wealth of 
$15,000,000 has been created, exclusive of our mines, which since 
their discovery have yielded an aggregate of $45,000,000. We 
have become an exporting as well as a self-supporting people, the 
total value of our productions from our farms, mines, stock and 
manufacturies, being not less than $10,000,000 for 1869. We have 
built towns and villages, erected churches and school-houses, and 
adorned our homes with all the pleasures and comforts of civilized 
life. We have formed a society out of various elements, peculiar 
in its organism and healthy in its tone; a society refined, cultivated 
and intelligent, which respects labor and does honor to manly 
endeavor; a society founded upon justice, and based upon sound 
principles of law and of order. In all this work we have braved 
much, endured much, conquered much. But to-day the crown is 
upon our brows, the wreaths of victory in our hands. Here on 
the grounds of this society are the evidences of our triumph. 
But not here alone do they exist. In every portion of our broad 
Territory are the proofs of our success. The fields of waving corn, 
the stacks of golden grain, the lowing herds, the heavy drop of the 
stamp mill, the heated furnaces, the rippling sluice boxes, washing 
out the golden sands, the hum of trade, the towns with their busy 
life, the happ}^ homes, where comfort and contentment reign, — 
these are the results of our labor, these are the evidences of our 
victory. The pioneer's work is almost accomplished, and in a 
land of peace and plenty, with pride and with joy, he bids to-day 
the coming railwaj^s hail! Hail to the iron horse! Hail to the 
multitudes which follow his rapid course! Hail to the increase of 
production, the impetus to industry, the new days of prosperity 
which he brings ! Hail to the progress of which he is the harbinger ! 
Hail All Hail to the hopes inspired by his coming, whose full frui- 
tion will realize our brightest anticipations and cast new rays of 
light above the horizon of our western civilization. 



10 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Co-operative Colonies Suggested.] 
We have frequently set forth in these columns the ad- 
vantages which our territory offers to settlers. Not long since 
the attention of parties looking for a western home, was called 
to the facilities presented in this territory for the settlement in 
colonies. A further suggestion comes to us from the Iowa State 
Register. The writer proposes the organization of co-operative 
colonies. All goods, tools, and farming implements, are to be 
purchased on this principle, which will give them to the farmer at 
wholesale cost and carriage. The colony will make its own rules 
and choose such administrative officers as they consider necessary 
to carry out the objects contemplated. Such an organization is 
now being effected, and any further information can be obtained 
by addressing Com. Hunter, North Lewisburg, Ohio. The ad- 
vantages claimed by this mode of colonizing are, that more and 
better farming implements will be at the command of the farmer, 
his purchases will be at cost on the ground, greater security afforded 
to person and property, and the facility for maintaining schools, 
churches, etc., will be the same as in communities of many years' 
growth. There are many rich and vacant valleys in Colorado 
that would furnish a charming and profitable home for such a 
colony, and we invite the attention of agent or committee in 
search of such a location, to examine our territory well before 
declining. 



IRRIGATION FOR ARABLE AGRICULTURE— PASTORAL 
AGRICULTURE.^ 

We have always thought that the system of irrigation as re- 
quired for Colorado farmers was an actual benefit instead of 
drawback, and we have just come across a Washington telegram 
about the crops in the states for the present year, which goes to 
prove the truth of our belief. This report reveals striking facts in 
the agricultural industry of our continent, most interesting to the 
people of Colorado. The eminent feature of our whole area 
(75,000,000 of acres) is its drift formation, a surface soil resting 
upon a subsoil of gravel. Drainage is therefore everywhere per- 

^Daihi Central City Register, November 24, 1869, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, December 16, 1869, p. 1. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



11 



feet. Artificial irrigation supplies the water at the times and in 
the quantities needed. Depth of soil, perfect drainage, uniform 
fertility in its composition, uninterrupted sunshine and facility of 
irrigation, secure to the cultivator of the soil in Colorado, as well 
economy in labor, as perfection in quality and quantity. We are 
free from the fickleness in the seasons which dwarf the crops of 
the rainy states two hundred millions of dollars per annum from 
what they ought to be! ! ! 

It will be the same with the fruit crop, when the time shall 
have been allowed for orchards, vineyards and fruit gardens to be 
brought into existence and careful culture. 

Ours is the paragon of all ^pastoral countries. We have a 
universal area of winter pasture, which the slight snows protect 
and soften, but neither bury nor interrupt. Deeply rooted in the 
drift soil and universal over the surface, our grasses neither wear 
out nor fail from atmospheric vicissitudes. They renew and per- 
petuate themselves in full and infinite quantity and sufficiency 
round the year and through all the seasons. Short, dense and 
delicate of foliage above the surface, they root themselves firmly 
beneath, safe alike from atmospheric heats, winds and floods. 
Our land area sustains its grazing stock with a like spontaneous 
bounty, as the ocean breeds and feeds its cattle of fish. 

The snows of winter classify and explain themselves by the 
cHmatic laws as do the slight summer rains. Our slight snow 
showers, constitute a light powder of minute frozen grains, which 
neither packs nor forms into any consistent icy covering, and sel- 
dom attains any considerable depth. This powder dissipates itself 
by insensible evaporation and absorption. Every grazing animal, 
unveils his food by a kick of his hoof, which scatters the dry powder 
hanging upon the grass tufts. 

The immense multitudes of aboriginal stock, originally found 
very equalty scattered from the Gulf of Mexico to the Athabasca, 
3,000 miles of longitude, illustrate a prodigious pastoral capacity. 
The altitude of this longitudinal strip of the continent causes great 
uniformity in temperature and herbage. In temperature and food, 
it is found to be as genial to domestic animals as to aboriginal. 

Incidental to this spontaneous production of animals for food 
and draft, come hides, wool, hair, horns and hoofs, which are the 



12 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



raw material for leather, clothing and other cardinal manufacturing 
industries, to which catalogue dairy farming adds itself. Manual 
labor and culture of ground, for the furnishing of food for the 
production of all these articles, is dispensed with! 

These facts arrayed in contrast with the following extracts 
from the official agricultural statistics of the older States, referred 
to above, bring out in shining relief the prodigious talent power 
possessed by the people of Colorado in the departments of culture 
by irrigation and pastoral agriculture: 

Washington, Oct. 28. 
The Department of Agriculture has just issued a preliminary 
report of the condition of the crops. It says the great agricultural 
lesson of the country inculcates the necessity of draining and thorough 
culture. It is not an exaggeration to estimate the reduction this 
season from the alternate drowning and scorching of farm crops at 
$200,000,000. The general apprehension of a serious failure in 
the corn crop of the more northern States has been materially 
modified by the sunny weather in September and exemption from 
killing frosts to October 1st. Early frosts in some portions of the 
eastern and middle States checked ripening and left the frosted 
field in an immature and damaged condition. But the injury is 
comparatively slight in extent and limited in area, as the whole 
crop has had an unusually favorable maturing season, resulting 
in a very gratifying amelioration of the prospects for a supply of 
this important staple. Yet a full crop which should not be less 
than 1,150,000 bushels can by no means be expected. When the 
harvest is over and the local estimates are completed, the aggregate 
will attest a moderate yield, amply sufficient for all wants of the 
country. Had the spring wheat been equal to the winter, the 
whole crop would be enormous. Throughout the South the yield 
is unusually large, and the quality excellent. Fertilizers were 
liberally used in the Atlantic States, and improved implements 
were to some extent employed. A slight increase in the aggregate 
number of fattening cattle, as well as in the average condition, is 
reported. Some of the States fail to maintain a full average, among 
which are New York, New Jersey, Kentucky and Illinois. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



13 



[Covered Wagons Bound for Kansas and Colorado.] 

^The tide of emigration does not diminish. With winter fully 
upon us, the weather raw, cloudy, and uncomfortable, we still see 
the white covered wagons, in some cases almost houses on wheels, 
crossing the river from the Illinois shore, and passing on toward 
the west. And this is but an indication of the extent of this drift- 
ing population. The great mass of movers go by rail. Kansas 
and Colorado are the destined regions. So thoroughly well has 
[sic] the Denver Pacific and Kansas Pacific been advertised all 
over the country, that everybody is anxious to be a settler and a 
founder of a town along the line of these great highways. It is 
believed that no part of our country will show a greater influx of 
population next year, than the tract bordering the line from 
Sheridan to Denver and to the U. P. R. R. . . . 



ARTIFICIAL IRRIGATION.^ 

We have many questions from farmers wishing to locate in 
Colorado, on the subject of irrigation. The necessity for irrigating 
is evidently a great bugbear with many. It is a matter with which 
they are wholly unacquainted, and they very naturally overrate 
the trouble and expense. Now, in the first place, we believe the 
farmers of Colorado will sustain us in the assertion that the labor 
and cost of irrigation here are not greater than of common drainage 
at the East. For a hundred miles east of the mountains, across 
the entire width of the territory, the larger part of the land can be 
placed under irrigating ditches conveniently, and at a very mod- 
erate expense. The ditches once made are permanent, and they 
furnish the means for giving the crops just the amount of water 
they require, and at the right time, so that irrigation by this system 
has manifest advantages over dependence on the uncertainties of 
cloud and which may inundate the soil at one time and leave it 
parched and desolate at another. Artificial irrigation obviates all 
the possibilities of loss of crops by drouth or by excess of moisture, 
and puts into the hand of the farmer the power to regulate the mat- 
ter according to his own judgment. The results are seen in the 

iLetter dated St. Louis, December 16, 1869, in Daily Colorado Tribune, December 24, 1869, p. 1. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, April 8, 1870. p. 1. 



14 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



unrivalled grain and vegetables exhibited by our farmers. That 
farming where irrigation is artificial is easier and more productive 
than where rain is relied upon, we have not the slightest doubt. 

But how to make a start, is the difficult question with many. 
There is not much land for sale under irrigating ditches already 
opened; nor is there a great deal still unoccupied that is so favorably 
situated that a farmer can afford to make canals solely for his own 
use. The difficulty is obvious, and its solution is equally so. 
The farmers must combine and share the labor and expense of 
opening canals and keeping them in repair — the latter item being 
a very trifling one. The necessity for such combination is a motive 
to settlement by colonies. For twenty or more settlers, taking 
farms adjoining and so situated as to be irrigated by ditches from 
a main canal, will find the original expense quite light; and by such 
combinations irrigation must evidently be secured in the new 
settlements opening and soon to be opened in our territory. The 
practical difficulty is not half so great as it seems to those not ac- 
customed to this mode of irrigation. They should understand, 
also, that irrigation is not needed on the pasture lands, which fur- 
nish good grazing with such moisture as our occasional storms of 
rain and snow afford. Indeed ver^^ excellent grain is often raised 
without irrigation, though it is not wise to rely upon such crops. 



[Land Sales by National Land Company.] 

^During the twenty days, since the National Land Company 
opened their offices in Denver, they have sold 10,597J acres of the 
lands of the Denver Pacific Railway Company for $37,780.90 
being at an average of $3.56 per acre. They have also received 
filings on over 20,000 additional acres belonging to the same 
company, and 10,000 acres of the Kansas Pacific railway company; 
the latter not being yet ready for market. This company has 
done more than any other organization in existence to settle up 
the Kansas prairies, and will now send thousands of emigrants 
to settle up our beautiful Colorado lands. 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, May 2, 1870, p. 4. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



15 



[Terms Offered by National Land Company.] 

We have from the National Land Company the eighth num- 
ber of volume 1, of a paper published quarterly by the Company 
at their head-quarters in New York, and entitled the Star of 
Empire. It contains a vast amount of information respecting the 
Railroad lands controlled by them in Kansas and Colorado; gives 
the experience of various colonies settled upon them, their system 
of gathering in, and transportation from the various quarters of 
the globe to their new homes in the west, the plan of selHng lands 
to settlers, &c., &c. Lands in Colorado are offered in tracts of 80, 
160, 320 and 640 acres, to individual settlers and to colonies, in 
selections to any desired extent at from $2 to $8 per acre. Sales 
are made on credit as follows : One-fifth cash at time of purchase. 
No payment, except interest, at the end of the First year; one-fifth 
cash, with interest due, at end of Second year; one-fifth cash, with 
interest due, at end of Third year; one-fifth cash, with interest due, 
at end of Fourth year; one-fifth cash, with interest due, at end of 
Fifth year. Interest on deferred payments at 6 per cent, per 
annum. A deduction of ten per cent, on credit price will be made 
for cash payment in full at time of selection and purchase. 

Example. — 160 acres at $4 per acre, will cost $640, to be paid 



as follows : 

Principal Interest 

Cash payment $128 00 

End of first year $30 72 

End of second year 128 00 and 30 72 

End of third year 128 00 and 23 04 

End of fourth year 128 00 and 15 36 

End of fifth year 128 00 and 7 68 



The same farm may be purchased for $576, cash. 



Waily Central City Register, May 6, 1870, p. 1. 



16 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Star of Empire.] 
We have received a copy of an advertising sheet, called the 
Star of Empire, published at New York, under the auspices of 
''The National Land Company," whatever that may be, and de- 
voted to the colonization and selling of railroad and other lands in 
Kansas, and in the Platte valley of Colorado. A rather minute 
description is given of nearly the whole State of Kansas, and of 
the lands along the Kansas Pacific Railroad to Denver, but not a 
word is mentioned of the Arkansas valley or of any portion of 
Southern Colorado. This land Company claims to be the father 
of all the colonies in Kansas and Colorado, even to the German 
Colony in Wet Mountain Valley, but carefully avoids hinting in 
what part of Colorado the Wet Mountain Valley is situated. 



NEW ADVERTISEMENTS' 

NATIONAL LAND CO. 

Agent For 

FOUR MILLION ACRES 

of the Lands of the 

KANSAS PACIFIC 
AND 

DENVER PACIFIC 
RAILWAY COiMPANIES 

OFFICE, Cor. Blake and F Streets, 

Over First National Bank 

DENVER, - - - COLORADO 

WM. N. BYERS, General Manager 

^Colorado Chieftain, May 12, 1870, p. 1. 
^Daily Colorado Tribune, May 20, 1870, p. 1. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



17 



1,200,000 Acres of the Denver Pacific R. W. Co.'s lands are 
now in market and offered for sale upon the following plan: 

The land is appraised according to its actual value by an 
officer of the company appointed for that purpose. Timber land 
is sold for cash; agricultural and pastoral land is sold either for 
cash or on credit running five years. Thus, a forty acre tract 
at five dollars per acre, is given as an example. The payments 
will be as follows: 

Principal, $40, Interest, 



Cash, 
In 1 year, 
In 2 years. 
In 3 years, 
In 4 years, 
In 5 years. 



40 
40 
40 
40 



^9 60— Total, 
9 60 
7 20 
4 80 
2 40 



$49 60 
9 60 
47 20 
44 80 
42 40 
40 00 



Grand Total $233 68 

If the purchaser desires to complete his title at an earlier date, 
he can do so by paying up in full. 

The lands of the Kansas Pacific Railway Company are now 
being prepared for market and will be offered for sale as soon as 
they are examined and appraised. 

It is very important to all actual settlers upon railway lands, 
or to those who have improvements thereon, that they inform the 
agent at as early a day as possible of that fact. All such rights 
will be respected when known, but in the absence of such knowl- 
edge a settler's claim might be sold to some one else. Lands will 
be appraised without regard to any improvements that may be 
placed thereon. Settlers need have no hesitation in making im- 
provements upon that account. Applications must be made in 
writing to the General Manager. 



[Colorado Products at St. Louis.] 

^The following is from the Kansas City Bulletin: "Among 
the thousand and one attractive objects on exhibition at the recent 
Agricultural and Industrial Fair, at St. Louis — those which 



^Daily Colorado Tribune. October 12, 1870, p. 4. 



18 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



seemed to attract the attention of the most, were the productions 
of the fields, gardens, and mines of Colorado, especially the lat- 
ter. . . . 

"The wheat and flour were among the finest we ever saw, and 
we question much whether there is a country in the world that can 
excel them in these cereals. Thousands on the fair grounds viewed 
these productions of the mountains with wonder and astonish- 
ment, and the impression formed, at once and forever dissipated 
the erroneous ideas usually held concerning that elevated and 
distant country." 

[Excursion Tickets to Colorado.] 
^The National Land Company have arranged for excursion 
tickets from New York to Denver, $115 for the round trip. These 
tickets will be sold during the fall and winter and will be good for 
ninety days. . . . Another one of the great works of that 
company which is doing so much toward the development of the 
west. The tickets are sold over the Kansas Pacific. 



[Governor McCook's Agricultural Address.] 
^The agricultural address^ of Gov. McCook is attracting much 
attention in the east. We note that our exchanges are pubHshing 
extracts and commenting on it freely, and in a manner which can- 
not fail to advertise our resources and bring us labor, capital and 
settlers. Few documents regarding Colorado ever attracted so 
much attention. . . . 

[Rich Farm Lands in the Great American Desert.] 
''Mr. J. A. Blake of Denver in N. Y. World of Dec. 2. says: 
''The ranchmen of Colorado have this year succeeded in making 
the agricultural product equal to the gold and silver product. 
About one hundred thousand acres are under cultivation, and the 
value of the crops has been $5,000,000. This is a gain of one 
million over the result of last year. The bulk of the product is 
raised in the valleys of the South Platte, Arkansas, Rio Grande, 
Cache-la-Poudre, and Big Thompson. But some twenty-five 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, October 15, 1870, p. 4. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, October 28, 1870, p. 4. 
3For a similar address see above p. 2. 
*Daily Colorado Tribune, December 10, 1870, p. 2. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



19 



thousand acres of high prairie land have been farmed by irrigation, 
and the yield has been fifty per cent, better than that by natural 
farming along the creeks and rivers. For ten years ranching or 
farming has been carried on along the low lands to some extent, 
but the attempt to cultivate the high lands by irrigation was first 
made about three years ago. The success of this mode of farming 
is the immediate cause of the present interest in Colorado as an 
agricultural section. Our farming area is a part of the 'Great 
American Desert,' and school children at the East are still study- 
ing geographies and maps that can make nothing out of Colorado, 
but cover it with the significant words, 'Great American Desert' 
and 'Buffalo Range.' This whole area has not until two years 
past been looked upon as worth the cost of pre-emption and nine- 
tenths of Colorado is still government land. 

"The farmer tilling fat acres in Illinois thinks he has the ad- 
vantage; but, with his draining, grubbing out weeds, suffering 
from too much water some seasons and drought others, there is 
an average cost which will more than double that of irrigation. 
The farmer in Colorado has neither drought nor floods to fear; 
the fertility of the soil is never exhausted by useless vegetation, 
such as weeds, brambles, and the like. The average of crops in 
kind and size, is 50 per cent, better than the result of fann labor 
in New England. On the South Platte, seven miles above Denver, 
there is a ranche that last year raised 90 bushels of wheat on one 
acre of land, 65 on another, and 550 bushels on ten acres. The 
flour from Colorado wheat is sold in the St. Louis market as pre- 
ferred to that of souther. Illinois." 



[Advantages in Colonizing.] 
^A western fever has been the annual thing for years past at 
the east, and with symptoms always the same, it seldom takes the 
same turn. It has been successively wider in its range. For years 
it reached only the Alleghanies; then to the Ohio; then to the 
Wabash ; then to the Mississippi. Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska 
have come within its range the past two or three j-ears; but next 
year it will evidently run to Colorado. It is not usual at this 
season for emigrants to show much sign. The}^ are content the 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, December 20, 1870, p. 2. 



20 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



last winter of their sojourn among old scenes, to sit down b}' the 
old hearth-stone, quietly talk over their plans and wait for the 
spring. Sometimes an universal interest is awakened, as during 
the year or two past when colonizing has been the favorite viay with 
settlers. The thing worked so well in Missouri, Kansas, and in 
other new States on a small scale, and in Colorado on a large one, 
that another year it will be all the fashion among emigrants. 
And this Territory is evidently to receive a large share of next 
year's westward movement. Not only from the east, but from 
the south they are coming. The Chicago colony for settlement 
in Colorado is likely to be the largest of any. Members are joining 
rapidly. All the Chicago papers have a standing advertisement 
of the officers' headquarters and plans. Documents of Colorado 
and its resources are being scattered plentifully. In southern 
Illinois we find another movement fully under way, with some of 
the best men of St. Clair county at its head. The same is true of 
Kentucky and Tennessee, and not long ago we published a letter 
from New Jersey speaking of a colony forming in that State. 
All are coming to Colorado. Our productive soil, grazing, mines, 
splendid climate, resources and advantages more plentiful and 
varied than any other State or Territory can hold out, are begin- 
ning to be appreciated. It would not be surprising if the year 
1871 shall add 25,000 to the population of Colorado. Our people 
already representing every State of the thirty-seven, gladly wel- 
come the new-comers. We hope that hundreds of colonies will 
come. Our ten million acres of tillable land east of the range, 
still afford abundant elbow room for all who turn in and help 
develope our resources. Colonizing has manj^ advantages. It se- 
cures at the start a community, society, laws, schools, churches. 
It enables emigrants to know before hand the best places for set- 
tlement, by sending out agents to look the country over Freights 
and passage are lower to colonies than to settlers who come singly. 
Lands are bought at better advantage. And as a result of this 
mode of settling the Territories we shall soon have the benefits of 
co-operatives at work; we shall hear of co-operative mining, co- 
operative herding, co-operative societies, stores, factories, and a 
system by which there will be less waste work. We may expect 
good fruits of the coming colonies. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



21 



EXTRACT FROM A CIRCULAR OF THE NATIONAL LAND 

COMPANY.! 



In the last year the National Land Company has transported 
and located in Colorado and Kansas sixteen colonies; about half 
of them from European countries, and the others from various 
points in the United States. All have proved successful and are 
doing well. Among the advantages of removing to a new country 
in a colony may be enumerated economy in cost of travel and 
freight; the preservation of old associations, neighborlj^ and 
friendship ties; cheaper purchases of land; community interest and 
strength in building towns, churches, schools, fences, ditches, 
and all other improvements required, and many others that will 
suggest themselves. 

As an illustration of the profits that may ensue to the mem- 
bers we cite the ''Union Colony of Colorado," organized little 
more than a year ago; decided its location and purchased lands 
fifty-two miles north of Denver, April 11, 1870. . . . 

Recentl}^ we have located the Chicago-Colorado Colony very 
advantageousl}^, and can find room for several more. 



So far as we can learn all the Colony enterprises in Colorado, 
with perhaps the exception of the one in West (sic) Mountain 
Valley, are decided and growing successes. The oldest is scarcely 
into its second year; and the youngest hardly beyond its fourth 
month, and yet all exhibit hearty work and encouragement. The 
Colony towns, date of location, and estimated population at the 
present, are as follows: 

Towns Site Selected Population 



OUR COLONIES.^ 



Greeley. 



April 5, 1870.. 
Jan. 30, 1871. 
Feb. 1, 1871.. 



1200 
650 
150 
650 
50 
25 



Longmont... 
Green City. 
Evans 



March 13, 1871 



New Memphis 
Platteville 



March, 1871 
May, 1871...- 



Total. 



.2725 



Waily Rocky Mountain Newt, February 17, 187], p. 1. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, August 8, 1871, p. 4. 



22 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



The above, while it shows the number that have come into 
the Territory by reason of the Colony enterprises, does not rep- 
resent all who have emigrated to us in this way. Man}^ who have 
come expecting to settle with one or the other organization, have, 
on looking about, preferred Denver or one of the mountain towns, 
while many have gone to Southern Colorado. Within the past 
twelve months this Territory has, no doubt, received by coloniza- 
tion fully 5,000 people; and by private settlement twice as many 
more. Of the 15,000 inhabitants that the Territory has gained, 
some 3,000 have gone to the establishment of new towns; probably 
about the same number have scattered to the farming and mining 
districts, while the rest have gone to swell the growing trade 
centers of the Territory. Denver alone having received in the 
neighborhood of 4,000. The Colony enterprises, with those now 
projected, are effective in securing to Colorado her swift develop- 
ment into a great State. Greeley, Longmont and Evans are 
alive, and vigorously engineering railroad projects which are in- 
tended to make them centers, and not merely stations. Colorado 
Springs, scarcely yet surveyed, has a splendid start by the near 
approach of the Denver & Rio Grande road, of which she will be 
for some time the terminus. The people of Green City are work- 
ing away, satisfied that their fine advantages of location and soil 
must shortly bring a railroad. New Memphis has already the 
iron horse in sight. Platte ville is getting on its feet in a fine loca- 
tion on the Denver Pacific. All these towns are growing up fast; 
are gaining churches, schools, and the complements of good so- 
ciety. Trade, manufactures and diversified industries are spring- 
ing up. All are building solidly and well. 



COLORADO IN THE N. Y. FARMERS' CLUB.i 
General Cameron addressed the American Institute Farmers' 
Club in New York on Tuesday last. The World reports him suc- 
cinctly, as follows: ''General Cameron, the Ajax of the Greeley 
colony, in answer to a call, spoke with sensible brevity of Colorado. 
He considered it destined to become a stock-growing country of 
considerable importance. Wool can be produced for ten cents a 



Wenter Daily Tribune, October 18, 1871, p. 1. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



23 



pound, and a four-year-old steer for $10. Agriculture will be 
limited by the capabilities of irrigation. Irrigation has not been 
a failure, but it makes farming more expensive than in a rainy 
country. But the silver mines are almost inexhaustible, and those 
who work them furnish a good market. For those who have 
asthmatic complaints and consumptive inclinations the atmos- 
phere is beneficial. General C. then fell into poetry in a friendly 
way, and spoke blank verse of the mountain scenery, the sunlight, 
the varied colors, the clear air. Those whose homes are amid 
these delightful scenes cannot grow old rapidly, and the aged may 
find returning unexpectedly something of the bouyancy of youth. 



A CARD.i 

Having opened an office in New York, for the purpose of 
colonization and stimulating emigration to Colorado, I would be 
glad of anything sent from the territory which may add to our 
information in the wslj of stock raising, agriculture, or mining. 
We shall be glad, also, to see any person from Colorado at our 
office, No. 3 Bowling Green. Colorado papers please cop5^ 

R. A. Cameron. 



[General Cameron on Colonization.] 
^General R. A. Cameron, of Greeley, is working in New York 
this winter to produce immigration Coloradoward. In a letter to 
the New York Tribune he says that many eastern people are con- 
tinually suggesting and insinuating that the colony enterprises, 
at Greeley and elsewhere in our territory, are failures. The 
General emphatically says this is not so, and closes his letter, 
after giving facts and figures, with: ''To day and in the future, 
as in the past, the sending of a body of people, and settling them 
in one place, form the best method of opening a new region, and 
the only true way of healthily developing the resources of the 
countr}^; rapidly building up schools, churches and society, and 
making anything like an advanced state of civilization in a short 
period of time." 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, October 18, 1871, p. 1. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, October 25, 1871, p. 1. 



24 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



COLORADO COLONIES. 1 
General Cameron, Superintendent of the Fountain Colony of 
Colorado Springs, now in New York, gives to the New York 
Tribune a few sensible hints as to how colonization in this Territory- 
works. He says: ''I think this year there will be shipped from 
Greeley from thirty to fifty car-loads of potatoes, 600 bushels to 
the car; and at least 500 tons of hay from its immediate vicinity, 
with twice that quantitj^ from the settled portion of the valley 
of the Cache-a-la-Poudre above, and the Platte Valley below. Of 
cabbages, beets, turnips, and other garden vegetables, there is a 
large surplus seeking a market on the Union Pacific, the Kansas 
Pacific roads, and at the mines in the mountains. There is no 
scarcity of labor for those who are willing to use their muscles, 
either at home or in other parts of the Territory." 



IMMIGRATION NOTES.^ 

Emigrants always started west in the spring; and this season 
is always preceded by a winter campaign of immigration agents 
and speakers, armed with various pamphlets, publications, etc. 
Colorado is again in the field, and pending the discussion of the 
state question, which seems to hinge on the matter of population, 
some notice of what is being done to induce immigration may not 
be out of place. Beginning at the head, the Board of Immi- 
gration are doing all that their limited means will permit. The 
appropriation was only $3,000 a year, barely enough to pay the 
most necessary expenses, and not sufficient to send paid agents 
either to the east or to Europe. Consequently they have been 
compelled to rely entirely upon the circulation of printed docu- 
ments. A pamphlet in German has just been issued, and another 
edition in English is soon to be printed. They are mailed to a 
constantly increasing number of persons, who, by letter and other- 
wise, are seeking information concerning Colorado. Owing to the 
limited appropriation, the work of the board will be chiefly con- 
fined to the circulation of official printed information. 

The most efficient agents for securing immigrants are the dif- 
ferent colony organizations. Of these there are the Greeley, 

iDenser Daily Tribime, October 26, 1871, p. 4. 

Waily Rocky Mountain News, December 18, 1872, p. 2. 



COLONIZATION IN COLORADO 



25 



Evans, Longmont, Southwestern, and Colorado Springs colonies, 
are permanently located and in successful operation. They are 
constantly adding to their numbers, circulating printed informa- 
tion, sending agents east, and finally employing that most in- 
fluential and powerful of agencies, the private letters of friends to 
their acquaintances in the east. Each of these various colonies 
have their special advantages and inducements, and combined 
they constitute the most powerful immigration agency in the West. 
While each is laboring for itself, they are all working for Colorado. 
To the five already named is now to be added the new Fort Collins 
colony, which cannot fail to bring at least two hundred famihes 
into the count r3^ The prospects of this new scheme have already 
been noticed in these columns. To those coming west, these differ- 
ent organizations all offer extra inducements. The various man- 
agements are all reliable, and the colonies well established, with 
schools, churches, etc. Immigrants can choose any, and not choose 
amiss. 

To the labor of the board of immigration, and the colonies 
must now be added those of the railway and land companies. The 
Denver and Kansas Pacific companies are deeply interested in se- 
curing immigrants, not only for the purpose of creating a demand 
for their lands, but for increasing the business of their respective 
roads. The two companies own thousands of acres of rich, arable 
lands, which during the coming 3"ear are to be minutely advertised; 
while the terms of sale, already known, are certainly liberal in 
the extreme. The advantages which they offer cannot be sur- 
passed. The establishment of a great central office in New York, 
where the mineral and agricultural products of the country can 
be seen, is certainly an act of greatest value to the territory. The 
efforts of a few land companies are more in the nature of private 
enterprises. One or two have taken out ditches, and are prepared 
to offer the best opportunities to those who wish cheap lands 
advantageously located. Individuals will be benefitted; and so 
will the territory. Consequently they deserve aid and encourage- 
ment. 

These are the immigration agencies now at work in Colorado, 
and upon the results of their labor we must depend for next 
spring's increase in our population. Each one will meet with fair 



26 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



success, iiiul the combined result, ought certainly to add several 
thousand to our population. It ought to be the aim of all to 
secure pcM'fect reliability and honesty in all their immigration work. 
W(> ;ue thankful that no swindling concerns are in existence; and 
certainly none ought ever to be permitted to get under way. One 
such operation would injure the territory immensely, and cast 
suspicion upon those perfectly reliable. Colorado can offer the 
best inducements to all classes of immigrants, and this fact is 
all that is necessary to demonstrate to secure a large, intelligent 
and industrious population. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION 
COMPANY 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS AND LETTERS 



PETITION^ 
of the 

GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY OF COLFAX, 
FREMONT CO, COL, 
Praying 

A Grant to said company of 40,000 acres of unsurveyed and unoccu- 
pied public lands in Fremont County, Colorado. 



January 18, 1870, — Referred to the Committee on Public Lands. 
January 21, 1870. — Ordered to be printed. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America, in Congress assembled: 

Your memorialist, in behalf of the German Colonization Com- 
pany of Colfax, county of Fremont, and Territory of Colorado, 
would respectfully represent that — 

With the completion of the Union and Kansas Pacific rail- 
roads, a new era has been inaugurated for the progress of this 
grand and beautiful republic. Vast districts of lands are opened 
by these avenues of communication for the march of civilization. 
Millions of acres of tillable soil are languidly awaiting irrigation, 
and with it the plowshare and its diligent conductors. Valley 
upon valley is becoming known to the civilized world, where 
primitive beauty of nature, interchanging with romantic and grand 
scenery, is constantly inviting man to a fair and prosperous home. 
The great belt of lands incased by the Cordilleras de los Andes, 
but a short time ago an unsolved mystery, is since found to be a 
perfect Switzerland, with rich meadows, fertile farming vales, and 
spontaneously rich mineral hills. But where is the thrifty hand 
to till this bounteous soil; where are the thousands of arms to 
come from, which are destined to develop this richest of all the 
lands within this great and good republic? Large cities are grow- 

mst Cong., 2nd Seas., Senate Misc. Doc. No. 22. 

29 



30 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



ing into immense proportions all over the eastern portion of this 
wide continent. Scarce a century has passed since the birth of 
freedom gave mankind this grand country, this home of liberty, 
and already the young giant has by far outwinged its mother in 
almost every direction; and to-day has likewise its thousands of 
miseries, coupled with sufferings, crime and poverty. Look upon 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Chicago, 
St. Louis, and other large cities. What amount of misery and 
wretchedness is hidden behind their marble palaces and cosy 
dwellings! Thousands of mechanics, laborers, and poverty- 
stricken people crowd their thorough-fares, scarce knowing how 
to find the wherewithal to still their hunger and thirst, or cover 
their nudity. But we have the homestead law. Granted. How 
much money must a man of family necessarily have to enable him 
to take advantage of the provisions of that noble and philanthropic 
law? From New York or some other city in the middle States 
to the far West, where the homestead lands can be had, the cost 
of transportation for husband, wife, and say two children, will be 



at the minimum, SIOO.OO 

Two oxen, with yoke, at least,. 100.00 

One wagon, at least, 100.00 

Six months of provision, at 50 cents a day, to last until the 

first crops are gathered, not less than, 90.00 

Farming implements, necessary, 150.00 

Seeds for first crop, — 100.00 

One cow, 50.00 



$690.00 

Can we find many laborers, mechanics, or other men of the 
poorer classes, who can boast of such a sum? What remedy then 
should be prescribed to sooth the miseries of our poor fellow-men, 
to help them obtain possession of those beautiful homes of the far 
West, where millions of our fellow creatures may in some short 
years of toil wrestle from fate a state of competency and happi- 
ness? The only answer to be found is : ' 'colonize them under the 
homestead law." Now, I am about to give this answer practically. 
I have gathered together German workmen, mechanics and labor- 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



31 



ers in the city of Chicago, and united them under the following 
constitution : 

Constitution of the German Colonization Company of Colfax, Fremont 
County, Colorado Territory, passed before said company, August 24, 

1869. 

Art. 1. — NAME OF THE COMPANY, 

Section 1. The name of the company is, "German Coloniza- 
tion Company." 

Article 2. — purpose and nature of the company. 

Section 1. The purpose of this society is, occupation of gov- 
ernment or eventually of railroad lands, for the purpose of founding 
a colony for this society. 

Ad. 1. These lands shall lie west of the Mississippi River, 
between the 42d and 35th degrees of north latitude. 

Sec. 2. The intention of this company is, to help establish 
every member's independent existence. 

Ad. 1. The members of this society bind themselves herewith 
to help founding and furthering the existence of each member as 
well as that of the whole society, during the first five years of the 
existence of this society. 

Ad. 2. The time of this mutual existence can be extended by 
the society in general meeting assembled. 

Art. 3. — NUMBER OF MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Section 1 . The society shall not number less than sixty mem- 
bers and not more than two hundred and fifty members. 
Sec. 2. Condition of membership: 

A. Good moral character. 

B. An age between 21 to 45 years. 

C. Sound physical and mental health. 

D. Payment of two hundred and fifty dollars, which amount 
must be paid into the treasury of the society in installments, the 
time of the payments of which the treasurer has to appoint. 

Art. 4. — WITHDRAWAL OF MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1 . Each member of the society loses, if withdrawing 
from the society before the same leaves for the place of settlement, 
the amount paid into the treasury. 



32 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Sec. 2. Whoever withdraws from the society within the first 
five years, counting from the time of the occupation of the lands 
of the society, or five years and a half from the organization of 
this society, loses every claim upon the society or its property. 

Art. 5. OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Section 1. Number of officers: 
a. The society shall have a president, a secretary and a treasurer, 
which three officers shall give the following bonds: president, 
$500.; secretary, $500.; treasurer, $5,000. 

6. The board of directors shall consist of the president, secretary, 
treasurer, and four directors. 

c. The president shall be the chairman of the board of directors. 
Sec. 2. Election of officers: 

a. The president, secretary and treasurer shall each separatelj^ be 
elected for the term of one year, by absolute majority of the votes 
cast. 

b. The board of directors shall also be, each member thereof sep- 
arately, elected for the term of one year, by absolute majority of 
the votes cast. 

c. The election of the officers of the society shall be January, the 
first of each and every year during the existence of this society. 

Art. 6. TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS. 

Sec. 1. The board of directors, and the president, secretary, 
and treasurer of the society, shall meet every Saturday night in 
the meeting-house of the society, for the purpose of transacting 
all the business of the society. 

Sec. 2. In cases of differences between members, the presi- 
dent, secretary and treasurer shall act as judges. 

Sec. 3. The board of directors shall carry on all business 
of this society. 

Sec. 4. The board of directors shall render a full report of 
all business transactions of the society, every three months, during 
a general meeting of all members of the society, which shall be 
called for that particular purpose by the president. 

Art. 7. — GENERAL MEETINGS. 

Sec. 1. A general meeting of the society shall be held the 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



33 



first Saturday of each month, during which the following order of 
business shall be maintained: 

1. Reading of the minutes of the last general meeting. 

2. Reports of committees. 

3. Correspondence. 

4. Adjourned business. 

5. New business. 

6. Roll-call. 

7. Adjournment. 

Sec. 2. The president has the right to call an extraordinary 
general meeting in case of necessity. 

Sec. 3. Each and every member of the society is obliged to 
be present at every general meeting, or prove that unforseen cir- 
cumstances prevented his presence. 

Art. 8. — REVISION OF STATUTE. 

This statute can only be amended by the vote of two-thirds 
majority of the members of the society assembled in general meet- 
inc 

Art. 9. FUNDS AND PROPERTY OF THE SOCIETY. 

Sec. 1. The funds and property of this society shall only be 
used for the transportation of the same to the place of settlement, 
for the purchase of provisions and land, for the development and 
cultivation of such lands which the society has taken possession of, 
and for industrial or commercial enterprises. 

Sec. 2. No members of this society are allowed to transact 
business outside of this society upon their own account. 

Sec. 3. Should the society borrow moneys from any of the 
members of the same, it shall hereby be held to pay interest for 
such moneys at ten per cent, per annum. 

Ad. 1. The so borrowed moneys cannot be drawn by the 
creditors of the society, within the first five years of the existence 
of the society. 

Sec. 4. The secretary of the society shall collect all moneys 

of the society and deliver them without delay into the hands of the 

treasurer, against a written receipt. 

CARL w^ULSTEN, President. 

o ^ GEORGE MERTEN, Treasurer. 

ALBERT PHILIPP, Secretary. 

Chicago, August 24, 1869. 



34 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



And hope to show thousands of fellow-creatures the way how the 
great and aggravating question of life can be answered. I have 
gone out to the far west in company of two other members of the 
German Colonization Company, now of Colfax — as the honorable 
Schuyler Colfax has consented to allow his name to honor the 
settlement and town of the colony — and have selected about 
forty thousand acres of unsurveyed and unoccupied lands in the 
"Wet Mountain Valley," in the county of Fremont, and Territory 
of Colorado. This valley is remote from other settlements, 
(Canon City, the nearest town, being forty-five miles northeast 
from it,) and in an Indian country, full of wild beasts of the forest. 
Upon this tract of land there is to be found good farming land, 
about fifteen thousand acres, stony grazing land which can not 
be farmed, about twenty thousand acres, and timber land, about 
five thousand acres. If the members of this society should but 
take possession under the homestead law of good tillable soil, they 
would have to spread over many miles up and down the sixty 
miles long valley. They would not be able to live safe and out of 
danger of depredations committed by Indians or wild beasts. 
It is therefore, necessary to unite all the families of this society 
in a village or town, build a fort, and keep up a militia organiza- 
tion, which has already been done. 

To enable this society to do so, the below following bill is 
respectfully submitted. If the society can be in full possession 
and title of the lands now claimed partly by the members of the 
same, under the territorial squatter law, its members collectively 
would better be able of turning to proper use all the land, good 
and bad, and still be enabled to live upon and from it. The good 
soil would be used for farming, the stony soil for grazing purposes, 
and the timber for building, fuel and other purposes. The mem- 
bers of the society are all poor men, and even the sum of two hun- 
dred and fifty, with which the society proposes to fit out every 
man, and intends to work as their capital, can only be raised with 
great privations to every member. To obtain the whole grant 
for the forty thousand acres to be occupied by two hundred and 
fifty settlers, members of this co-operative society, would grant 
the society a credit so advantageous as to enable the same to pro- 
vide for each member's necessities of life with less sorrow and more 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



35 



to the effect. The society as a whole is but representing the mem- 
bers and their interests. There is no speculation scheme about 
this society whatever, for it was formed only to enable men of 
small means and poor men to take advantage of the homestead law, 
and become happy settlers in a beautiful country. The society 
will readily consent to keep up their organization of militia during 
the five years of their statute existence. It will allot by ballot 
to each of its members one quarter section of the lands occupied 
under this grant, if such is given to it by Congress. The German 
immigrant is acknowledged, by all who are in a position to judge 
correctly, to be the most desirable settler this great republic 
would invite to its shores. Peaceful, earnest in his purposes, good- 
natured, industrious, dilhgent, and a hard worker, the German, in 
his peculiar philosophical and intelligent way, would develop those 
millions of acres of fine lands in less time and more thoroughly 
than any other nationality. If this colony of Colfax can succeed, 
prove by experience that which is but necessary to attract atten- 
tion elsewhere and to the fertile vales of Colorado, New Mexico 
and Arizona, hundreds of other German colonies would follow the 
example of this one, and in less time than the ordinary way of 
developing new territories has heretofore taken, the far West will 
be studded with prosperous towns, blooming villages and indus- 
trious hamlets. Manufacturing and mechanical skill used upon 
the great philanthropic plan of co-operation, will bring happiness 
and plenty upon the now, comparatively speaking, waste lands of 
the great American plateau. The large cities of the east will be 
drained of their surplus of poor inhabitants. Those left behind 
will command better remuneration for their labor and skill, and 
the ability of paying taxes will be raised considerably. Those 
who will upon the other side, form colonies, unite their small 
means with their muscles, energies and skill, will develop wild and 
yet uninhabited lands in short spaces of time, raise taxabiUty, 
where none is now, and in ten or fifteen years the great national 
debt of this republic will have been a thing of the past. The 
German Colonization Company of Colfax, Fremont County, 
Colorado Territory, being the pioneer colony upon the co-operative 
plan, and as such humbly asketh that the Senate and House of 



36 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Representatives of the United States of America in Congress 
assembled will enact a bill as follows. 

Respectfully, 

CARL WULSTEN, 

President of the German Coloniza- 
tion Company, of Colfax, Colorado 
Territory. 



A BILL to grant to the German Colonization Company of Colfax, 
Fremont County, Colorado Territory, forty thousand acres of un- 
surveyed and unoccupied public lands in Fremont County, Colo- 
rado Territory. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the said 
German Colonization Company of Colfax, Fremont County, 
Colorado Territory, shall hold by right and lawful title in fee 
simple forty thousand acres of unsurveyed and unoccupied public 
lands in the so-called ''Wet Mountain Valley," being a portion of 
Fremont County and Colorado Territory. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That said forty thousand 
acres are to be situated as follows: From a point to be known as 
the southwest corner of said grant, bearing per compass south 
fifteen degrees west from Pike's Peak Mountain, and further bear- 
ing per compass west from the highest peak of Greenhorn Moun- 
tain ; and further bearing per compass east forty degrees south from 
Rudd's Nob, being a high peak upon the range of mountains which 
border the Wet Mountain Valley upon the west, and which moun- 
tain is bearing southwest per compass from Pike's Peak Mountain, 
and west-northwest per compass from Greenhorn Mountain; 
running per compass northeast until such line shall strike the high 
bank upon the east side of Grape Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas 
River; then following the water-course of Grape Creek in a north- 
west direction per compass until such line shall strike the water- 
course of Gooseberry Creek; then following the water-course of 
Gooseberry Creek, on the north bank of the same, in a southwest 
direction, until such line shall strike the foot of the mountains at 
a point bearing northwest per compass from the southwest corner 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



37 



of said grant; then running southeast per compass until again 
striking said southwest corner of said grant. 

Sec. 3. And he it further enacted, That the said German 
Colonization Company shall hold hereby, by right and lawful title, 
one section of unsurveyed and unoccupied public lands inside of 
the afore-described lines, for the purpose of building upon the said 
section of land the town or village of Colfax, and that the said 
company shall have the right to divide said section into lots and 
sell the same to the best advantage, excepting such lots for church 
and school purposes; the proceeds of such sales to be used only 
for the improving of said granted lands, consisting of forty thou- 
sand acres and for building and maintaining public roads upon said 
grant of said lands. 

Sec. J+. And be it further enacted, That the said German Colo- 
nization Compan}^ shall be held hereby not to dispose of or sell 
any lands within the limits of above-named lines of said grant 
within the next five j^ears, to be counted from the time of the 
adoption of the constitution of said company, being the twenty- 
fourth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and sixtj^-nine. 

Sec. 5. And he it further enacted. That the said German Colo- 
nization Company shall be hereby bound to deed over to every 
and each member of its organization, or the widow or orphans 
thereof, who is entitled to one hundred and sixty acres of public 
lands under the homestead law, such one hundred and sixty Acres 
out of the forty thousand acres comprising this said grant at the 
time of the occupancy of such grant, the different quarter sections 
to be allotted to each member by drawing lots for such quarter 
sections separately, and the whole society being assembled and 
present at said drawing. 

Sec. 6. And he it further enacted, That so soon as said German 
Colonization Company shall have furnished evidence, b}^ the cer- 
tificates of the governor and surveyor general of the Territory of 
Colorado, that sixty members or more of said company, along with 
their families, have de facto taken possession of said grant and made 
said tract of land their home, to the Secretary of the Interior of 
the United States of America, then a patent for said grant of 
land shall be issued by the President of the United States of 
America to said German Colonization Company. 



38 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Bill for German Company in the House.] 
^Mr. Judd^ introduced a bill (H. R. No. 964) to grant a pre- 
emption on the public lands to the German Colonization Company 
of Colfax, Colorado; which was read first and second time, re- 
ferred to the Committee on Public Lands, and ordered to be 
printed. 

[Extract from Message of Governor McCook.] 
^Within the past few weeks, I have received communications 
from two German colonies, containing over two hundred families 
each, and from one containing forty famiHes, informing me of 
their intention to emigrate here in the spring. Letters are almost 
daily received at the Executive office, requesting information as 
to the agricultural and other resources of the Territory. It is 
not only our duty to make preparation for the emigration, which 
is coming here next year, but I think it is also our duty to, in 
some way, collect and disseminate substantial information con- 
cerning the capabilities of the country. 



[Letters of Governor McCook.] 

Jan. 26th 70^ 

Capt Carl Wulsten 

Prest. German Col. Company. 

No S7i N. WeUs St. Chicago, Ills. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the 4th inst enclosing the muster roll and 
names of officers of the companies of militia organized by you and 
composed of members of the Germ. Colonization Comp. of Colfax 
Fremont Co. Colo. Ty. Also your letter of the 10th inst. en- 
closing names of 10 additional members, also letter of 12th en- 
closing the names of 3 additional members. 

In reply to your enquiries and your request to be furnished 
with arms ammunition and tents at the Terminus of the K. P. 
R. R. I would inform you that I have no means of providing tents 

Wongressional Globe, 2nd Sess., 4l8t Cong., pt. 1, January 24, 1870, p. 710. 
'Norman B. Judd of Chicago was a member of the 40th and 41st Congresses. 
^Daily Colorado Tribune, January 5, 1870, p. 1. 

*Execuiive Records, vol. 1869-1875, pp. 27-28. In Governor's Office in the State Capitol Building, 
Denver. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



39 



but I am prepared to issue commissions to the officers of your or- 
ganization at any point within the Territory and to furnish you 
the requisite arms and ammunition on the following conditions. 
You will be expected to execute a bond for the safe keeping of 
such arms and their return to the Governor on his demand and to 
transport them from Denver to such point within the Territory 
as you may select at your own expense as I have no funds at my 
disposal which can be diverted to that purpose. I am Sir 

Yours Most Truly 

Edward M. McCook 

Governor of Colorado 



Capt. Carl Wulsten Feb. 4, 70^ 

Care Webster Mesick (sic) & Co. 
Sheriden, Kansas. 

Sir: 

I ship to you this day by John Hughes 
& Co. stage three (3) Boxes (40) Spencer Rifles and two (2) Boxes 
(2000) cartridges for the same — pkg is marked Capt. Carl Wulsten, 
care C. S. Hickman, Stage Agt., Arapahoe Col. Terry. The re- 
mainder of the arms and ammunition will be forwarded as rapidly 
as possible. 

I enclose the form of Bond which you are required to give 
with two sureties for the safe keeping of the arms, and upon your 
duly executing the said Bond and delivering the same to the Agt. 
above named, he is authorized to turn over the arms and ammuni- 
tion to you. You paying charges as stipulated in your telegram 
of the 1st inst. 

The commissions for the company officers as named in your 
letter of J any 3rd have been sent to you to Sheriden care Webster 
Musick (sic) & Co. 

Yrs very truh^ 

Edward M. McCook 
Governor. 



^Ibid, p. 36. 



40 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Capt Carl Wulsten. Febr. 5, 70^ 

Care Webster Musick & Co. 
Sheriden, Kansas. 
Sir: 

I enclose the commissions of the offi- 
cers of the "Colfax Guard" named in your letter of Jan 3rd as 
having been duly elected at a meeting of the German Colonization 
Society held on that day, viz. : 

Company A. Capt. Rudolph Jeske 
" " 1st Lieut. August Vilose 
" 2nd Lieut. Fred'k Kohl 
Company B. Capt. Theodor Hamlen 

" 1st Lieut. George Knopman 
" 2nd Lieut. John Koch 
Quartermaster, 2d lieut. George Merten 
Yours very Truly 

Edward M. McCook 

Governor of Colorado 



E. D. Nielson, Esq. Oct. 18. [1870]2 

Prest. German Col. Co. 

Colfax Fremont Co., Colo. Tery. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the 13th inst. enclosing a petition of many 
residents of Wet Mountain Valley and a communication from the 
officers of your company both addressed to the President of the 
United States setting forth that by reason of the failure of their 
crops your people are in want of the necessaries of life. 

I have the honor to inform you that I have this day forwarded 
the papers referred to with my recommendation that the President 
give his assent to the proposition to furnish your suffering people 
with rations the coming winter. 

I would also assure you of my sorrow at the unfortunate con- 
dition of affairs in your community and of the regret I feel because 
of my inability to render more substantial assistance. 



mid, p. 39. 
'Ibid, p. 76. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



41 



I will however make every effort to enlist the sympathy of 
the people here and to secure subscriptions to aid the colony. 

I have the honor, etc. 

Edward M. McCook 
Governor. 



His Excellency. Oct. 19. [1870] ^ 

U. S. Grant. 

President of the United States. 

Sir: 

I have the honor to herewith forward petitions from the 
officers and members German Colonization Society of Colfax Fre- 
mont County Colorado asking the assistance of the Government 
to relieve them from a state of destitution. 

I have since the reception of their letter subscribed as liberally 
as my means will allow and induced other citizens to contribute 
toward buying and sending provisions to these suffering people 
but the amount raised will not be sufficient to furnish provisions 
during the whole winter. 

Consequently I forward their petition with the recommenda- 
tion that if practicable the commanding officer of the nearest post, 
Fort Reynolds, be instructed to issue such rations as they may 
absolutely require. 

I have the honor, etc. 

Edward M. McCook 
Governor. 

Petition to 
The President of the U. S. 
from the German Colonization Society. 
Colfax County Colorado, for relief. 

Executive Office 

Colorado Territory 
Oct. 19 

Respectfully forwarded with the recommendation that the 
prayer of the within petitioners be granted. 

Edward M. McCook. 
Governor 

mid, p. 77. 



6 



42 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[William N. Byers Correspondence.] ^ 

[p. 295] Sept. 19, [187]0. 

Col. Carl Wulstein, 

Canon City, Col. 

Dear Sir: Col. Pratt wanted very much to visit 
your colony but had not the time. He was measurably a host 
of the excursion and his time and attention had to be devoted to 
its wants and the gratification of its members. 

Am very glad to learn that you are not going to abandon our 
Territory and hope often to see you. We feel sure that you will 
be of great assistance to us in settling up the millions of broad 
acres we have undertaken to people. 

Will be very glad to meet your friends Mr Greenbaum and 
promise him in advance the friendship of the News. 

Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen. Manager 



[p. 471] Jan. 26, [187]1. 

Col. Carl Wulsten 

Canon City, Col. 

Dear Sir : I find it impossible to borrow money here 
upon the security you offer. Capitalists are loth to make loans 
so far from home at any rate and there is a demand for all surplus 
money right here at about the rate you offer. I very much regret 
the disappointment it will probably be to you. I forward your 
letter to Col. Pratt. Yours truly, 

Wm. N. Byers. 

Gen. Manager N. L. Co. 



»William N. Byers was the general manager for Colorado of the National Land Company. These 
letters are found in his letter copy book for the period March, 1870 to June, 1871; for the use of this book we 
are indebted to Mr. Frank S. Byers. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



43 



MEMBERS AND ACCOUNTS 



PARTIAL LIST OF MEMBERS 





Kaes C 


Rash, 






Rirhter F 


Arn P 




Ripdel 


JJCIXI Clio J Xi. • 


Kpftlpr H 


T?ipcfpr A 




TClimrlrpn TT 

X\.11X11\^1 vl^ll, XX* 


Rip^t.pr O 


Claudius, M. 


Klose, A. 


Ruff, 




Knuth F 


Runs 


Dietz F 


Knuth J 


RphpidiVh 


vrpn f 1 1 vf}^ 


K^Tiuth W 

XVIJL Li U-Ll^ VT • 


S p V» 1 1 1 p y 1~) p r 0" 


T)iiPTinw T^^ 


Koch, F. 


Schlotz 




Koch J 


ftpViliipf PT* 




Kohl, F. 


Rplinr>n A 


O m 71 H in Tin 


Knnnp A 


Sohott 


Guth, 


KnSSTTlflTl 


Schulz F 


Hartbaupr O 


Kuhnrath C 


Srhwprz A 


Hartknoch, 


Lanzendorfer, 


Strehlo, 


Haupt, 


Lehrer, 


Tappert, 


Heinlein, T. 


Menzel, A. 


Tessendorf, 


Henjes, W. 


Merten, A. 


Vahldick, 


Hensel, 


Meseke, 


Vollert, 


Herrman, 


Meyer, 


Voss, C. 


Hillman, J. 


Nielsen, E. 


Werhan, C. 


Janke, 


Oelrich, C. 


Wessels, 


Jeske, F. 


Ogroske, G. 


Wilmers, J. 


Jeske, R. 


Ohlsen, 


Wilmers, L. 




PhiHp, A. 


Wulsten, C. 




Piroth, F. 





^Thia list was compiled by Mr. Carstena Kuhnrath of Westcliffe, Colorado. 



44 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



ACCOUNT BOOK OF EMIL NIELSEN^ 



[p.]l 

Debet 
1870 
JsDuar 1 

Februar 8 



An 1 Contobuch (To 1 
Account book) 

2 Eisenbahnbillets 
(railroad tickets] 

Tracht f. Haush. u Klei- 
dungsstvicke [freight for 
household and clothing] 

3 lb. BuflFalo 3 

Pk. Kartofifeln (po- 
tatoes] 

lb. Sauerkraut 

4 lb. Rindfleisch [beef] 

5 lb. Mehl [flour] 
2 lb. Buffalo 
2 lb. " 

2 lb. " 

3 lb. Mehl 
11 lb. " 

1 Bx Backpulver (baking 
powder] 

2 lb. Speck [bacon] 30 
2 lb. Bohnen [beans] 5 

2 lb. Erbsen [peas] 11 
1 lb. Kafifee [coffee] 

12H lb. Mehl [flour] 4 
1 lb. Reis [rice] 
5 lb. Mehl 4 
1 Licht [candle] 

3 lb. Rindfleisch [beef] 9 
ZYi lb. Speck [bacon] 30 



23^ 
14 
4 
5 
5 
3 
4 
4 



1.00 
50.00 



15.78 



16 
07 
56 
20 
10 
10 
06 
12 
44 

22 
60 
10 
22 
40 
50 
18 
20 
06 
27 
1.05 



1870 
Januar 1 

" 1 
Februar 8 



Per Einlage Kapital [cap- 
ital invested] 
" Casse [cash] 
" " f Beitrage 
[cash for contributions] 



[p.]i 

Credit 



250 00 
1 00 



15 00 



Transport $72 48 



Transport $266 00 



[p.] 2 

Debet 





An Transport 




$72 48 


Marz 8 


" 4 lb. Rindfleisch [beef] 


9c 


36 


10 


" 1 lb. Zucker [sugar] 




25 


12 


" 2 lb. Rindfleisch 


11 


22 


14 


" 11 lb. Mehl [flour] 


5M 


58 




" Wi lb. Schultern 






[shoulder] 


18 


27 


16 


" 2H lb. Reis [rice] 


13 


33 




" 1 lb. Rindfleisch 




12 




" 1 lb. Schmalz [lard] 




30 


18 


" 5M lb. Schultern 


18 


99 




" 12HMehl 


5M 


66 




" 2 lb. Kartoffein [potatoes 


]5 


10 




" 2 lb. Rindfleisch 


10 


20 


22 


" 2}4 dito 


12 


30 


23 


" IIM Kornmehl [cornmeal] 5 


57 


24 


" 4 lb. Mehl 




26 




" 1 lb. Schmalz 


30 


25 


" 2 lb. Zucker 


18 


36 


26 


" 1 St. Seife [piece of soap] 


13 




" 1 lb. Linsen [lentils] 




13 


28 


" 4 lb. Salz [salt] 


5 


20 


29 


" 1 lb. Schmalz 




30 




" 101b. Mehl 




65 


30 


" 1 lb. Zucker 


18 




" 1 lb. Kaffee [coffee] 


28 


28 


31 


" 3}^ lb. Schultern 


18 


63 




Transport 


81 15 



1870 



Per Transport 



[p.] 2 

Credit 
$266 00 



Transport $266 00 



^Presented to Prof. James F. Willard by Mr. Nielsen. Transcribed and translated by Dr. Grace 
van Sweringen Baur and Prof. William Baur of the Department of Germanic Languages of the University 
of Colorado. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



[p.] 3 



Debet 

1870 An Transport 
Marz 30 " 1 bl. Arbeits jacke [blue 
working jacket) 
" 1 braune Jacke [brown 
jacket] 

April 1 " 2H lb. Rindfleisch [beef] 10 
" 31b. dito 12 
2 " 2 lb. Ertsen spl. [peas 

split] 9 
" 2 Lichte [candles] 6 
" 11 lb. Mehl [flour] 6}4 
" 1 lb. Caffee [coffee] 
" lb. Aepfel [apples] 15 
" 1 Pnt Syrup [pint of 

syrup] 13 
" 1 lb. Talg [tallow] 
" 1 lb. Zucker [sugar] 

5 " 1 Pnt. Syrup 

" 3 lb. Rindfleisch 10 
" 1 Pnt Essig [pint of vin- 
egar] 

7 " 3 lb. fleisch [meat] 12 

6 " 1 lb. Coffee 
" 1 lb. Zucker 

9 " 1 lb. Zucker 

" 14 lb. Aepfel 15 
" 2 lb. Schultern (shoulder] 18 
" 2 lb. Reis [rice] 14 
" 1 lb. Bohnen [beans] 
11" 1 stuck Seife [piece of soap] 



$81 15 1870 Per Transport 
1 00 

1 50 

25 
36 

18 
12 
72 
28 



Transport $88 



[p.] 4 



Debet 
1870 
April 11 



16 
19 

Fort 
Wallace 
April 19 
20 



An Transport 
" 1 lb. Seife [soap] 
" 2 St. Ofenrohre [stovepipes] 
" 22 lbs. Mehl [flour] 63^ 
" 1 Pnt Essig [vinegar] 
" 1 lb. Zucker [sugar] 
" 2 lbs. Schultern[shoulder] 18 
" 1 lb. Bohnen [beans] 
" 17H lbs. Mehl 
" 1 lb. gr.. Erbsen [green 
peas] 

" 6 onz Aepfel [apples] 
" 1 Pnt Syrup 
" 1 lb. Fleisch [meat] 
" 2H lbs. dito 
" 1 lb. Caffee [coffee] 
" 1 Pnt Syrup 



15 



12 



6 lbs. Crackers 18 
2 lbs. Rindfleisch [beef] 10 
1 Pnt Essig 

1 Lb. Erbsen gr (green 
peas) 

1 lb. Zucker 

1 lb. Reis [rice] 

2 lb. Schultern 

1 lb. Zwiebeln [onions] 
1 lb. Erbsen grune [green 
peas] 



$88 46 
18 
1 00 
1 43 
07 
18 
36 
06 
1 14 

06 
06 
13 
06 
30 
28 
13 

1 08 
10 
07 

06 
18 
14 
36 
07 



1870 Per Transport 



Transport $96 12 



46 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[p.] 5 



Debet 








1870 


An Transport 




96 12 


April 23 


" 1 lb. Reis [rice] 




14 


" H lb. Zucker [sugar] 




09 




" lib. Caffee 




28 




" 9 lb. Mehl [Qour] 




59 




" 1 Pnt Syrup 


13 


25 


11 lb. Mehl 




72 




" IH lb. Schultern 






[shoulder] 


18 


23 


26 


" lib. Soda 




08 




" ^ lb. Staerke [starch] 


12 


06 


28 


" 6 onz Linsen [lentils] 


13 


05 




" 54 lb. Zwiebeln [onions] 


7 


06 




** 6 onz Zucker 


18 


07 


29 


" Blechfach repariert [tin 






drawer repaired] 




ir> 
lU 




" 1 Deckel z Teekessel [lid 






for teakettle] 




25 


30 


" lib. Coffee 




28 




" yi Pnt Syrup 


13 


07 


Mai 1 


" 2 lb. Rindfleisch [beef] 


12 


24 


2 


" IH lb. Salz [salt] 


05 


08 




" H lb. Thee [tea] 




30 




" 1 Bx Matches 




08 




" Sweet Oil 




06 




" 1 Pnt Essig [vinegar] 




07 




" 54 lb. Leber [liver] 


6 


05 


3 


" 2 lb. Rindfleisch 


12 


24 



1870 Per Transport 



[p.] 5 

Credit 
$266 00 



Transport $100 44 



Transport $266 00 



[p.] 6 



[p.] 6 



Debet 
1870 
Mai 



An Transport 
3 "1 paar Pantoffel leder [pair 

leather slippers] 
5 " 1 st Seife [piece of soap] 
7 " 2 lb. Rindfleisch [beef] 8 
" 1 lb. dito 
" 1 lb. Caffee 

" H Pnt Essig [vinegar] 07 
9 " 2 lb. Rindfleisch 10 
" 8 lb. Kornmehl [cornmeal] 6 

10 " VA Rindfleisch 12 
" M lb. Talg [tallow] 10 
" M geh. Fleisch [chopped 

meat] 12 

11 " ^ lb. Thee [tea] 

" H lb. Seife 18 
" 1 Ofenrohr [stovepipe] 
1 Knie [elbow] 
13 " 1 Soda 8 c 13 lb. K Mehl 
(cornmeal] 78 
" 1 lb. Schmalz [lard] 30c 
IH lb. Schultern [should- 
er] 32c 

•' 5 lb. M Mehl [flour] 35c 

1 Haarnetz [hairnet] 15c 
" 1 lb. Caffee 28 1 Sp Garn 

(spool of yarn] 12c 
" 1 Pk Nadeln [pins] 8 1 D 

Knopfe [buttons] 5 
" 1 Dz Knopfe [doz. buttons] 

3c 

15 " 2mb. Rindfleisch 12 
17 " 2 lb. fleisch [meat] 8 
19 " IM lb. Schultern 38c 2 
onz Senf [mustard] 8c 



$100 44 1870 Per Transport 

30 
13 
16 
12 
28 
04 
20 
48 
18 
05 

06 



Credit 
$266 00 



40 



Transport $107 54 



Transport $266 00 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



47 



[p-]7 



[p.] 7 



Debet 



1870 




An Transport 


CI 07 KA 


Mai 


20 


1 lb. ocninalz [lardj oUc 1 








ID. KySLnee zsc 


08 






" 1/ IK 7,,nVar 1 On 11 IK 

y2 ID. ZtUCKer i^c ii id. 








i\. Mem icornmeaij 00 


IS 




21 


XX2 neiscn [meaij i^c 1x2 








IK flfkianK 1 Qn 

ID. neiscn loc 


30 






>^ ID. L/eDer [liverj 


Uo 




12 










1 0/1 


00 


Januar 


" Certificate of Membership 


zou uu 


Mai 


9 


I til xaoaK Ileal t/ODaccoj 








" 2 Hiihner [hens] 


1 fin 




15 


** 1/ IK ^ninnk rwnK rnK^«^«.t^\^ 

y2 10. neiscn gen icnopped 








meat] 


uo 




18 


0 ID. ivorn Mem 0 


QA 






"2 p Schuh bander (shoe- 








strings] 


fid 
ut 






" 1 Yrd Rubber (?blurred] 2c 


02 






" 2 dz Knoepfe [buttons] 2 


04 






" 2 Sp Gam [spools of yarn] 06 


12 






" 1 G Kerosin 


24 






" 14 lb. geh fleisch [chopped 








meat] 


06 




24 


"IH lb. fleisch 8 


16 




25 


" »41b.dito 12 


06 




26 


" 2 lb. fleisch 12 


24 




24 


"2 lb. fleisch 8 


16 






" 1 lb. " 


12 




27 


" 3 lb. Beef 


36 






" 1 lb. Schmalz 


30 






" 1 lb. Caffee 


28 








363 71 



1870 Per Transport 

April 4/9 " 21^ Tage Arbeit [day's 

work] 2 

11/16 "4 Tage Arbeit 2 

18/23 " 6 Tage Arbeit 2 

25/30 " 4 Tage Arbeit 2 

Mai 2/7 " 6 Tage Arbeit 2 

9/14 " 514 Tage Arbeit 2 

16/21 "6 Tage Arbeit 2 



Credit 
$266 00 

5 00 
8 00 

12 00 
8 00 

12 00 

11 00 

12 00 



S334 00 



[p.] 8 



[p.] 8 



Debet 
1870 
Mai 



An Transport 

" H Zucker [sugar] 24 
" 3 Ib.Rindfleisch [beef] 12 
' ' 10 lb. K Mehl [cornmeal] 6 
" H geh fleisch [chopped 
meat] 

8 lb. Weizen Mehl [wheat 

flour] 7 
' 2 lb. Salz [salt] 8 

1 pk Nahnadeln [sewing 
needles] 

2 Ib.Rindfleisch 12 
"IHIb.dito 8 

Juni 2 " 1 Rindfleisch 
" Hlb.dito 

" 6M Q Milch [milk] 5 

3 " 2 lb. Rindfleisch 

" 10 Ounz Schmalz [lard] 
" 1 Ib.Kaffee 

" 1 st [?] Seife [piece of soap] 

4 " 3 lb. Rindfleisch 



30 



31 



"V2 
" 8 
"H 
" 3 
"IH 
" 1 



' Leber [liver] 

" W Mehl [wheat flour] 

' Sago 

' Rindfleisch 



Salz 



$363 71 
12 



60 



5 

369 51 



1870 

Mai 23/28 5 Arbeitstage 
a $2.00 

Mai 30/4 3 Arbeitstage 
a $2.00 



Transport 1334 00 
10 00 

6 00 



$350 00 



48 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[p.] 9 [p.] 9 

[Debet] [Credit! 
1870 1369 51 1870 Transport $350 00 

Jani 10 H lb. Zucker [sugar] 15 Juni6/ll 2^ Arbeitstage 

8 " W. Mehl [wheat flour) 80 a $2.00 5 00 

1 " Rindfleisch [beef] 12 

11 11 " K Mehl [cornmeal] 55 

3 " Rindfleisch 36 

13 10 " W Mehl 1 00 

1 Box Matches 08 
Ounz Sinunet [cinnamon] 04 
Vi lb. Sago 08 
K lb. Bl. Tabak [leaf to- 
bacco] 20 

14 2 lb. Rindfleisch 24 

1 Knocken [bone] 05 

2 Ounz Thee [tea] 16 
1 st Seife [piece of soap] 05 

16 2 lb. Rindfleisch 24 

18 2 " W Mehl 20 

Yi Ounz Indigo 20 

1 P. Kerosin 12 

M lb. Starke [starch] 03 

M " Zucker 08 

1 " Salz [salt] 10 

20 2H lb. fleisch [meat] 30 

21 7 Ounz Bohnen [beans] 05 

22 13^1b. fleisch 12 

$374 83 $355 00 



[p.] 10 



[p.] 10 



[Debet] [Carried Forward] 
Juni 22 iy2 lb. fleisch [meat] 



23 10 

24 2 



Salz [salt] 
K Mehl [cornmeal] 
fleisch 



25 2H 



30 



Salz 

1 Pr Stiefeln [boots] 

2 lb. fleisch 
m " " 

2 " W Mehl [wheat flour) 
1 " K Mehl 
1 " Schmalz [lard] 
1 " Kaffe 

1 Ounz Zimmet [cinnamon] 
iVi lb. fleisch 



$374 83 
18 
05 
50 
24 
8 

30 
05 



7 80 
24 
18 
1 20 
55 
40 
45 
07 
18 
1 95 
$389 25 

Medisin bis zum 30t€n Juni [medicine 
up to June 30] 1 25 

Dr. Bill bis zum 5ten Juli 1 90 

Bleischmidtarbeite bis zum 30 Juni 

[tinsmith work] 1 70 

Schuhmackerarbeite bis zum 30 Juni 
[shoemaker's work) 1 15 



25 30 lb. Kartoffeln [potatoes] 



$395 25 



1870 

Juni 20/25 



4H Arbeitstage 
a $2 00 
27/30 3 Arbeitstage 
a $2 00 



[Credit] 
Transport $355 00 

9 00 

6 00 



$370 00 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



49 



[p.] 11 



[p.] 11 



Juli 



2 3 lb. fleisch [meatl 


36 


5 25 (ft) Lumber 


50 


6 31b. fleisch 


36 


1 Knochen [bone] 


5 


4 lb W Mehl wheat (flourj 


50 


H lb. Kaffe 


2714 


9 1 Pk Bl Tabak [leaf tobaccol 


50 


8 2 lb. fleisch 


24 


9 3 lb. " 


36 


1 " 


8 


12 lb. W Mehl 


1 50 


10 "Korn Mehl [commeall 


50 


2 balz [salt] 


24 


1 "Kaffe 


65 


12 2H lb. [fleischi 


30 


1 Knochen 


5 


1 St Seife [piece of soapl 


5 


15 12 lb. W Mehl 


1 50 


1 lb. Kaffe 


55 


16 1 Box Matches 


10 


1 lb. Seife 


22 


3 lb. Fleisch 


36 


18 1 Pk Bl Tabak 


50 


19 31b. fleisch 
1 " 


36 
8 




10 08 



1870 Transport 
Juli 1/2 1 Arbeitstag 

" 4/9 4 " a S2 00 

" 11/16 6 



(Credit) 
370 00 
2 00 
8 00 
12 00 



392 00 



[p.] 12 



[p.l 12 



[Debet] 

Juli [Carried forward] 10 08 

19 2 Ounz Thee [tea] 27 

I " pfeffer [pepper] 8 

21 2 lb. fleisch [meat] 24 

1 Knochen [bone] 5 
23 23^ lb. fleisch 30 

12 lb. W Mehl [wheat flour] 1 50 

25 lib. Kaffe 65 

2 lb. Fleisch 24 

27 8 lb. Korn Mehl [commeal] 40 
6 lb. W Mehl 75 
1 Pk Bl Tabak [leaf tobacco] 35 

28 2H lb. fleisch 30 
1 " " 8 

30 3 1b. fleisch 36 

1 " Salz [salt] 8 

1 Box Matches 10 

1 lb. Seife [soap] 22 

1 lb. Salz 8 
Amount Carried Forward $16 03 



1870 Transport 
Juli 17/23 6 Arbeitstage 
" 25/30 6Arbeit8tage 



[Credit] 
$392 00 
a $2 00 12 00 
a $2 00 12 00 



$416 00 



50 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[p.] 13 



[Debet] 
Agst 



Amt Bret Forward 16 03 

4H Quarts Milch [milk] 27 

8 lb. Korn Mehl [cornmeal] 40 

1 lb. Kaffe 35 

1 Pk Bl Tabak [leaf tobacco] 35 

3 lb. fleisch [meat] 36 

fur Post Stamps [for postage] 05 

3 lb. fleisch 36 

Vi " Talg [tallow] 05 

XYi lb. W Mehl [wheat flour] 15 

1 lb. Kaffe 35 

2 Ouns Thee [tea] 27 
2 lb. Korn Mehl 10 
3H lb. fleisch 42 
2 " " 16 
1 pint Essig [vinegar] 12 
12 lb. W Mehl 1 50 
10 " Korn " 50 

1 " Salz [salt] 8 

1 Pk Bl Tabak 45 

5 Quart Milch 30 

IVi lb. fleisch 30 

1 " " 8 
H " Talg 5 

2 " fleisch 24 

23 29 



1870 Transport 
Aug 1/6 eArbeitstage 
" 8/13 eArbeitstage 
" 15/27 11 " 6 hours 
29/10 

Sept3 5 " 8 " 
" 5/10 5 " 8 " 



[p.] 13 

[Credit] 
$416 00 
a $2 00 12 00 
a$2 00 12 00 
23 20 

11 60 
11 60 



486 40 



[p.] 14 [p.] 14 

[Debet] [Credit] 
Agst [Amount Carried Forward] $23 29 [Carried Forward] 486 40 

11 11^ lb. Fleisch [meat] 12 

Yi " Leber [liver] 03 

13 2 lb. fleisch 24 
VA lb. " 12 
M " Talg [tallow] 03 
1 lb. Kaffe 35 

1 " Seife [soap] 21 
]4 lb. Starke [starch] 03 

2 Ouns Thee [tea] 26 
1 pint Essig [vinegar] 12 
1 lb. Salz [salt] 07 

1 Box Matches 10 
}4 lb. Zucker [sugar] 07 

14 4 lb. fleisch 48 
12 lb. W Mehl [wheat flour] 1 20 

16 10 " Korn " [cornmeal] 50 

2 Dtz Kncepfe [doz. buttons] 30 
1 Peint Karosin 12 
H lb. Zucker 13 
4 Quart Milch [milk] 24 

17 5 lb. fleisch 60 
1 Peint Sirup 12 

20 3 lb. fleisch 36 

1 " Kaffe 35 

29 44 486 40 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



51 



[p.] 15 



[p.] 15 



(Debet) 




Agst Transport 


29 44 


20 1 Black Tabako [tobacco] 


35 


1 peint Milch [milk] 


03 


22 8 lb. W Mehl [wheat flour] 


80 


8 " Korn " [cornmeal] 


40 


1 " Salz [salt] 


07 


2 Ouns Thee [tea] 


26 


23 3 lb. fleisch [meat] 


36 


1 Knochen [bone] 


05 


H lb. Talg [tallow] 


03 


24 1 peint Essig [vinegar] 


12 


1 Sp Seide [spool of silk] 


06 


25 6 lb. fleisch 


72 


Vi lb. Talg 

\i " Wurste [sausage 


03 


03 


26 2 lb. Bohnen [beans] 


16 


2 Ouns Sweet Oil 


12 


1 Box Back pulver [baking powder] 


25 


27 3 lb. fleisch 


36 


IHlb " 


12 


H lb. Talg 


03 


14 " Leber [liver] 


03 


1 lb. Kaffe 


35 


1 St Seife [piece of soap] 


07 


1 Box Matches 


10 

34 34 



[Credit] 

[Carried Forward] 486 40 



486 40 



[p.] 16 [p.] 16 

(Debet] [Credit] 
Agst Amt Brot Forward 34 34 [Carried Forward] 486 40 

27 2 Ouns Thee [tea] 26 

29 8 lb. Korn Mehl [cornmeal] 40 
6 "W " [wheat flour] 60 

1 Pk Bl Tabak [tobacco] 35 

30 3 lb. fleisch 36 

2 " " 16 
H " Talg [tallow] 03 
H " Leber [liver] 03 

3 lb. fett [fat] 15 

31 1 " Bohnen [beans] 08 
2 Ouns Sweet Oil 12 
1 Nelken pfeffer [cloves] 04 

Spt 1 3 lb. fleisch 36 

1 Knochen [bone] 05 

2 1 lb. Salt 07 

H lb. Starch 03 

1 Pt Vinegar 12 

2 oz Tea 24 
6 lb. Corn Meal 30 

3 lb. Beef (Rost) 36 

1 Steak 12 

2 Soup Meat 16 
}4 Liver 03 

H Tallow 03 



38 79 486 40 



52 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[p.] 17 [p.] 17 

[Debet] (Credit) 
Spt Forward $38 79 [Carried forward) 486 40 

5 2H Quart Milch [milk) 14 
8 lb. Korn Mehl [cornmeal) 40 

6 4 lb. fleisch [meat] 48 
1 " " 12 
1 " " 08 
1 " Talg [tallow ) 07 
1 lb. W. Mehl [wheat flour) 10 

7 12 lb. Kartoffeln [potatoes) 36 

8 3H lb. fleisch 42 
H lb. Talg 03 

1 Knochen [bone) 05 
H lb. pulfer [powder) 

2 Ib.Bouck Schcoot [buckshot] Se Page 20 

lb. fleisch 06 

1 Licht [candle] 05 
Amt Brot forward from June 30, 70 395 25 

9 1 Ouns pfefFer (pepper] 06 

2 " Thee [tea] 24 
1 " [lb.] Salz [salt] 07 
1 peint Essig [vinegar] 12 

10 4 lb. fleisch 48 

3 " " 24 
V2 " Tall? 03 

1 " Korn Mehl 05 



$437 69 486 40 



[p.] 18 



[Debet] 

Spt Transport 

10 12 lb. Wz Mehl [wheat flour] 
6 " Kartoffeln [potatoes] 

11 1 PkBl Tabak [tobacco) 
1 Box Matsches 

12 6 lb. Kartoffeln 

4,H Quart Milch [milk] 

13 2 lb. fleisch 
IHlb. " 

14 4 " 

1 " Kaffe [coffee) 

1 Ochsen Zunge [ox tongue] 

15 6 lb. W Mehl 
IH lb. fleiscn 

16 1 " " 

4 lb. Kartoffeln 

17 3 " fleisch 
1 " " 

H" Talg [taUowl 
6 lb. W Mehl 

1 " Salz [salt] 

2 Ouns Thee [tea] 
}4 lb. Starke [starch] 

18 2 " Speiks [spikes) 

19 2}i fleisch 



$437 69 
1 20 
18 
35 
10 
18 
27 
24 
12 
48 
35 
45 
60 
18 
12 
12 
36 
08 
03 
60 
07 
24 
03 
25 
30 

$444 55 



[p.] 18 

[Credit] 



Total Credits to Sept 12th 70 486 40 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



[p.] 19 



[Debet] 

Spt Transport $444 55 

19 13 lb. W Mehl [wheat flour] 1 30 
6 " " " 60 
9 " Kartoffeln [potatoes] 27 
1 Pk BI Tabak (leaf tobacco] 35 

20 3 lb. Biff [beef] 36 
IVi lb S fleisch [pork] 12 
Yi lb. T.lg [tallow] 03 
Haar Karam [hair comb] 25 
1 Ouns Simmet [cinnamon] 07 
1 lb. Kaffe [coffee] 35 

21 3 Quart Milch [milk] 18 

22 3 lb. fleisch [meat] 36 
1 " " 08 

1 paar Sturmpfe (pair of socks] 10 
24 4H lb. fieisch 54 

" •' 12 

H " Leber fliver] 03 

15 lb. Kartoffen 45 

2 Ouns Thee [tea] 26 
1 lb. Salz [salt] 07 

20 6 lb. Kartoffeln 18 

1 Box Matches 10 

1 Pk Bl Tabak 36 

2H Quart Milch 15 
$451 22 



[p.] 20 



[Debet] 

Spt Transport $451 22 

27 4 lb. fleiscb 48 
mih. " 12 
H " Talg (tallow) 03 
2 Ouns Lichdochte [lamp wicks] 08 
1 lb. Kaffe [coffee) 35 

28 10 "Kartoffeln (potatoes) 30 
1 Aks mit handel 

29 4 lb. Fleisch 48 
10 lb. Kartoffeln 30 
6 " W Mehl (wheat flour] 60 

1 Pk Bl Tabak (leaf tobacco] 35 

30 H lb. Starke (starch) 03 

2 Ouns Thee [tea] 28 

1 lb. Salz (salt) 07 
15 lb. Kartoffeln 45 
H lb. Pulfer [powder] 25 

2 lb. Bock Schot Se Page 17 15 

$455 54 



54 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[p.] 21 



(Debet] 

Ockt Transport $455 54 

1 Slb.fleisch [meat] 36 

1 " " 08 

1 " Talg (tallow] 05 

1 Knochen [bone] 05 

3 IH Ouns Lichtdochte [lamp wicks] 06 
1 Ouns Nelken pfeffer [cloves (ground)] 04 
1 " " saft [extract of cloves] 05 
1 " pfeffer [pepper] 06 

1 " Simmt [cinnamon] 07 

2 " Sweet Oil 12 

4 4H lb. fleiscb 54 

3 Quart Milch 18 

5 10 lb. Kartoffeln 30 
6 " Schoot [shot] 30 

1 " Kaffe [coffee] 35 

6 6 lb. W Mehl [wheat flour] 30 

" Salz [salt] 07 

2 Ouns Thee [tea] 28 
2 Spul Seide [spools of silk] 12 

4 lb. fleisch 48 

7 1 lb .Zwitschen [prunes] 30 

" Zucker [sugar] 25 

1 " Apfeln [apples] 25 

1 peint Essig (vinegar] 12 
$460 32 



[p.] 22 



[Debet] 

Ockt Transport $460 32 

7 1 peint Sirup ^ 20 
1 paar frauen Strumpfe [woman's 

stockings] 20 
1 paar Kinder Strumpfe [child's stockings]10 

101b.Kartoffeln(potatoes] 30 

10 5 " " 16 
8 " W Mehl (wheat flour] 40 
Y2 " Zucker [sugar] 13 
1 Quart Milch [milk] 06 
Yi lb. Talg [tallow) 03 

11 5H lb. fleisch [meat] 66 

"Talg 03 

15 lb. Kartoffeln 45 

4 " W Mehl 24 

13 4 " fleisch 48 
1 Kncchen [bone] 10 
1 paar Lachritz stange [two sticks of 

liquorice] 03 

14 15 lb. Kartoffeln 45 
1 Scleps [neck-tie] 25 

15 4 lb. fleisch 48 
1 " " 08 
Yi " Talg 03 

5 " W Mehl 25 
1 " Talg 07 

1 Ouns Simmt [cinnamon] 07 

2 " Sweet Oil 12 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



[p.] 23 



[Debetl 
Ockt 

15 H lb. Starke [starch] 03 

17 10 lb. Kartofifeln [potatoesl 30 

18 2 " fleisch [meat] 24 

20 8 " W Mehl [wheat flour] 40 

21 5 " fleisch 60 
2 " " 16 
8 " WMehl 40 

22 1 lb. Salz [salt] 07 
K lb. Starke 03 
1 Ouns Simraet [cinnamon] 07 
1 " pfeffer [pepper] 06 

24 3H lb. fleisch 42 
1 •* " 08 
1 " " 12 
H " Leber [liver] 03 
8 lb. Mehl 40 

25 2 " fleisch 24 
1 Knochen [bone] 05 

26 12 lb. Kartoflen 36 
1 " Kraut [cabbage] 05 
1 " Zwiebeln [onions] 06 
1 Oz Zimmet [cinnamon] 7 
1 " pfefer 6 
1 lb. Salz [salt] 7 



[p.] 24 



[Debet] 

Oct 26 1 Par Hosen [trousers] 80 

28 10 lb. Kartoflen [potatoes] 30 
10 " Mehl [flour] 50 
H lb. Starke [starch] 12 

29 41b. fleisch 48 

1 " Talg [tallow] 06 

10 " Kartoflen 30 



Payd out 

1870 

Nov. 10 2 Links Stove Pipe $1 50 

" " 1 Pair Sash 10x14 2 25 

" " 12 Light Glas 3 — 

" 15 2 Wash Tops [tubs] 1-3.50. 1-2.00 5 50 

" 20 1 Broom 90 

" " 1 Basket 75 

" " 1 Bedstead 8 00 

- "3 Wood Chairs 5 50 

- " 1 Key 50 
6 Transport from Colfax to Pueblo 24 — 
4 In Bargain for my Gun p. 2 — 

Dec. 8 1 Coat& Pans 14 50 

15 Dry Goods 4 30 



EXCERPTS FROM NEWSPAPERS 
AND BOOKS 



[Wet Mountain Valley Before Arrival of German Colony.] 
^Capt. E. P. Home, who came in from the south this morning 
gives us some news from the new settlement in Wet Mountain 
Valley. Crops are doing well; wild fruits are abundant, and the 
fishing and hunting excellent. Seven houses are going up, and 
about one half the valley is claimed. A fire destroyed one of their 
camps with all its contents, including tools, a lot of sash and 
other building fixtures, to replace which the captain is now here. 



[Organization of the German Colonization Society.] 
^^eume GoIontiQtion§=@efer{fc[]Qft. ^ine ©efeEfdiaft l)Qt fid) 
in urtjerer ^taht fiirglid) gebilbd, bercn S^ed tote tviv prcn, (JoIo= 
iiiiiation auf 9icgierungc^=Sdnbereien im iiiblid)en dolorabo ift. 2)iefe 
STifociation tctrb nur qu§ 50 9J^itgIiebern be]iel)en, Wel^e je $250 
cinaaljlen, unb foE bie dolonie mit ^iilfe be§ ]o gejammelten da.pitalS 
noil $12,500 etabliert roerben. ^a§> gegenfeitigc ^erf)dltnii3 bcr Wlitr- 
glieber joIC auf 6 Safire in 5rrt unb SBeije einer faufmannifdjen 
©efeUfdjaft geljalten toerb-cn. So [inb 23 SDhtgliebcr t)orI)Qnben, eine 
donftitution i[t angenommen unb bie erften ©ingalilungcn bereit§ 
gemodit. S)ie @efettfd)aft l^at il)r ©efdidftSIofoI in ,3itnmcr 92o. 9, 
Uf)Iid)^ 33Io(f, unb l^dlt i^re rcgehndBigen (Si^ungen ieben S)i.en5tag 
unb Sonnabenb %henb um 8 ltf)r ah, trofelbft 2)?itglteber aufgenom= 
men merben fonnen. S)ie dolonie tcirb, nadjbem fie il)r Sanb bereit§ 
biefen ^erbft loctrt unb fid) ben ^itel gu bcnffelben t)erfd)Qfft l^at, 
Qnfang§ be§ ndd)ften Wdr^ C£f)icago Derlaffen unb ber neuen §eimat 
3ufteuern. toerben nur ^anbmerfer, Sanbtoirte unb $rofeffioniften 
als a)titglieber aufgenommen, toeld)^ ben Setrag con $250 im ©tanbe 
ftnb 3u aal^Icn. ^te @efeEfd)Qft miinf d)t einen gut gebilbeten beut]d)cn 
%poi^efev auf3une()men unb fud)t jet^t befonberg nod> ©attler, ©d)rei= 
ner, SP'^aurer, garmer, ©drtner, S^nnarbeiter, Sd)miebe unb Tla^ 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, August 7, 1869, p. 4. 
'^Illinois Stoats Zeitung, August 24, 1869, p. 8. 

57 



58 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



fd)tntften. 2)ie (Sadje fte^)t unter Settung eineg B^reits erlrafjlten 
3Sor]tQnbe§ unb ^^ertcoltun gsr ate^, unb t)erf|)nd)t in jeber SBetfc etn 
crforgreid)e§ Unternef)men su toerben. @§ ift unbebingt ber ein^ige 
^Iq^ fi'ir 2Gutfd)e, Jreld)e nur befdirdnfte 2}HtteI Beli^en, um inner^)a^b 
jed^§ SqI^i'cu 5u ciner unobi^dngigen ©teEung mit fdiulberfreier 
^eimat im fi^bnftcn, gefunbeften Canbe be§ amertfanifdjen dontt- 
nentG» gelongen. 

GERMAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. ^ 
A society has lately been established in our city whose object, 
as we hear, is colonization on government land in Southern Colo- 
rado. This association will consist of only 50 members, each of 
whom will pay $250, and the colony is to be established with the 
help of the capital of S12,500 thus collected. The obligation of the 
members, on the other hand, is to be bound for six years in the 
manner of a mercantile company. There are 23 members at 
present, a constitution has been adopted and the first payments 
already made. The society has its office in Room No. 9, Uhlich's 
Block, and holds regular meetings every Tuesday and Saturday 
evening at eight o'clock, where members can be received. The 
colony, after it has located its land this fall and secured 
title, will leave Chicago next March and go to the new home. 
Only mechanics, farmers, and handicraftsmen, who are in position 
to pay the sum of $250, will be received as members. The society 
wishes to receive a good accomplished apothecary and now seeks 
especially sadlers, joiners, masons, farmers, gardners, tinsmiths, 
smiths and machinists. The enterprise is under the direction of a 
Board of Directors already chosen, and promises in every way to 
become a successful undertaking. It is certainly the only under- 
taking by which Germans who possess only limited means can 
within six years attain an independent position with an unencum- 
bered home in the most beautiful land found on the American 
continent. 

[Carl Wulsten's Visit to Colorado, 1869.] 
^Scarcely a day passes without additional evidence of an in- 
creasing emigration. Mr. Carl Wulsten, who is now visiting 

lA free translation of the preceding item. 
^Colorado Chiefiain, November 25, 1869, p. 3. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



59 



Southern Colorado in the interest of a German Emigration So- 
ciety, pronounces himself well pleased with the country. Next 
spring, he, in company with about fifty families, will locate in 
Pueblo county, or in one of the counties adjoining. They propose 
to till the soil, raise cattle, and to establish a woolen factory and 
a saw mill. We bid them thrice welcome. A class of emigrants 
so industrious, economical and thrifty, cannot fail to be of in- 
calculable benefit to the Territory. 

[Early News of the German Colony.] 
From Canon City^ 

Canon City, January 20, 1870 

Eds. News: — 

******************** 

From a letter received by a gentleman of this place, of a 
recent date, I learn that a gentleman by the name of Theodore 
Wolsten, of Chicago, is organizing a colony of over one hundred 
German families, to emigrate in February to Wet Mountain valley 
in this county. They will bring their own stock, mechanics' 
tools, machinery for manufacturing purposes, farming implements, 
etc., for the purpose of combining under the co-operative system, 
the farm and village, with church, schoolhouse, printing office, 
and the manufacture of their wearing apparel, educating their 
children, and publishing a home German newspaper. We are 
happy to see them coming ; they will be an important binding stone 
in the future great triumphal arch of Colorado. A population 
that comes to us with the one ostensible object of improving the 
country for its own benefit, is the kind we want here. 

[Five paragraphs omitted.] 



[Colony News.] 
IMMIGRATION.^ 
When in Denver we were shown letters received by Governor 
McCook which show that a very large immigration to this country 
may be expected. One was from a Colonel Wulsten, of Chicago, 
in which the writer states that he has already enrolled between 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, January 24, 1870, p. 2. 
• Waily Central City Register, January 28, 1870, p. 1. 



60 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



two and three hundred men in his colony. He organizes them as 
mihtia companies, with the pledge that their officers shall be com- 
missioned as such on their arrival. The Colonel proposes to in- 
crease their number to five hundred, not counting women and 
children. This colony is expected to locate in Wet Mountain 
valley southwest of Canon City. They will come with farming 
implements, &c., ready to commence hfe in real earnest. Another 
colony is also forming in St. Louis, but no place is mentioned as 
having been chosen for settlement. Mr. Meeker's colony, par- 
tially formed, numbers over three hundred and is negotiating for 
from eight to ten thousand acres of irrigable land at the junction 
of the Arkansas and Huerfano rivers, on Craig's grant. They 
come also with wagons and other farming implements, and pro- 
pose to be here in time to put in their spring crops. This colony 
to permit the sale of no liquors v^dthin its limits, and is to be 
every way a moral one. Parties from San Francisco are also mak- 
ing inquiries about this region, many of them wishing to engage 
in mining. Letters have also been received from private indi- 
viduals written from Texas, Maine, and every other State, making 
inquiries of all sorts concerning the country, and what opening it 
presents to one wishing to come here. Everything goes to show 
that we may reasonably expect a very large immigration of the 
very best class of people. We have millions of acres of arable 
land, and hundreds of thousands of mines which lie unoccupied, 
and invite them to come. Lands on the large Spanish grants of 
Southern Colorado are offered at less than Government rates, 
and will be likely to attract a very large share of these new comers, 
but the whole Territory will receive new life and activity from 
them. 



[Memorial of German Colony Presented to Congress.] 
1 Among the proceedings of Congress we note. . . . Mr. 
Pomeroy presented a memorial elaborately drawn and number- 
ously signed by adopted citizens of the United States representing 
a colonization of Germans. They set forth that the opening of 
railroads to the mountains of the United States has brought to 
view desirable tracts of land upon which they would be glad to 



^Daily Colorado Tribune, January 28, 1S70, p. 1. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



61 



settle; but that the lands are unsurveyed and they are not able 
to settle under the pre-emption and homestead laws of the United 
States, because until the lands are surveyed they are not in the 
land offices so that they can file and make their locations. They 
also set forth that even though homestead settlers get the lands at 
a mere nominal price, still the expenses incident to that settle- 
ment are beyond the reach of ordinary poor men at such a remote 
distance from the eastern cities. This company is called "The 
German Company of Colfax," and they propose to settle in Fre- 
mont county, Colorado. They wish 40,000 acres of land to be 
set apart for their use. Their memorial was referred to the com- 
mittee on public lands. 



[The Chieftain Opposed to Special Favors.] 

^A German colony, proposing to settle in Colorado, have ap- 
plied to Congress for a grant of the public land, for the reason 
that they propose to settle on a portion of the public domain not 
yet surveyed, and therefore cannot pre-empt or homestead their 
land for an indefinite length of time. We think they should take 
their chances, as the rest of us do. 



[Departure of German Colony from Chicago; 
Its Organization.] 

^A colony, consisting of 80 families and about 400 individuals, 
left this city yesterday afternoon in a special train, consisting of 
12 cars, for Colorado. The colony consisted of well-to-do people, 
composed of Germans and Americans, who go to Colorado to en- 
gage in farming. They go under the superintendence of Carl 
Wortzell, who has selected and purchased the lands. A special 
train on the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis railroad was chartered 
to take the party to their destination. The colony was composed 
largely of children, and all, both old and young, were in the best 
of spirits. Large numbers of the friends of the colonists assembled 
at the depot to see them off. 

^Colorado Chieftain, February 3, 1870, p. 3. 
^Chicago Times, February 8, 1870. 



62 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



WESTWARD HO!i 

Departure of Two Hundred and Fifty Chicagoans for Homes in 

Colorado 
The Pioneers of Civilization 
A notable event in the history of Chicago transpired yester- 
day. It was the departure of a colony of Chicago citizens for a 
home in the Western wilds — the first of the kind which ever left 
this city, and, it is beheved the first ever organized in America. 
It is called the 'German Colonization Society, of Colfax, Colorado,' 
the latter township being the destination of the colony. Ever 
since the mineral resources of the Territories were discovered, 
there has existed a serious drawback to their development in the 
fact that the march of agriculture had not kept pace with the 
feverish rush of the seekers after the hidden treasures of the earth. 
As a consequence, in many remote regions, where, under 
ordinary circumstances, mining could be profitably pursued, the 
cost of living, owing to the long distance over which subsistence 
must be transported, is so great as to have compelled the aban- 
donment of the mines. Agricultural advantages of the most 
favorable character were not lacking, but the farmer did not come, 
and the miner must wait for him. It was in view of this state 
of things that, in August last, Carl Wulsten, a citizen of Chicago, 
conceived the plan of organizing in this city, a society of farmers, 
mechanics, and laborers, who, with their wives and families, 
should select some favorable location in the great undeveloped 
West, and there enter upon the work of tilling the soil, the erection 
of a village, and, mayhap, the formation of a metropolis. Wulsten 
laid his plans before Mr. C. N. Pratt, of this city, General Agent 
of the National Land Company, whose extensive knowledge of 
the Territories enabled him to afford valuable assistance to the 
project. On the 18th of November last a locating committee left 
Chicago, for the purpose of selecting a site for the occupancy of 
the proposed colony, and, after some time passed in visiting and 
examining various localities, the choice fell upon Wet Mountain 
Park, Fremont Coimty, near the head waters of the Arkansas 
River in Southwestern Colorado. The district is described as one 

^Chicago Tribune, February 9, 1870. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



63 



of surpassing excellence, and admirably adapted to agriculture. 
The soil is rich, prairie and timber lands abound, numerous streams 
supply irrigation and power for manufacturing purposes, and the 
climate is mild, salubrious, and wonderfully healthy. 

On the return of the Locating Committee, the society, num- 
bering forty members, was organized by the election of the follow- 
ing officers: 

President — Carl Wulsten 

Secretary — Albert Philip 

Treasurer — T. Merten 
Soon after this Wulsten proceeded to Washington, where, pro- 
vided with letters to influential parties, and by the aid of Vice 
President Colfax, who manifested great interest in the scheme, 
he succeeded in obtaining from the Secretary of War an order to 
the commanders of Forts Wallace and Lyon, and other military 
posts along the route, to furnish an adequate escort of soldiers 
from the point of leaving the railway until the destination was 
reached; ambulances to convey the women and children, tents in 
which the colony might live until houses could be erected, and 
to give the party every possible aid and assistance. A bill was 
also introduced granting 40,000 acres of land to the society, and 
referred to the Committee on Public Lands, who have recently 
reported unanimously in favor of its passage. On the return of 
the President to Chicago, he at once set about pushing forward 
preparations for the departure of the colony, which had, at last, 
been increased to 80 adult male members. According to the plan 
of the organization, each member pays $250, which constitutes a 
common fund for the benefit of the colony, and out of which are 
defrayed all expenses, including transportation and subsistence on 
the way, live stock, seed, agricultural implements, machinery for 
saw mill, grist mill, etc. All the branches of industry and enter- 
prise are to be conducted on the co-operative plan for five years, 
at the expiration of which time an equal subdivision of lands, im- 
provements, assets, etc, will be made. In the President is mainly 
vested the entire executive power, and upon him will devolve the 
management of affairs, the division of labor, the direction of im- 
provements, the maintenance of law and order, and the general 
supervision and control of matters. Colfax is situated 250 miles 



64 EXPERIP/IENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



from Fort Wallace, on the Kansas Pacific Railroad, seventy miles 
from Puebia and thirty miles from Canon City, the latter a village 
of five or six hundred souls, being the nearest settlement. A de- 
tachment of United States troops will furnish protection for the 
present against molestation from Indians; but it is designed soon 
to form a militia company among the colonists, to whom the Gov- 
ernor of the Territory will issue arms and ammunition. 

All necessary preparations having been completed, yesterday 
afternoon was fixed for the time of departure of the colony, which 
numbered about two hundred and fifty persons, men, women, and 
children. All these were German residents of Chicago, some of 
them having lived here for ten or fifteen years, and an immense 
throng of relatives, friends, and acquaintances gathered at the 
depot of the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis Railroad, to bid them 
farewell and God Speed. A special train had been allotted to the 
pioneers, who, early in the afternoon, took possession of the cars 
and installed themselves for the long journey before them. They 
were a splendid-looking set of people — middle-aged, sober men 
and matrons, with their numerous families; muscular, athletic 
young fellows, with rifles strapped across their backs; and there, 
too a spice of romance in the otherwise intensely practical party — 
twenty fair-haired, clear-skinned German girls, all young and 
good looking, and all capable, seemingly, of taking good care of 
themselves, and making excellent wives for those same gallant 
rifle bearers. As a matter of course there was a clergyman among 
the colonists; also a doctor and a schoolmaster, but, it should be 
observed, no lawyer. These people mean to live in peace and 
harmony with each other, it would appear. 

Upon either side of the baggage car of the train was a huge 
placard bearing these words : 

''Westward the Star of Empire takes its course — German 
Colonization Society of Colfax, Fremont County, Colorado Terri- 
tory, — organized at Chicago, August 24, 1869 — Carl W^ulsten, 
President; Albert Phillip, Secretary; T. Merten, Treasurer — under 
the auspices of the National Land Company!" 

A special freight train had also been provided. In the various 
box cars were snugly installed horses, cows, pigs, sheep, goats, 
chickens, geese, turkeys, etc; large numbers of lumber wagons, 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



65 



farming implements, washing machines, household utensils, ma- 
chinery for the saw and grist mills, planing machines, and a large 
supply of groceries, staple dry goods, etc. 

At about half-past 4 o'clock, after the fervent good-byes had 
been spoken, the passenger train moved up the track to the freight 
depot, where it halted for a short time, and a photograph of the 
scene was taken by Shaw. This done, and everything being in 
readiness, the train moved on amid the hearty cheers of the as- 
sembled multitude, and the little band of Chicago colonists were 
on their way to their new homes in the Great West. 

The route to be taken by the colony leads to St. Louis, 
where they will be received and escorted through the city by a 
German society, headed by a band of music ; thence to Kansas City; 
thence on the Kansas Pacific Railroad to Fort Wallace, where a 
full supply of ox-teams will be in readiness to haul the loaded 
wagons the remainder of the distance. At Fort W^allace they will 
take the wagon road to Fort Lyon, with a military escort, and from 
thence, touching Puebla and Canon City, wdll pass through the 
mountains to Colfax, the point of destination. It is expected that 
the journey, barring delays, will be accomplished in fifteen days. 
The colony will doubtless receive large additions from Chicago 
and elsewhere within the next few months, as many were prevented 
from joining the main party through inability to raise the necessary 
amount of money. In order that parties desirous of connecting 
themselves with the Colfax colony may be afforded every facility 
in the way of information, cheap and safe transportation, etc, the 
society has constituted C. N. Pratt, of No. Ill Dearborn Street, 
its General Agent. 



[German Colony on Way to Colorado.] 
By telegraph from St. Louis :^ 

The advance of a German colonization society, bound for 
Colorado, and numbering one hundred and seventy-five persons, 
well equipped with articles to establish and maintain a colony 
reached here today, en route to their destination. Wet Mountain 
Valley. 

^Daily Central City Register. February 11, 1870, p. 1. 



66 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



THE COLFAX COLONY. ^ 
Tuesday we gave an account of the German colony of emi- 
grants now on their way to their homes in CoKax, Fremont county. 
In addition we learn from the Missouri Democrat that they have 
among them a physician, a clergjTnan, several printers, a number 
of carpenters, besides mechanics, blacksmiths, and other crafts- 
men. They have also two car loads of blooded stock, a saw mill, 
a planing mill, a grist mill, and a full assortment of other agricul- 
tural implements. The President of the colony, Carl Wulstan, is a 
Prussian refugee of considerable celebrity, who fought in the Union 
army against the rebelhon, has been a prominent political speaker 
in Indiana, and an editor of the Staats Zeitung, Chicago. He is 
also a high official, ''Grand Lecturer," of the order of Turners of 
the North and Southwest. 



[Criticisms of German Colonists by The Chieftain.] 
^In common with all who have invited and urged immigration 
hither, we heartily rejoice that the tide is now turning in this 
direction, and we are particular!}^ glad to see that a respectable 
colony of Germans are soon to arrive here, as the van of the immi- 
gration for the new year of 1870. But in reading the newspaper 
notices of this colony, of which Mr. Wulsten seems to be the leader, 
it has occurred to us that a little needless amount of parade has 
been made over them in some particulars, unless this programme 
can be kept up as to all other similar companies of settlers who 
are to come among us. Here is what a Chicago paper says: 
^"A colony of 250 Germans. ..." 

In addition to the foregoing, a Denver paper says that Gov. 
McCook has sent two cases of the arms belonging to the Territory 
to meet these immigrants at the railroad with which they can pro- 
tect themselves on the way. 

Now, it will be borne in mind that the old citizens of Colorado ; 
we who have lived here for ten and twelve years; before the days of 
railroads; when the population was sparse, and surrounded with 
hostile Indians, who were slaughtering on every road and in every 



Waily Colorado Tribune, February 16, 1870, p. 1. 
-Colorado Chieftain, February 24, 1870, p. 1. 

sThe section omitted contains nothing of importance not found in Chicago Tribune of February 9, 1870. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



67 



settlement, found it extremely difficult to prevail upon the author- 
ities to furnish arms for the protection of our homes, much less 
furnishing us military escorts and ambulances in making our jour- 
neys and settlements. Weeks and months of Indian wars used to 
pass before we could get the ear of the Government to believe that 
such things existed at all. We were in great luck, if after fighting 
the savages a year, **two cases of arms" were sent out for the use 
of the whole Territory, to save our lives in getting a foot-hold and 
making the Territory what it is to-day. But now, when a party of 
emigrants propose to ride on a railroad across the Plains, into the 
settlements of the Territory, and travel thence to their destina- 
tion through a thickly settled country, over a road filled with 
freight teams, and a daily line of coaches running over it, past two 
military posts; a region of country, in short, through which there 
is now no more danger in travelhng than these emigrants would 
encounter between New York city and Boston, a man goes to 
Washington and proposes to come out here and make a settlement, 
and call it after the name of the Vice-President of the United 
States, he is rewarded with immediate smiles, the ear of the Gov- 
ernment is bent listening, and the great Secretary of War is made 
to come down, and he forthwith sends orders to military posts all 
along the line to furnish escorts of troops, arms and rations, to 
cover the march of these Teutons along through the peaceful corn- 
fields of Pueblo and Fremont counties. They leave Chicago well 
armed, say the papers, ''with rifles and accoutrements." After 
they step from the railroad platform into the thriving settlements 
of Colorado, they receive from our considerate Governor ''two 
cases" more. With this preliminary preparation for defence 
against the hostile attacks of jack rabbits and prairie dogs, the 
Teutonic Knights of modern chivalry are enclosed within a hollow 
square of the armed troops of two mihtary Posts, and the word is 
given to advance upon the towns and settlements of Southern 
Colorado ! We do hope they will not suffer for the want of arms. 

But more. These immigrants, who it seems are required to 
have at least $250 dollars apiece before setting out, are not to be 
left as we were, who fought our way as pioneers across the Plains, 
most of us with "nary red," and have fought for our homes here 
ever since, until we have conquered a peace and left no danger for 



68 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



those who follow us. While we had to get our land the best wa}^ 
we could, and in finally securing our title, are held to strict con- 
formity with the general land laws of the United States, these 
favored children of the old country are to be presented on their 
arrival with a grant of 40,000 acres of our best land. Eighty men 
in the ^'colony," and 40,000 acres, gives 500 acres of land to each 
of these pioneers, with a congressional title to the tract. We shall 
always think these naturalized citizens are ungrateful wretches, 
unless they unite in declaring this to be ''the best government 
the sun ever shone upon!" 

There is one other feature in this ''outfit" that strikes us as 
noticeable. The account we have quoted says that the President 
of this Society, Carl Wulsten, "is invested with power to maintain 
law and order in the Colony." Indeed; and who invests Mr. W. 
with this extraordinary one-man power? And then suppose Carl 
himself should become a little baulky, now and then, who is to 
"maintain law and order" in his individual corporsity? Or are 
we to have a German principality, on a small scale, set up in Fre- 
mont county, where "law and order" is to be administered by 
Carl the First, and that, too, under the very walls of our new 
Penitentiary? Or is this to avoid having the "Revised Statutes 
of Colorado" translated into the German language? Our Spanish 
citizens, who clamored so fruitlessly for a translation during the 
recent session of the Legislature, may perhaps learn a lesson in 
self-government, without the aid of Spanish Statutes. 

In striking contrast with all this fuss and feathers mode of 
coming to Colorado to live, there is a movement in New York to 
induce emigration to this Territory, which is described by Mr. 
Byers, of the Denver News, who is now in the East, and who, in 
a recent letter to his paper, thus writes : "I hear of colonies great and 
small, forming in all parts of the Eastern and Northern States, and 
in Europe, and by far the greater majority are looking to Colorado. 
True, some of them may be diverted to other points, but thou- 
sands will settle in our Territory the coming summer. The follow- 
ing circular is a specimen. It fell into my hands this evening, 
and, I am informed, was suggested by inquiries here and elsewhere, 
all through the Eastern States, "How can we get to the West, 
where there are cheap homes and plenty of work?" Special rates 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



69 



are now being arranged by the railway companies, and the pro- 
jectors hope to save, by moving in large bodies, more than half the 
ordinary cost of transportation. But here is the circular: 

" ^Attention, Emigrants] — A company is now forming to go 
to Colorado Territory, whose only object in banding together in 
New York is to secure the lowest possible rate of fare. As there 
will be no officers, there will be no one to reap benefits. As each 
man will be his own treasurer, his funds will be in safe hands. 
We have no connection with land-speculating companies; have not 
sent committees out to locate land; have no bills to pay for pre- 
liminary expenses; and when we arrive in Denver each man is his 
own free agent to go wherever he wishes to, or to form his com- 
panies there. What is wanted is as many respectable families as 
can be got, whose only object is to get to a new countrj^ where 
they can better their condition. The only idea in all going to- 
gether is in order that the railroad fare will be reduced so as to 
bring it within reach of those whose m.eans are limited. 

" 'AW parties who desire to go in a company of this kind, can 
leave their nam^es at the Inventor's Institute, 15 Center street. 
As soon as sufficient number of names have been procured to make 
a respectable sized partj^, a time for going will be decided upon.' " 

When it is remembered that this German Colony comes out 
under the auspices of the ''National Land Company," who are 
about to secure from Congress a donation of 40,000 acres of some 
of the best land in Colorado; that each emigrant pays $250 into 
the hands of a "Treasurer" to settle ''preliminary expenses," and 
that when the}^ arrive here the whole Colony is to be under the 
sole control and government of the "President," who is to ad- 
minister "law and order," after the mxodel of our military depart- 
ments ; w^e sa3^, when all this is remembered, the keen satire of the 
circular sent from New York by Mr. Byers is apparent, wherein 
it takes off this "Colfax Colony" in this ironical and yet sensible 
language: "As there will be no officers, there will be no one to 
reap benefits. As each man will be his own treasurer, his funds 
will be in safe hands. We have no connection with land-speculat- 
ing companies; have no bills to pay for preliminary expenses, and 
when we arrive in Denver, each man is his ovm free agent to go 
wherever he wishes." As we said at the outset of this article, 



70 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

we gladly welcome all who come, and particularly this company 
of industrious Germans who are to settle in Fremont county. 
The Chieftain has labored since its establishment more to induce 
immigration than in any other particular, and we can now well 
afford to congratulate ourselves upon the dawning of our success 
in directing attention to this portion of our Territory, despite the 
adverse influences which for years have been exercised through 
the Denver newspapers; but we must say that, as to the manner 
of coming out here, there is a sensible, practical, fair and modest 
way, and then there is another mode that smacks just a little as 
though the leaders of the enterprise were laboring to create the 
impression that they were coming out to penetrate a howling 
wilderness, filled with hostile savages and wild beasts, requiring 
the United States Army, under orders of the Secretary of War, to 
escort them; that no one had ever dared explore these wilds before, 
since the adventures of Fremont, and that these modern heroes, 
on their arrival by railway amid our towns, villages and farms, 
should have the country donated to them as a small compensation 
for their perilous discovery. 



[German Colonists Pass Through Kansas City.] 

^Last night, at 8 o'clock, a German Colony, consisting of about 
200 members, under the leadership of Mr. Carl Walston, President 
of the Colorado Colonization Society, passed this city on their way 
to Colfax and Tremont counties, Colorado. They occupied five 
coaches and ten freight cars, laden with stock, household goods 
and two mills — one a saw mill and the other a grist mill. 

It will be remembered by the readers of the News that 130 
families of Swedes, from Galesburg, Illinois, passed Kansas City 
on the 9th inst., en route to Saline county, Kansas, where they have 
already purchased land. Both colonies are formed under the aus- 
pices of the National Land Company, and were cordially received 
by its agents at this point, Messrs. PHny Moore and Chas. Oberg. — 
Kansas City Evening News, Feb. 11th. 

Will the News allow us to correct its Colorado topography a 
little? There is no Colfax county, nor Tremont county, in Colo- 



^Colorado Chieftain, February 24, 1870, p. 2. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



71 



rado. ''Colfax" is the name this colony proposes to give to the 
settlement which it will make in the southwestern portion of 
Fremont county. 

LETTER FROM WET MOUNTAIN VALLEY. ^ 

Wet Mountain Valley, Feb. 14. 
Ed. Chieftain: — This valley, the favorite hunting ground of 
the Utes, has attracted little notice until recently, owing to its 
supposed elevation, and a general want of information regarding 
its adaptation to agricultural settlement. A few facts in relation 
to the region may not be uninteresting to your readers, especially 
since it seems to be the destination of quite a number of immi- 
grants this year. Although a settler in the Valley, and naturally 
interested in its success, I do not propose to exaggerate by repre- 
senting this as a perfect country, and the only one worth living in. 
This portion of the Valley is, by the very good, but circuitous, 
wagon road, about forty miles from Canon City, and although 
there are trails leading in by much shorter routes, yet for a person 
unacquainted with the country, it is best to take the wagon road. 
The San Luis, or Rio Grande valley lies directly west, separated 
from this by the Snowy Range or main Rocky Mountain chain, 
while Canon City lies east, separated by the Wet Mountain range, 
the Arkansas river flowing by on the north, and cutting through 
the northern end of this range, forming the canon of the Arkansas 
from which Canon City takes its name. This Valley is thought 
to average ten miles in width, and is perhaps fifty in length. The 
principal streams in the northern end are Grape and Texas creeks, 
flowing north; and in the southern end, the head waters of the 
Huerfano river, running south. Springs and small streams 
abound throughout the whole valley. The scenerj^ of the valley 
is picturesque and beautiful; from the upper end of the valley, 
one can look through the gap cut by the Arkansas river, out upon 
the great plains to the east; looking south, stretches the undulating 
plain of the valley, and beyond it, through the southern entrance, 
in the far off distance, loom up the Spanish Peaks ; at the right towers 
the snowy wall of the main range, and on the left the ragged range 
of the Wet Mountains, with their innumerable foot-hills, covered 

^Colorado Chieftain, February 24, 1870, p. 2. 



72 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



with the fine Gramma grasses, and interspersed with groves of pine 
and cedar, affording a fine winter range for stock. This grass, 
as is well known, is equal to grain for stock. In the low valleys, 
are various kinds of grasses, the blue joint, wild timothy, oats, 
&c., upon which stock may graze in winter as well as summer. 
The clear, cold streams are filled with brook trout, whose sporting 
may be watched from the banks, and are as tempting a sight to 
the epicure as to the angler. 

The snow has as yet given us no trouble, cattle and horses not 
having been fed any grain the past winter and are in fine condi- 
tion; even our work horses have been fed very Kttle grain. The 
snov/ has not at any time exceeded five inches in depth, and dur- 
ing some of the coldest nights we have camped out without fire, 
and only our blankets, without suffering at all with cold. 

The first crops were raised, and the first ground broken in this 
end of the valley — the northern end — the past season. The crops 
were put in very late, and yet the yield on the sod was from thirty- 
five to forty bushels of wheat and oats to the acre, while fine 
crops of potatoes, turnips, beets and other vegetables were grown. 
The corn was a failure, yet under the circumstances of late plant- 
ing and inexperience in the climate here, we are not discouraged, 
and think it can be raised with proper care in sufficient quantities 
for home use. Stock raising is, of course, the great business in 
Colorado, where the grazing range is not limited by the arable 
lands. Settlers are coming in here, and scarcely a day passes that 
does not bring some new-comer. We are expecting quite a num- 
ber of German settlers here soon, but there is room for hundreds 
more. A word in conclusion to those who may wish to settle here : 
You can find no location that has not its faults or drawbacks, nor 
can you make a home anywhere that does not require work and 
perseverance to make comfortable and secure contentment. Many 
a man has failed and given up just on the eve of success, but even 
the dullest of people, with perseverence, industry and economy 
can succeed in this country. I have occupied more space than I 
intended to when I set out to write, and will close, promising at 
some future time to give you a further description of this valley, 
and our progress here. 

C. W. Talbot. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



73 



[Squatters in Wet Mountain Valley.] 
^Carl Wulstein's colon}^ of Germans, of whom mention has 
heretofore been made in these columns, at last accounts was at 
Sheridan awaiting transportation to the place of their destination, 
Wet Mountain valley. It now seems probable that they will meet 
with some difficulty in obtaining possession of the tract chosen for 
their settlement, from the fact that about fifty enterprising indi- 
viduals from various sections of the country have taken a sudden 
notion to squat upon these lands, and force the Germans into pay- 
ing them a handsome bonus to get off. The squatters have no 
idea of working the lands themselves, but conceiving this method 
likely to prove a rare speculation, adopted it, and seem determined 
to hold their ground by force if necessarj^ until their demands 
shall be comphed with. It is understood, however, that the 
United States will protect the colonist's claims, and eject the in- 
truders by military power, if called upon to do so. 



[German Colonists Defended.] 

^The Transcript [Golden, Colorado] having received a long, 
sepulchral groan in the w^ay of correspondence, which by the way 
reads as though it had been written from the *'tomb of the buried 
past," and is signed ''A Republican," launches out editorially 
against all hands, and slops over quite recklessly in its slobbering 
efforts to aid its correspondent in fastening the charge of political 
trickery upon our Governor, for the encouragement he has given 
to Carl Wulsten's colony. The organization is described as an 
importation of Republican voters, brought here for the sole pur- 
pose of overcoming the Democratic majority. This is the only 
well estabhshed point to be found in the article, and in the Terri- 
tory will be acknowledged as a first-class witticism. The editor 
goes back to the early history of the Territory and reiterates the 
threadbare argument of his contributor that, those who were here 
in '59 and bore the heat and burden of the day, have a better right 
to the privileges and benefits bestowed upon this colony of Germans 
than they who have done nothing toward the development of the 
country. Some, he says, have volunteered, and perilled their 

^Daily Central City Register, March 3, 1870, p. 1. 
Waily Central City Register, March 4. 1870, p. 1. 



74 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



precious lives in the defense of their country, which fact is men- 
tioned as an additional reason why the public patronage should be 
given to '59-ers, and not to the Dutchmen, if it is to be given at 
all. He then goes on to speak of the appointment of Mr. Wulsten 
as Brigadier General of Militia, and his rejection by the Council, 
which, — ''was a rebuke from them to an arrogance of power on 
his (the Governor's) part, equalled only by the stupidity of its 
inception." And then, the people will be pleased to learn, ''it 
needed only an Executive order to our Territorial Militia, to 
escort them to Wet Mountain valley, to fill up the measure of 
such a preposterous and barefaced attempt to tread the rights and 
feehngs of our people under foot." We have been tolerably famil- 
iar with the business from the first, but being ignorant of the 
fact that Congress had donated 40,000 acres of land in Wet 
Mountain valley to Carl Wulsten and associates, confess to being 
a good deal surprised at its announcement by the Transcript. 
We unite with our contemporary in protesting against any pub- 
lic measure which discriminates between citizens in the distribu- 
tion of the public domain, but we positively decline to make au 
ass of ourself by wailing over such an event, until after it has 
occurred. The Government is anxious for the rapid settlement of 
its Territories, and it seems has gone a little farther than usual 
in its desire to assist a movement which promises to bring to ours 
a larger share of immigration during the present year than has been 
known in any previous one. This is the extent of its offending; 
nothing more. Instead of cursing about it, we should rejoice over 
it, as a pleasant recognition of our claims to paternal consideration. 
Our colonists have asked for a donation of lands it is true, but as 
there is no precedent for granting it, there is very little probability 
of its being established for this special occasion. As to Governor 
McCook's action, it may be explained in a few words. It is well 
known that the Germans everywhere, when in sufficient numbers 
to do so, are in the habit of organizing themselves into military 
and other associations, for the advantage of social relations and 
for amusement. Wulsten's colony is composed chiefly of young, 
active men, who have seen service either in the old country or in 
our own, and, feeling the necessity for an organization which would 
insure the protection of their families against Indians, since they 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY ;r Ot^Vii' 

must pass through a section of country frequently depredated by 
them, formed one and sent muster rolls on to the Governor, who 
after the fullest investigation of the matter decided to issue arms 
to them as Territorial Militia, as he had the most perfect right to 
do. Knowing Wulsten to have a batallion of men under his charge, 
and probably within the Territory at that time, to become perma- 
nent residents, on the last day of the session he nominated him 
among others, to be a Brigadier General of Militia, which he also 
had a perfect right to do, and which could do no harm to anybody, 
unless perhaps to a handful of citizens who were not so appointed. 
Being rejected by the Council, after its adjournment the Governor 
commissioned him, and he is now a full fledged militia Brigadier, 
the Council to the contrary notwithstanding. Instead of turning 
every enterprize of this character into a scheme, for the advance- 
ment of party interests, as the Transcript seeks to do, we should 
unite in doing all in our power, as journalists and as individuals, 
to encourage their formation in foreign States and countries, and 
their settlement here, where we may employ their disciplined 
muscle, their genius and enterprise, in building up a Great Western 
State. We can not always remain in our present dependent con- 
dition, but, to achieve statehood we must have a much greater 
population than we now have, or can obtain, through promiscuous 
immigration. 



[Comment on The Transcript's Criticism.] 

^Everybody has had their ''put in" about the strictures of the 
Transcript on Gov. McCook's appointment of Carl Wulsten as a 
Brigadier General of Militia, except ''we." Now it is our turn, so 
here goes. It is well-known that G. W.,-^ the editor of the Tran- 
script, is a Prof. (?) of Military Tactics in Jarvis Hall School, and 
further it is surmised that he was an appUcant for the "posish" 
himself, and chagrined at his defeat he seeks revenge for his dis- 
comfiture. This seems to us the most remarkable excuse for his 
attacks on the Governor. We've said our say and don't want any 
answer back. 

Waily Colorado Tribune, March 10, 1870, p. 4 
*George West. 



76 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Chieftain Satire on German Colony.] 

^The famous expedition of Carl Wulsten's German colony is 
likely to become historical. And why not? Are they not dis- 
tinguished above all other ''pet-lambs" and ''wards of the Govern- 
ment." While native born American citizens of rank are daily 
shot down in Cuba and butchered by Spanish assassins without 
the least notice being taken of it by the Government, these foreign 
born colonists are riding in Federal ambulances and eating Gov- 
ernment rations. While old settlers in the Territories, from the 
Yellowstone to the Gila are being murdered by Indian "pet lambs," 
here basking on the sunny banks of the Arkansas, and smoking 
Government fine-cut, are the Federal Dutch, being protected by 
Government bayonets from any straggling raid of early horned 
frogs, and having their wooden shoes blacked by boys in blue. 

Every great hero and conqueror has had his historian. Cyrus, 
Xerxes and Alexander had their Xenophons, Plutarchs and Rollins ; 
Cesar had his Napoleon III; Frederick the Great his Carlyle; 
Napoleon I. had his Abbott, and Ben. Butler his Parton. When 
we come to the field of pure exploration, we find that the adventur- 
ous heroes who have led renouned expeditions into unknown 
countries, have not been forgotten for want of a proper record of 
their deeds. Christopher Columbus, Americus Vespucius, John 
Smith, Cortes and Pizarro have had their scribes. Captain Cook 
several times sailed round the world, and left us his "log book" 
before he was finally cooked and eaten by a party of hungry Revel- 
ers on the coast of Africa. Captying Kydd also, has been duly 
remembered for his daring deeds "as he sayled, as he sayled." 
Dr. Livingston, Charles Sumner and Mrs. Stowe have explored 
Africa, and have we not their record all around us? 

The explorations of Lewis and Clark, Zebulon Pike, and Col. 
Fremont have been duly perpetuated, not only by the pen, but 
Lewis and Clark's Fork of the Missouri, Pike's Peak and Fremont 
county, Colorado, will ever remain as monuments to the great- 
ness of these daring explorers. 

But what scribe is equal to the task of recording the feats of 
Carl Wulsten and his daring band of followers, in their perilous 



^Colorado Chieftain, March 10, 1870, p. 2. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



77 



ambulance ride for more than a hundred miles along the coach 
road into the howling grain fields of Fremont County? The only 
journey which we remember, that can be at all compared in history 
to this one, is the famous march of the ten thousand Greeks, who, 
in their retreat from the bloody field of Cunaxa, wandered fifteen 
months through the rocky deserts of Asia Minor, and whose 
heroic march and final return to Greece are imperishably recorded 
in the "Anabasis" of Xenophon, their great leader and historian. 
Good historians are scarce just now. Motley is away from home, 
Bancroft is busy on his Sunday School series of the lives of ''good 
injuns," and Jim Parton is engaged on a second edition of the life 
of Ben Butler, with shoo fly annotations. Where then shall we 
find a Xenopbon to write the Anabasis of Prince Carl de Colfax, 
and his Federal Teutons? 



[More Satire from The Chieftain.] 

^The German colony were yesterday a few miles below Boone- 
ville, proceeding by slow and easj^ stages up the Arkansas, in this 
direction, and at last accounts were all safe, although they had been 
several times surprised by small parties of farmers, along the road, 
offering them buttermilk. They are transported by about ninety 
government teams, and are furnished with U. S. tents to live in, 
and are to be fed at government expense the first year. The 
officers and soldiers at Forts Lyon and Reynolds are on a huge 
disgust at this sort of a campaign. 



[Favorable Comment in Tribune.] 

^The Chieftain says that the German colony were on Wed- 
nesday last, a few miles below Booneville, proceeding by slow and 
easy stages up the Arkansas. It lets out another sad wail this 
week about the facilities this colony has in coming to our Terri- 
tory, which is very amusing. It had rather see all of these Repub- 
lican emigrants go to Texico or the Injun Ocean than come to 
Colorado and overturn a Democratic majority. It factiously 
styles their trip one of hair-breadth escapes in government am- 

^Colorado Chieftain, March 10, 1870, p. 3. 
■^Daily Colorado Tribune, March 15, 1870, p. 1. 



78 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



bulances through a series of wheatfields, but in a local item it says 
they are travelling by slow stages. As we understand it they ex- 
changed their ambulances for stages at one of the ranches down 
there. We are very glad of the change for the ambulances would 
be very cold for the women and children in that rigorous climate 
and especially during the present cold snap. 



[An Exaggerated Account from Kit Carson.] 
Kit Carson Correspondence.^ 

Kit Carson, March 12, 70. 

Eds. Tribune:— 

. . . A large Colony of Germans and Danes passed up the 
Santa Fe road about a week ago bound for the West {sic) Mountain 
Vallej^ in Southern Colorado. They were delayed at Fort Wallace 
some two weeks awaiting transportation, which the government 
furnished them. It required about two hundred ambulances to 
transport them. They are taking farming implements and dif- 
ferent kinds of stock with them. They will be a great benefit to 
Colorado, as they are a class of people who are industrious and 
willing to endure some hardships to make a home. Such emi- 
gration as this is what we need in Colorado to make it one of the 
richest States of the Union. These people are used to hard labor 
and will improve the country. . . . 

T. W. J. 



[The Chieftain Explains Its Strictures on German Colony.] 
^As to the wishes and objects of Carl Wulsten's colony, the 
mode and manner of coming out, and the false impressions liable 
to be created thereby among persons in the States as to the danger 
of travel and settlement to this Territory, and the evil results of 
such wrong impressions, we have heretofore indulged in criticisms, 
and sought to ridicule that only which is undoubtedly ridiculous, 
absurd and unfair. For this we have been censured by some but 
for that censure we don't care the snap of a finger. Persons who 
never reason, even if they are capable of it, who cannot look higher 

Waily Colorado Tribune, March 17, 1870, p. 1. 
^Colorado Chieftain, March 17, 1870, p. 2. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



79 



than their pockets, or some other equally selfish object, and who get 
mad by instinct just as the lower animals do, are very apt to get 
in a good humor again, without the trouble of trying to reason them 
into it. We have indulged in no personalities, — when we have 
mentioned the name of Carl Wulsten, it has been, of course, as an 
officer of the Association and the acknowledged leader and spokes- 
man of the colony. No man in Colorado desires immigration more 
than another; we all want it, nor do we blame the immigrants 
themselves for the mode of coming here or what they may get 
when they arrive. We should all have been glad to have come to 
this country under as favorable circumstances when we came out, 
but we didn't. If all are to be more favored hereafter than we, 
it then is'nt so bad a plan, but if favoritism is to be shown to only 
a few, or to certain classes, then whoever blames us for criticising 
an unjust partiality is not a fool, but a knave. We wish the Gov- 
ernment would transport ten thousand emigrants to Colorado; we 
wish, in other words, that every one who comes here in future 
could come at the expense of the Government; the Government 
could not do a better thing, because it can afford to, because it 
reaps as much consequent benefit as any one else, and because it 
would be much better employed than in many other things it has 
done. But if this poHcy is to be inaugurated we want it kept up 
and kept at with uniformity. And if a different mode of getting 
lands is to obtain, we want it a universal plan and applicable 
to every new comer. If this is'nt sound doctrine, then our head 
is not level, that's all. We have discussed this matter without a 
thought of political or other irrelevant considerations ; not knowing 
or caring whether any such considerations existed, and hoping 
there were not. And in view of this, we will here take occasion 
to remark in a spirit of the utmost kindness, that we exceedingly 
regret that at the meeting on Monday night, on an occasion of 
interest to citizens of all creeds and parties, and in an address of 
response to an expression and invitation of welcome by citizens of 
the county, Mr. Wulsten should have so far forgotten his dignity, 
his self respect, and the respect he owed the people to whose wel- 
come he was responding, and exhibited the shameful weakness 
and bad taste to indulge in a boasting harrangue of exploits in 
war; to allude to the long buried issues of "secession," ''slave 



80 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

aristocracy," ^'southern sympathizers;" to rant about spilling 
blood to uphold the union in the future, and to boast that he was 
a ''Republican in heart, body and soul," that all his colonists 
were, and that they were going to work against the Democrats, 
and carry Fremont county for the Republican party in Colorado. 
Nor do we consider it to have been less in bad taste for Mr. W., 
in alluding to The Chieftain's joke about blacking wooden shoes, 
to say in his speech, in the presence of a dozen ladies, that it was 
"a damned lie, anyhow." One would have hoped for much more 
refinement and dignity in a scholar, a Brigadier General, and a 
gentleman who had moved in the best society at Washington city. 
But the latter fact, however, may account for the fault. We think 
there was more than one person present who was pained and 
shamed at hearing such uncalled for and insulting rant and non- 
sense. We hope Carl will do better in future, if he wishes to pre- 
serve the respect of the sober men of any party. 



[Arrival of German Colonists in Pueblo.] 

^The Geniian Colony arrived at Pueblo on .Vlonda}' evening, 
and encamped on the Fount aine, near town. In response to an 
invitation of citizens, and an expression of welcome to the colo- 
nists, Mr. Wulsten delivered an address in the Court-House at 
night, explaining the history, scope and objects of the colony. 
The address, as correctly as could be reported at the time b}- the 
Secretary, will be found published in another column. At the 
close of Mr. W's remarks, Rev. Mr. Mc^Iains made a short but 
stirring address, assuring the colonists of the good will of the citi- 
zens of Southern Colorado, and their desire to see the whole country 
rapidly and thickly settled by immigrants. On the following 
morning the train broke camp and passed through town, halting 
long enough to allow our citizens to inspect the outfit of the com- 
pany. There were thirty-eight six-mule government wagons, and 
nearly as many ox teams and wagons, which were loaded with 
machinery, agricultural implements, household goods, provisions, 
&c. They have machinery for a grist mill, saw mill, flouring mill, 
sash and door factory, &c. There are ninetj'-two families, com- 

^Colorado Chieftain, March 17. 1870, p. 3. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



81 



prising three hundred and thirty-seven souls, six of whom have been 
added on the road out, by means of what Goldrick calls "arrivals," 
and what our stock growers term ''natural increase." The mem- 
bers of the colony, both males and females, are generally large, 
robust and as l&ne looking persons as are seen among immigrants 
of this class. Many of them speak very good EngUsh, and are 
quite inteUigent. Among the other ''traps," of the baggage 
wagons, we noticed a small church bell, or at least a bell that 
might be used for church purposes, although we did not learn 
whether the party were church going people or not. At all events 
the bell seemed to us a good thing to have for church, school house 
or signal purposes, and the echoes it will awake in the Wet Moun- 
tain Valley will be as pleasant as novel. They go from here to 
Canon, and thence into the valley they have chosen for a home, 
and will immediately go to work to erect cabins and put in crops. 
We wish them every success, and only hope that this is but the 
van of thousands of industrious and intelligent immigrants who 
may follow out to fill up and improve the broad and fertile acres 
of Southern Colorado, in advance of the railroads through our 
valleys. 

[Carl Wulsten's Speech in Pueblo.] 

^The van-guard of the German Colonization Company, con- 
sisting of ninety-two families, and comprising three hundred and 
thirty-seven souls, arrived in this place on Monday afternoon. 
In the evening a large and enthusiastic meeting of the citizens was 
held in the Court House, to welcome the new comers, and listen 
to some remarks from Mr. Carl Wulsten, the President of the 
Company — that gentleman having been invited by the citizens 
to deUver an address. The Pueblo Cornet Band was present, and 
executed a number of excellent pieces, during the performance of 
which Mr. Wulsten was escorted to the hall by a delegation of 
citizens. On his arrival, the meeting was called to order, and 
organized by the election of John R. Lowther, Esq., as Chairman, 
and Mr. M. L. Blunt as Secretary. The Chairman, in a few ap- 
propriate remarks, then introduced Mr. Wulsten to the audience. 
The speaker commenced by expressing the pride and satisfaction 

^Colorado Chieftain, March 17, 1870. p. 3. 



82 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



he experienced in the kind and cordial welcome extended to the 
Colony by the citizens of Colorado. In playful allusion to several 
complimentary notices which had appeared in The Chieftain, Mr. 
Wulsten then said in substance as follows: Let us look back in 
the history of the world, and see what the ''Federal Dutch" are 
made of. In olden times, three hundred years before Christ, the 
old forests of Germany were inhabited by fierce tribes of savages — 
the aborigines of the country. They were men of large stature, 
with light blue eyes, red hair, scantily clad in the skins of wild 
beasts, armed with war-clubs and other primitive weapons. Such 
were the forefathers of the ''Federal Teutons." Then came the 
tyrannous Romans to force civilization. More than once were they 
driven back, but eventually they conquered. Gradually civiliza- 
tion spread over the land, the people became enlightened and edu- 
cated, and their diligence and truth were developed. Let us glance 
at the history of this country — all know how the great States of 
New York and Pennsylvania were settled by the Dutch; how the 
wide fields have been cultivated — prosperous cities and peaceful 
hamlets have arisen and are now peopled by the patient German, 
contentedly laboring, secure in the asylum that our glorious Re- 
public offers to all. Germany is still looking with longing eyes to 
the Far West. Poverty alone prevents thousands from joining 
us — thousands whose industry and mechanical skill would be in- 
calculably valuable. But they are poor, and lack of pioneer en- 
terprise of the American, and are therefore undeserving of the 
slurs of The Chieftain, who blames them for not having been the 
first to fight the Indians, grasshoppers, prairie-dogs and jack- 
rabbits. In our own overcrowded cities there is more available 
material. At one period of my life, while officially engaged in 
enumerating the inhabitants of the region known as the Five 
Points in the City of New York, I was daily brought in contact 
with the disgusting filth, misery, want and crime of that locality. 
I became satisfied that the want of food and the necessaries of 
life were the principal causes of the crime of that great city. I 
then formed the idea that the overcrowded cities should send their 
surplus inhabitants to the broad acres of the West, where their 
miserable condition would be changed to a state of comparative 
comfort and happiness. Bring them West — let them cultivate 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



83 



our fertile soil — develop our mines — utilize our limitless forests, 
and where will the balance be found? I determined to devote my 
labor and energy to that end. To-day you may see some of the 
fruits of my idea. There are now in your midst ninety-two fam- 
ilies, the heads of which have struggled and labored to raise the 
sum necessary to join our colony; to-day saving a dollar, to- 
morrow another, till at last each of them had accumulated two 
hundred and fifty dollars, the requisite amount. Wait till to- 
morrow and see the result — a train of nearly one hundred wagons 
will roll through Pueblo, laden with machinery and goods, con- 
sisting in part of a saw-mill, with all the machinery to make sash, 
doors and shingles; a grist mill with two run of stone; farming 
implements; seeds to plant groves of hickory, oak, ash, sugar- 
maple; fruit trees and vines — the owners of which are satisfied 
that a life of independence in a log cabin, even with a diet of pork 
and corn bread, is preferable to a dependent existence in the crowd- 
ed cities of the East. This Colony was formed in Chicago — the 
constitution was ratified August 24th, of last year. In November 
last, three persons, myself among the number, were sent to Colo- 
rado to select lands. We would have been glad to settle in the 
immediate vicinity of Pueblo, but were unable to find sufficient 
land in a body for so large a colony. In the Wet Mountain Valley 
we found what we sought. There are to be found forests of mag- 
nificent timber, abundant water-power, illimitable pasture lands, 
and a fruitful soil. Some jealousy has been manifested, and com- 
plaint made that the Government has shown partiaHty towards 
our Colony. The fact is, we could not have come without trans- 
portation for our goods, and tents to shelter our wives and children, 
and we were too poor to buy them. We entered into an agree- 
ment to keep the wagons in good repair, and to return the tents 
in as good a condition as we received them, or pay for them. 
We had paid the R. R. Company over six thousand dollars for 
our freight, and that after jewing them down to half price. Per- 
ceiving no other way of accompHshing my object, I went to the 
President — not backed by influential politicians, as has been 
charged in one of your papers, but as an humble citizen — and 
showed him that if my enterprise should succeed, other colonies 
would be formed, and the tide of emigration would receive an 



84 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



impetus never before witnessed. Through these representations, 
and not through the pressure of political influence, the President 
acquiesced in my wishes; — saying that the Administration desired 
to encourage emigration, enlarge the settlements of the Territories 
to their greatest capacity, and force the Indians to the background. 
The Governor of Colorado had issued commissions, we had or- 
ganized our party into militia companies, and agreed to keep up 
the organization. Ninety-two men, armed, equipped and offi- 
cered, willing to fight for their wives and children, would certainly 
be as effective as an equal number of U. S. soldiers, who are pro- 
verbially unlucky in finding Indians. We are not modern heroes, 
seeking a historian to record our daring deeds, as The Chieftain 
intimates, but we are not afraid to fight, and believe we can keep 
the Indians at bay. Neither are we advocates of one-man power. 
Our constitution is founded on the broad principles of democracy; 
we believe that the majority should and will rule. To-morrow I 
shall ask the editor of The Chieftain to publish the memorial which 
I presented to Congress, which will disprove many of the false 
statements and misrepresentations made in that sheet. I, how- 
ever, forgive the editor for his uncalled for remarks — his mis- 
quotations from history being good evidence that ignorance alone 
was the cause of his error. 

While in Washington I held many conferences with the Hon. 
A. A. Bradford, who is heart and soul with us. The bill intro- 
duced into Congress asked that we be allowed one hundred and 
sixty acres of land apiece, and an immediate conditional title. 
I apprehend that this bill will pave the way for the amendment 
of the homestead law — a consummation devoutly to be wished. 
Here are colonists who wish to make homes here. We do not in- 
tend to speculate in the land, and will not sell. As I said before, 
we have come to make homes. Every sensible man will greet with 
warm-hearted favor the emigrants who come to settle the lovely 
dales and beautiful vallies of Southern Colorado. We intend to 
enter largely into the manufacture of lumber, shingles, sash, 
woolen goods — and may even make lager beer and German soap. 
We will grind your wheat and corn; and, believing, as we do, in 
the old adage of ''live and let live," we will sell cheap and be willing 
to work hard with little profits. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



85 



Other colonies will doubtless follow us. One, as most of you 
are probably aware, is being organized under the auspices of 
Horace Greeley, Mr. Meeker and others. They came to confer 
with us, and asked our advice. We told them by all means to 
come to Southern Colorado, and I hope and trust they will find 
suitable lands in this vicinity. 

One reason that influenced me in selecting the Wet Mountain 
valley was this: The Arkansas Valley is already partly settled; 
the railroad is already on its border, and will, in a few years, reach 
the valley of the Rio Grande. I found, on examining the topo- 
graphical profile of the mountainous part of Southern Colorado, 
that the Wet Mountain Valley was intermediate between the two 
former, and my idea is to string the settlements, one after another, 
westward from the Arkansas to the Rio Grande. In a few 3^ears 
we will thus force the railroads to come to us. Local business will 
be a great inducement to them. We will settle the country and 
they will come to us. I think that these facts will tend to show 
that in the selection of our land I considered the welfare of those 
living here as well as our own interests. If you prosper, we prosper 
also. Even if we do wear wooden shoes, to be blackened by the 
boys in blue, as The Chieftain saj^s, I think we will not prove bad 
neighbors. 

Germany is full and overcrowded with people who are well 
aware that this Republic is the corner-stone of liberty. They are 
imbued with the spirit of progress; they believe that tyrrany is 
unendurable, having experienced it. They believe in uncondi- 
tional liberty. I am no Carl I, as The Chieftain falsely asserts. 
We believe that the majority should rule, and we will not tolerate 
one-man power. I am not ashamed, however, to proclaim myself 
a downright Republican, heart, body and soul. I will fight for 
the banner to the last drop of my heart's blood. We are going 
to vote the Republican ticket solid, and are bound to beat our 
opponents. I apprehend that it was a knowledge of this fact that 
caused The Chieftain to get so shaky. 

I desire to thank you for your kind attention, and cordially 
invite you to come to our housewarmings in the fall, when I will 
assure you an abundance of lager beer, native wine, Dutch pies and 



86 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



dumplings, and promise you an eight days' jollification, after the 
old Dutch fashion. 

In conclusion, I desire to thank you for the good opinion so 
evident from the cordiality of this meeting, and will say, in the 
name of the whole colony, we will endeavor to merit your esteem. 
Should it ever happen that our services would be welcome in re- 
pelling the hostile savage, send for us, and you will find that we 
are not afraid to fight. 

At the conclusion of the address, a resolution was passed, ex- 
pressing the thanks of the audience, and extending a hearty 
welcome to the colonists who have come to make their homes 
with us. 

[German Colonists Welcomed by Central City Register.] 
^We have on a former occasion spoken at length of Gen. Carl 
Wulstein's colony, which was to settle in Wet Mountain valley, a 
little south of Canon City and the Arkansas river. It has reached 
its destination, and numbers three hundred and thirty-seven souls. 
They came with saw mill, flouring mill, planing mill, sash and door 
machinery, farming implements, &c. In short, they come prepared 
in every particular, to estabhsh a thriving and prosperous agricul- 
tural community. They are armed sufficiently to protect themselves 
against Indians. The General in a speech at Pueblo announced 
that every one of them will vote the Republican ticket. We ad- 
mire their style of coming. They settle together as a single com- 
munity; of course have society at once, and can establish schools, 
without their being a burden. They have their own mills and other 
machinery, and will not have to wait for some enterprising person 
to build them. In short a year or two will suffice to create for 
them an old settlement, with all the appliances of civilization. 
The locality chosen is such, that they will find a favorable market, 
in the mines of the upper Arkansas. Good luck to them and to 
all who like them shall come to live among us. 

[The Register Criticized by The Chieftain.] 
^Carl Wulsten's colony of Germans, of whom mention has 
heretofore been made in these columns, at last accounts was at 

Waily Central City Register, March 20, 1870, p. 1. 
^Colorado Chieftain, March 24. 1870, p. 1. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



87 



Sheridan awaiting transportation to the place of their destination. 
Wet Mountain valley. It now seems probable that they will meet 
with some difficulty in obtaining possession of the tract chosen 
for their settlement, from the fact that about fifty enterprising 
individuals from various sections of the country have taken a 
sudden notion to squat upon these lands, and force the Germans 
into paying them a handsome bonus to get off. The squatters 
have no idea of working the lands themselves, but conceiving 
this method likely to prove a rare speculation, adopted it, and 
seem determined to hold their ground by force if necessary, until 
their demands shall be complied with. It is understood, however, 
that the United States will protect the colonists' claims and eject 
the intruders by military power, if called upon to do so. — Central 
Register. 

How does it come that other settlers' claims, when they are 
jumped, are not protected by ''military power?" 

This brilliant proposition to settle claim disputes and adjudi- 
cate land titles by a squad of soldiers, is very good. Particular^ 
beautiful would this be in case the colonists themselves were en- 
rolled as Territorial mihtia, and their leader were a brigadier 
general, so as to settle the title himself — ''if called upon" — by 
himself. We think no one need be alarmed about the United 
States army settHng petty neighborhood lawsuits. As to the fact 
of there being "squatters" already upon a portion of the tract 
"chosen" by the colony for their future settlement, we only know 
that there are men living there, and men who have lived there from 
one to three years past, and who had the hardihood to settle there 
before a colony was dreamed of. But suppose there were any 
number of "enterprising individuals" who had settled there 
twenty-four hours only before the colonists arrived on the ground, 
what then? Will any man who "knows beans" undertake to say 
that the colony have any right whatever to land before they settle 
on it? It has not yet been granted them, nor can they claim a,ny 
right under the pre-emption or homestead laws until they get on 
the land and settle just as others do. The whole dicta then of the 
Register, quoted above, is the most unmitigated bosh and nonsense. 
The fact is there is no need of anticipating quarrels, and there will 
be none. There is land for all in the Territory, and for tens of 



88 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



thousands more, even in the Wet Mountain valley. Let them 
come. Everybody there wants others to come, and everybody in 
Colorado wants them to ''come in and possess the land." There 
are peaceful homes in Southern Colorado for a million inhabitants, 
and they can be had without quarreling, and without any necessity 
for the interference of ''military power" to "eject the intruders." 
We beg the Register to take some soothing syrup and try to feel 
easier. 



[No Squatters on Proposed Site of German Colony.] 

^From Charley Aldrich, of Black Hawk, who returned here a 
few days ago from Wet Mountain valley, on his way north, we 
learn some interesting particulars in regard to that region and the 
settlement there. The German colony had a pleasant time getting 
in and had stopped at the place selected for them, with which they 
seemed very well pleased. There are about one hundred and fifty 
settlers in the north end of the valley besides the Germans, in- 
cluding those who have been there and taken up claims and are 
now absent for their families and supplies. The tract selected for 
the colony had not been encroached upon by any one, but in the 
general desire to have the country settled up, the wishes of the 
colonists have been respected before their arrival the same as 
though they had already acquired a right to the specific tract upon 
which they are now settled. There are lands for thousands yet 
vacant in the valley which affords as fine grazing advantages as 
are to be found in Colorado. Mr. Aldrich will shortly return with 
his family to settle upon a tract he has selected for a sheep ranch. 
On yesterday the soldiers and Government teamsters with the 
train which accompanied the colony to their destination, passed 
through Pueblo on their return to Fort Harker. They also re- 
port pleasant weather in the valley, and the colony generally well 
pleased. Some dissatisfaction had grown up towards their leader, 
but we hope it will lead to nothing unpleasant. Like all new com- 
ers, General Wulsten is green, and in the course of time he will 
learn "some little dings" that will cure him of a vast amount of 
silly self-conceit. 

^Colorado Chieftain, March 31, 1870, p. 2. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 89 



[The Germax Colony and Politics.] 

^The Democratic papers of the Territory have been howhng 
recently against the Repubhcan Congress because of the intro- 
duction of a bill to give to the German Colony at Wet Mountain 
Valle}^ a grant of 40,000 acres of land. Every Democratic paper 
of the Territor}^, from the Pueblo Chieftain down to the Golden 
City Transcript, has denounced the Colony and Congress, and 
have as much as said they didn't want any German emigrants 
(unless they were Democrats.) But the Democratic leaders of 
Denver ask the Germans of Denver to go to the polls tomorrow 
and help elect a Democratic Delegate to Congress, who will use 
all his influence against German em^igration to Colorado. The 
man w^ho accepts their invitation is working against the interests 
of his race. 



[The German Colonists and Politics.] 

^The Herald^ is down on the Germans, and howls because a 
colony of them have settled in Wet Mountain yalle3^ Inasmuch 
as it has always been down on them this new ebullition of temper 
was to be expected. But this furnishes no reason why the Herald 
should resort to statements which are untrue. It charges that the 
colony were given lands, rations, &c. The truth of the statement 
is that the colony arrived at the end of the railroad at Sheridan on 
the Smoky Hill. There was danger from the Indians as there 
has been for the last six years, and they were furnished an escort, 
just as thousands of our citizens have been in coming to and going 
from Colorado. They arrived without tents, and Carl Wulsten 
borrowed some, giving security for their safe return, and for all 
damages that might accrue to them. Onl}^ this and nothing more. 
The statement that lands and rations were given them is a pin 
hook put out by silly Democrats to catch gudgons with. The 
Herald certainh' must place a very low estimate on the intelli- 
gence of the Irishmen and Cornishmen to whom it appeals. Some 
years ago the Repubhcan party did pass a Homestead Law whereby 
Irish, Cornish, Americans and people of every other nation may 



^Daily Colorado Tribune, April 3, 1870, p. 1. 
Waily Central City Register, April 3, 1870, p. 1 
HJolorado Herald at Central City. 



90 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



acquire homes, and hundreds of thousands of people have secured 
homes under it. It is this party which has given you this law 
under which the Wet Mountain Valley colony are obtaining homes, 
and it is because the Government has done this for you that the 
Herald attacks it, and would have you vote against it to-morrow. 
Remember your friends who have dealt so generously with you. 
And you will be sure to vote the straight Republican ticket to- 
morrow. 

[Arrival of German Colony at Canon City.] 
^Upon the arrival of the German colony at Canon City, the 
citizens of Fremont county turned out in large numbers to welcome 
them to their new home. Cannons were fired, the stars and stripes 
were displayed on the houses in the city and the wagons of the 
colonists were decorated with them. The wagons were formed in 
a hollow square, and speeches of welcome made by D. P. Wilson 
and others and replied to in behalf of the colonists by President 
Wulsten and others. It was a gala day in Canon, one long to be 
remembered by those who participated. 



[Canon City Resolutions in Support of German Colonists.] 
THE GERMAN COLONY.^ 

Canon City, March 22, 1870. 
Eds. Tribune: — At a meeting of the citizens in Canon City, 
March 22, 1870, the following resolutions were unanimously 
adopted: 

Whereas, We, the assembled citizens of Fremont County, 
Col., in due appreciation of the importance of the immigration of 
the German Colonization of Colfax, into our county; and 

Whereas, We acknowledge the manifold good resulting from 
this organization, and the energetic endeavors of its officers; and 

Whereas, The administration of the United States having 
assisted said organization by furnishing them transportation and 
tents, thereby rendering the families of said organization com- 
fortable during their journey, we fully endorse its course therein; 
and 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 4, 1870, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, April 5, 1870, p. 1. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



91 



Whereas, We believe the assistance rendered this organization 
by His Excellency, Governor McCook, has been of great benefit 
to them and us. Therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, the aforesaid citizens, greet the German 
Colonization Company and its officers, and welcome them to their 
new home in our midst; and be it further 

Resolved, That we tender our sincere thanks to the President 
and Vice President of the United States, and to Governor McCook, 
of Colorado, for the aid extended to the aforesaid colony, thus 
showing their statesmanship, and their knowledge of the wants 
of the Great West. And be it further 

Resolved, That the Secretary of this meeting forward copies 
of these resolutions to the Denver Tribune and News, for pubhca- 
tion, to the President and Vice President of the United States, to 
Gov. McCook, of Colorado, and to the Hon. Carl Wulsten, Presi- 
dent of the German Colony. 



[Number of ''Black Republicans'' in Colorado Likely to 

Increase.] 

^The Herald is painfully agitated about the Wulstein colony, 
so much so that it cannot express its feelings in anything smaller 
than capitals. It may as well keep cool. The Greeley colony of 
Yankees on the Cache-a-la-Poudre will offset the Germans in Wet 
Mountain valley, and keep the thing level. Likely as not there 
will be several thousands more of ''black republicans" in the 
territory before fall. Really our democratic friends must get used 
to these things and take them calmly. Didn't they capture the 
legislature this year? They must not expect to be in luck all the 
time. 

[Colonies and Politics.] 
^Our neighbor has been a good deal exercised on the subject 
of political colonization. It seems to be true that Republicans 
take to this country lately, but that any special inducements have 
been offered to Republicans to migrate thither we deny, and quote 
from the Chieftain, a simon pure Democratic sheet. "The Gov- 

WaUy Rocky Mountain News, April 9, 1870, p. 1. 
Waily Central City Register, April 9, 1870, p. 4. 



92 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



emment has lately adopted the policy where immigrants come out 
in considerable numbers, to furnish transportation, rations, tents, 
arms, &c., from the Railroad terminus to the point where the immi- 
grants desire to settle. Application can be made to the Secretary of 
War, giving the number of the partj^, their destination and the 
amount of supphes needed, and the necessary orders will be issued 
to the commanders of the military posts of the Territo^3^ The 
Governor of this Territory will also furnish arms if needed. One 
case of arms to the man is all that is needed, unless they can be 
immediately exchanged for plows." When Dem_ocrats will show 
any such enterprise in getting up colonies as has been shown by 
Meeker and Wulstein, we will welcome them and their friends to 
Colorado, with or without Government transportation. 

[Politics Again.] 
THE WOLSTEN COLONY, i 
The Democratic papers of the Territory are still ' 'showing up" 
the iniquity of the administration of Gen. Grant in allowing govern- 
ment encouragement to be extended to a colony of poor Germans, 
v/ho wanted to come and cast their lot with us, but who could not 
do so without assistance — if we may beUeve the explanation given 
by their President in a public speech at Pueblo. These papers 
affect horror that so vile a thing should be done, without attempt- 
ing to hide it, as to allow this colony of men, women and little 
children, to use mules and wagons that were spoiling of being 
cooped up in some military post doing nothing. These papers 
insist that for barefaced coolness in ''irregularities," this is a little 
the steepest that they have ever heard of. The}^ still insist that there 
is no constitutional precedent for allowing emigrant women to 
sleep in a tent, or to ride in a wagon belonging to the United 
States army. 

We consider it most unfortunate for President Grant that 
this colony happens to be composed of RepubHcans. It is a much 
greater crime to allow a Republican to have a free ride in a gov- 
ernment team than a Democrat, consequently the depth of their 
anger. There was a time, not many years ago, when Democrats 
only were allowed these pri\'ileges, and then Democratic papers 

Waily Colorado Tribune, April 9, 1870, p. 1. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



93 



said nothing. We remember to have seen long trains of Demo- 
cratic women and children, riding in Government wagons, from 
country to town in the Southern States, during the war, and nothing 
was said against it. Footsore and weary Republican soldiers took 
care of them, though their Democratic husbands were fighting 
against us. These women and children not only rode in government 
wagons, but they ate nothing but government rations for months. 
Why was not this Republican Government denounced for thus 
diverting the property of the army and the people from its regular 
channel? Was it because it was less wrong to transport and feed 
a thousand famihes of southern rebels, than to give a hundred 
honest deserving Germans a chance to go into the broad wdlderness 
and build themselves homes? or was it because of their politics? 
The latter must have been the reason. We can see no other. 

Will the editors of our Democratic contemporaries deny that 
this is a fair comparison of cases? Will they deny that the gov- 
ernment acted magnanimously in its kindness to rebel wives and 
children? Would they have it undone if they could, and if they 
would not, will they then tell us of what they are complaining of 
now? In one case Democratic families were provided with trans- 
portation, food and tents; in the other. Republican families, with. 
transportation and tents. The balance is against the Democrats. 
They owe us the food we gave to their families. When they re- 
turn what they freely received, they will have more excuse for 
criticism. 

THE GERMAN COLONY IN WET MOUNTAIN VALLEY, i 
Letter from Gen. Carl Wulsten. 

A Plea for the Poor. 

An account of their Work in the Valley. 

Colfax, Fremont Co., Colorado, 
April 8th, 1870. 
Editor Colorado Tribune: — Since the advent of the German 
Colony to Wet Mountain Valley, I have received a great many 
letters interrogatory to the settlement of the same in Colorado. 
The press of business to which I am continually subjected, and 

Waily Colorado Tribune, April 14, 1870, p. 1. 



94 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



which very naturally has to be attended to for the purpose of en- 
suring success to the yet embryo enterprise, does not allow my 
answering separately all inquiries made, and I therefore respect- 
fully ask you to extend your kindness so far as to give these lines 
type-room within the columns of your publication. 

The all-absorbing question of the day throughout this Terri- 
tory is, ''Why is Colorado not yet a State of the Great American 
Union?" This question is a just and proper one, and should be 
pushed forward by every citizen of the Territory with such 
vigor, earnestness and application as to make retraction and re- 
jection an impossibility. Colorado with its immense mineral 
wealth, its magnificent agricultural advantages, its almost bound- 
less pastoral area, its truly failure-defying future, ought to have 
been a State in the Union these several years. The only tangible 
objection or excuse applied heretofore against its admission could 
have been, that its population was not sufficient, and the Territory 
itself not developed enough to warrant it. Now this evil, if one, 
is being remedied daily and continually. The superb prospects of 
the Rocky Mountain State are attracting the attention of thou- 
sands near and far, and drawing the thrifty artizan, the diligent 
farmer, the indef agitable herdsman and the enterprising merchant 
to its fertile dales, its jeweled mountain crowns and its velvet- 
grass plains. Yet how unapproachable is the grand west to the 
poor and unfortunate laboring classes ! A thousand miles to Colo- 
rado! Where are the means to come from, to transport papa and 
mama and baby and Lizzie and Charles and Bob and Jim and 
Annie, from New York to the great land of heavenly air, royal 
climate and everlasting health? Thousands of famiHes are and 
have been discussing the above all-absorbing question over and 
over again, sinking back, after a lengthy and resultless debate, into 
speechless resignation, and the every day's humdrum treadmill 
of getting up the wherewithal to keep soul and body together. 
And yet again there are millions of acres of green sward tenantless 
and useless to mankind, lying in idleness, scorching into ashy dust 
under the mighty influence of Old Sol's never receding rays. And 
yet there are milhons of human beings drudging life's existence 
out amidst miasmatic corruption, surrounded by foul and nauseous 
atmosphere, in rags and filth, working, yet not even thriving; 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



95 



drudging, yet not even advancing, amidst brick-piles of gigantic 
dimensions raised with the ever grasping claws of speculation, 
and used by the everlasting love of gain. Grand cities arise where 
civilization is at its height, as by magic marble palaces line the 
wide and elegant streets, while walking statues in human form 
decorate the same. But pass behind the scene, and filth and rags, 
want and crime, poverty and disease, enact a perpetual drama in 
the backyards of those palaces. Misery chases desolation, crime, 
vice and desperation, fruitless endeavors. 

Please look away from the dreary picture drawn and strain 
your eyesight to catch a glimpse of the grand western world with 
its everescent [sic] health, beauty and happiness. Where is the 
climate, the atmosphere, the bracing air, the rejuvenating influence 
of nature so omnipotent than beyond the great plains of the North 
American Continent? 

These reflections were the motors of the enterprise I have so 
far, and with the help of the Almighty, been enabled to carry out. 
Rich people can go and come when and wherever the}^ please. 
The beauties of nature, the greatness of the creation, all, every- 
thing they wish to enjoy and see, they can enjoy and see. But 
the poor overcrowded workman, the mechanic, the laborer, where 
are they to get air, and health, and sunshine from, in their over- 
filled cities, their dusty workshops or their unhealth}^ dwelling 
holes? Making parks and boulevards will not remedy the evil for 
the poor! Stepping not upon the grass, keeping in the roadways, 
is not what the overworked and sickly workman needs. The 
grass, the air, health, Ught and liberty are the true attributes to 
happiness. And these can but be found where God's great cre- 
ation yet is towering over earthly smallness, untrammelled and 
unsoiled by the dirt of over-civilization. Poor workmen I called 
together, united them, and we fought our way out from dust and 
dirt, and poverty to freedom, air and light, satisfaction and, we 
hope, to happiness. With but very limited means we ventured, 
and so far succeeded. The present administration appreciated 
our endeavors, and humanely and kindly assisted us, by giving 
us the use of one tent for each family and forty-two wagons. 
After a long and dreary, but lucky voyage, we arrived in Wet 
Mountain valley, amidst the cheers and welcome greetings of all 



96 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



true men of the Arkansas valley. Only men like a Macon, of 
Canon City; or Stone and Hinsdale, of Pueblo, could damn the 
Dutch, and throw their uncouth slurs upon us, like a set of cowardly 
curs, barking from behind a secure fence. All others, yes all 
others, were glad to see us, and the friendty faces, and the glad 
smiles of all told us that we were welcome. We felt happy and 
contented, and went to work with a will and earnestness which will 
ensure success beyond a doubt. 

We are in the valley three weeks, and we have broken 100 
acres of ground, cleared thirty acres of garden land and sown our 
garden seeds. We have burned charcoal enough to run our black- 
smith shop six months. We have got timber cut and prepared for 
forty cabins to-day. We have our school house for our children 
erected, and will open our school in the same by the first of May. 
We have made six bridges over creeks and gulches, and made five 
miles of roads. We have our tinshop in running order and three 
men working in it, have shoemakers, saddlers, wagon makers, 
stonemasons, carpenters, joiners, sawyers, machinists, gardeners, 
farmers and other trades, at work. Our bell is carrying its clear 
notes across the once quiet and serene vallej^, proclaiming that 
civilization, thrift and diligence have arrived, where a short time 
ago but the savage and the wild beasts of the forests were growling 
at one another. We shall go to work in a very short time and 
begin making the Oak Creek road, shortening the distance be- 
tween us and Canon City twenty-seven miles. The eighty-six 
members of our society now in the valley are all Repubhcan 
voters, and we will support our party here, as we have done before 
in Chicago and elsewhere. We will work earnestly and with 
mahce to none, but good will to all, try to earn us a prosperous 
home and the long sought-for happiness of independence. I hope 
that this will answer all letters people have kindly directed to me. 

Respectfully, 

Carl Wulsten. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



97 



[German Activities in Wet Mountain Valley.] 
WET MOUNTAIN VALLEY. ^ 

Colfax, Col., April 8, 1870. 

Editors News: — Wet Mountain Valley is settling very fast. 
The German colony, under command of Col. Wulstein, arrived on 
the 20th of last month, and from every appearance seem to be well 
satisfied with the country. They have done no building yet, but 
are working like beavers: plowing, sowing, planting, getting out 
timber, preparing to erect their mills, &c. The colony numbers 
just three hundred of whom over one-third are men. They are 
fully equipped with everything necessary to carry on farming on 
a large scale. They are at work on the co-operative plan; each 
member having already paid into the general fund .*250. Out of 
this fund all expenses are paid. This co-operative arrangement 
is to hold good for five years; at the expiration of which time a 
division of property is to take place. I am satisfied from what I 
have seen that it will prove a success, under the management of 
Col. Wulstein. Ere long this valley, one of the brightest spots 
in Colorado, will by industry be made brighter still. It will soon 
be made to blossom as the rose. 

The colony has settled in the south, or upper end of the valley, 
and their claim covers about six by eight miles. This, however, 
is but a small part of the valley. Aside from the colony there are 
about 75 persons already settled here, who have built about twenty 
houses; all neat log cabins, built for the most part this spring. 
There is a saw-mill situated on Grape Creek at the north end of 
the valley, built and owned by Mr. Hager. 

The valley is very productive. I made experiments here last 
summer, with potatoes, turnips, and small grain; they all did well, 
without irrigation. Plums, gooseberries, grapes and currants, 
grow larger here than in any other place I ever saw, vvhile our 
streams abound in trout, and the hills are full of bear, deer, elk, 
antelope and wild turkeys; the valley is bordered with the best of 
timber — pine, oak, cottonwood, pinon and balm of Gilead. In 
the foot hills, we have an abundance of building stone, both lime 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 14. 1870, p. 1. 



98 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



and sand stone. There is no lack of water. Mountain streams 
water this modern Eden, at convenient distances, throughout the 
valley. 

In conclusion I will say that there is plenty of room yet, but 
chances will soon all be taken; I mean room for families, sober and 
industrious, who wish to come here to make homes, but for loafers 
and adventurers, there is no room. Men of families coming into 
the valley, will receive aid and encouragement, but as for the stake 
sticking gentry we do not want them. Say to all good men come; 
build houses, and dwell among us. 

E. P. Home. 



[WuLSTEN ''Damned the Dutch."] 
^General Wulsten writes a letter from Wet Mountain Valley, 
under date of April 14th, which is published in the Denver Tribune. 
The first column of this letter is a weak effort at school boy rhetoric, 
but in the concluding portion, we are given some interesting in- 
formation in regard to the doings of the colony in their new home. 
The writer says: 

*'We are in the valley three weeks. . . ."'-^ 
Before closing his letter, the General remarks — merely in the 
way of statistics, we presume — that there were but three persons 
in all Colorado who did not welcome the colony in coming here. 
These three persons he kindly mentions by name and says they are 
mean enough to ''damn the Dutch." Now this is cyphering the 
matter down to a fine point, but we think we can simmer it down 
still finer, and reduce the number from three to one. We have 
never heard of but one person in all the country who has ever 
"damned the Dutch," and that was the author of this letter; the 
redoubtable Brigadier General himself. Do you not remember, 
dear Carl, that in less than a week after the colony had arrived 
on the ground, and when a majority of the society had become so 
disgusted with you as a leader that they met and agreed to vote 
you out, that you, in the presence of several gentlemen who are 
our informants, exclaimed in very good English that you "wished 
the damned colony was in Hell?" You cannot have forgotten 

^Colorado Chieftain. April 21, 1870, p. 1. 
^Section omitted may be found on p. 96. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



99 



this, General, unless your memory is as short as the time since the 
circumstance happened. 

SERIOUS DIFFICULTY IN PUEBLO. ^ 

Shooting of Carl Wulsten. 

Sam McBride the Assaulting Party. 

{Special to the Tribune) 
Pueblo, April 21, 1870— Mr. Carl Wulsten, President of the 
German Colonization Company of Colfax, Fremont county, was 
assaulted this forenoon in the post office, by Samuel McBride, 
proprietor of the Colorado Chieftain, of this place, and shot through 
the left arm above the elbow. He is now in a critical condition. 
The assault was premeditated, and in the opinion of the public 
without any provocation. 

A CHIEFTAIN SLANDER DISPROVED.^ 
The Pueblo Chieftain has led the democratic press of the terri- 
tory in false and malignant assaults on the German colony in Wet 
Mountain Valley, and their leader, Carl Wulsten. The only 
reason for so inhospitable and brutal a reception to a band of hardy, 
industrious, enterprising, and every way desirable settlers, is that 
they are avowed republicans in politics. Nothing need be said, 
we hope, to characterize the meanness of such treatment of emi- 
grants, who have given no other cause of offense. 

In its issue of the twenty-first the Chieftain had an article full 
of low abuse of Mr. Wulsten, in the course of which it said: 

Before closing his letter the General remarks, merely in the 
way of statistics, we presume, that there were but three persons 
in all Colorado who did not welcome the colony in coming here. 
These three persons he kindly mentions by name and says they 
were mean enough to ''damn the Dutch." Now this is cyphering 
the matter down to a fine point, but we think we can simmer it 
down still finer, and reduce the number from three to one. We 
have never heard of but one person in all the country who has 
ever "damned the Dutch," and that was the author of this letter; 

Waily Colorado Tribune, April 22, 1870, p. 1. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 25, 1870, p. 1 



100 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



the redoubtable Brigadier General himself. Do you not remember, 
dear Carl, that in less than a week after the colony had arrived on 
the ground, and when a majority of the society had become so 
disgusted with you as a leader that they met and agreed to vote 
you out, that you, in the presence of several gentlemen who are 
our informants, exclaimed in very good English that you ''wished 
the damned colony was in hell?" You cannot have forgotten this, 
General, unless your memory is as short as the time since the cir- 
cumstance happened. 

We had no doubt that this was utterlj^ false, when we read it, 
and we are now able to prove it so. The man who is base enough 
to invent and circulate such slanders would not hesitate at assass- 
ination, if he had the opportunity, and he did make the attempt. 
The following affidavit settles the matter, and fixes the brand of 
gratuitous and malicious falsehood indelibly upon the Chieftain: 

AFFIDAVIT 



Territory of Colorado 
Pueblo County 




We, the undersigned, members of the German Colonization 
Company, of Colfax, Fremont County, Colorado, being first duly 
sworn, on oath depose and say that we are each and all of us mem- 
bers of said company, that Carl Wulsten is now and has been since 
its organization president of said company, and that the statement 
published in the Colorado Chieftain that the company had become 
disgusted with his leadership and voted him out of said company 
is false. jas. t. judd, 

FRITZ JESKE, 
JOHN WILMERRZ, 
JOSEF WOLF, 
CHARLES WERHAN, 
ERNST MESEKE, 
AUGUST SCHWARGE, 
KERNREL RIESTER. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this twenty-first day of 
April, A. D., 1870. John D. Miller, 

County Clerk. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 101 

[Wulsten-McBride Affair.] 
^From Vincent Krieg, who was in Pueblo at the time of the 
Wulsten-McBride affray, we obtain the following particulars: 
Wulsten had been in Pueblo two or three days before the shooting 
occurred, and had had one dispute with McBride relative to 
articles in the Chieftain derogatory to himself, but it appears with- 
out obtaining satisfaction. They had some trouble the evening 
before the shooting. On Thursday forenoon McBride went into 
the Postoffice where Wulsten also was. A few words ensued, 
McBride saying: ''Hallo, Wulsten, are you sober now?" Wul- 
sten replied by asking if he wanted to abuse him again, and called 
him a s — of a b — , whereupon McBride drew a revolver and shot 
him, the ball passing through the left arm above the elbow. He 
then cocked his pistol and pointed it at Wulsten's head, who threw 
up his arm. The shot went over his head. Wulsten then ran out 
of doors, drew his pistol and called on McBride to com^e and fight 
it out, applying the word "coward" and the like, to him, while the 
blood was streaming down his arm. McBride failed to accept the 
invitation, and Wulsten proceeded to a doctor's and had his wound 
dressed. 

[The Germans Said to Lack a Preacher.] 
^Carl W^ulsten's Colony we are told, has come provided with 
all kinds of skilled artizans — except clergymen. Not a minister 
is to be found in the precinct. There will evidently be no preach- 
ing politics from the pulpit, but how are they all to marry? And 
when their barns are all built larger; their metaphysics all dis- 
cussed, and their earthly accounts balanced — who is to dignify 
their burials, b}^ the administration of christian rites? 

[More Light on Wulsten-McBride Affair.] 
A CARD.3 

The undersigned, citizens of Pueblo, have read, with a feeling 
of painful surprise, the telegram recently published in the Denver 
Tribune, purporting to give an account of the late affray between 
Carl Wulsten and Mr. Sam. McBride. A recent article in the 



Waily Colorado Tribune, April 26, 1870, p. 4. 
Waily Central City Register, April 27, 1870, p. 4. 
^Colorado Chieftain, April 28, 1870, p. 3. 



102 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Denver News, headed ''Attempt at Political Assassination" has 
also attracted our attention. These statements, whatever may 
have been the motive of their authors, are unqualifiedly false. 
Mr. McBride had been goaded by repeated threats of personal 
injury, and by language as vile and insulting as possible, before 
the unfortunate rencontre. This fact renders false the statement 
that the so-called assault was unprovoked, and shows conclusively 
that Mr. McBride, who is in frail and feeble health, had the best 
possible reason to anticipate violence at the hands of Wulsten. 
The statement that he premeditated an attack upon the latter is 
also utterly groundless. The farther allegation that public senti- 
ment is against Mr. McBride is equally untruthful. Justice to a 
worthy and highly respectable citizen demands the refutation of 
these slanderous statements: 
[signed by 50 men]. 

Pueblo, Colorado, April 26th, 1870. 



[Editor of The Chieftain on the Shooting of Wulsten.] 
^On Wednesday evening, April 20th, just after The Chieftain 
had gone to press, Mr. Carl Wulsten came into our office apparent- 
ly in good humor, and expressed himself as being anxious to have 
certain startling rumors of murders by Indians laid before the 
pubUc. We said in reply that the paper had gone to press, and 
that if it had not we could not publish such startling and exciting 
news without being satisfied that it was well authenticated. 
This conversation being closed his eye fell upon a humorous article 
in The Chieftain in which his name had been used. He imme- 
diately became very violent in his language and manner. He 
pulled a revolving pistol which he wore at a belt, around in front 
of his person — said that he would ''thrash" us — would "follow" us 
"to the end of the world but that he would have revenge." These 
savage threats of personal violence were accompanied by language 
too filthy and abusive for our columns^ which language was after- 
wards repeated on the streets in presence of a number of our 
citizens. We were totally unarmed and in feeble health and made 
very little reply of any kind, concluding that the presence of others 



^Colorado Chieftain, April 28, 1870, p. 2. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



103 



would probably restrain him from then and there proceeding to 
acts of violence. After this altercation closed we took occasion 
to arm ourself in anticipation of an attack. Early the next morn- 
ing the fact came to our knowledge that he had freely repeated 
his threatening language up to a late hour of the night. We may 
say at this point that we as well as others who witnessed his dem- 
onstrations early on Wednesday evening, supposed that he was 
somewhat intoxicated. Shortly after this last series of threats 
came to our knowledge we entered the post office, as usual every 
morning, without knowing that Wulsten was there. On seeing 
him but a few feet away we asked him if he was ''sober this morn- 
ing." He replied, ''What do you mean?" We said, "I want you 
to retract the language and threats you made yesterday evening." 
His second reply was, "Do you mean to insult me?" accompanied 
by an attempt to draw his revolver which appeared to stick in 
the scabbard. We then fired the shot which wounded his arm. 
This is an unvarnished and correct account of an affair denounced 
by a newspaper contemporary as an act of "pohtical assassina- 
tion," the telegraphic account of which, written in Mr. Wolsten's 
room and carried to the telegraph office by an intimate friend and 
fellow colonist, was transmitted as coming from a "member of the 
Colfax colony." . . . [The remainder of this editorial largely 
angry comment on the article in the News.] 



[Colonies and Politics,] 
^The Transcript draws a comparison between Wulsten 's 
Colony and that from Georgia, praising the latter at the expense 
of the former. Cause why — the Georgians are from a rebel State 
and the Transcript takes it for granted that they are constitution- 
all}^ Democrats. The Germans are Republicans. 

FROM PUEBL0.2 



The McBride- Wulsten Shooting Affair. 

Pueblo, April 28. — For two days I have been engaged in in- 
vestigating the late shooting affair between Sam McBride, of the 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, April 29, 1870, p. 1. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, May 2, 1870, p. 1. 



104 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Chieftain, and Carl Wulsten, president of the German colony. As 
I sit down to write, I am fully aware of the necessity of being just 
and fair to both parties, and am equalh^ aware of the difficulty 
of the task I have assumed. Out of all the occurrences I have 
ever been called on, as a journalist, to investigate, this one is the 
most mixed, and if I fail to give a fully correct statem.ent of the 
affair it will not be because I have not tried to obtain the facts, 
but because of the mass of contradictory testimony which now 
presses upon me, and from which I must now weave something 
like a connected story and give to my readers as truthful and im- 
partial a statement as I am able to do. 

The original cause of the trouble was the articles which have 
from time to time appeared in the Chieftain, regarding the colony, 
the manner in which they came here, and Carl Wulsten, their 
leader. Regarding these articles which appeared up to the time 
of the arrival of the colony at this place, the least criticism which 
can be passed upon them is that they were unwise, impolitic, in- 
sulting and unjust, and calculated to arouse the ire of a man as 
excitable as Carl Wulsten. Such at least they did, and when 
W^ulsten arrived here, he passed some justly cutting remarks upon 
the paper, and had some personal conversation with McBride 
concerning the articles on the streets. Everything, however, 
passes off quietly, and the colony at last arrived in the Wet 
Mountain valley. Then came Wulsten's letter to the Tribune, 
and his arrival again in Pueblo on Wednesday evening, April 20. 
He went to the Chieftain office, and found McBride in, it being 
about supper time, and both parties in the best of humor. Wul- 
sten wished to have some rumors of a Ute outbreak published, but 
McBride said it was too late for that issue of the paper, as it was 
then on the press. Wulsten then subscribed for the paper, and 
while McBride was entering his name on the books he picked up 
the paper in which the last offensive articles were published and 
read them. He canceled his subscription, and demanded the 
names of his informants regarding the statements made in them. 
This was refused, and a war of words ensued. McBride says 
Wulsten was insulting, abusive and threatening, and Wulsten 
says that McBride was also insulting and unsatisfactory. The 
two left the office, and came down on the main street, where the 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



105 



war of words was resumed and reached a very abusive nature. 
Wulsten says — ''I told him that unless he would ^ive me his in- 
formant, I would have to consider him as the liar." McBride says — 
"Wulsten called me a d-d liar. I am told he called me a s-n of a 
b-ch. This last I did not hear, for I was very angry." A gentle- 
man, who is b}" the wa}' a personal friend of both parties, says — 
heard the conversation on Wednesday evening, and when they 
separated Wulsten says ''you are a g-d d-d liar," and McBride re- 
torted "you are a g-d d-d drunken fool." 

With such language or something similar the two men sep- 
arated on Wednesday evening. Wulsten was armed, and McBride 
was not. Wulsten was not drunk, as I am told by several, and he 
himself sa3^s he has drunk no liquor for two months. iMcBride 
armed himself with two Derringers, and w^as informed that Wul- 
sten had made threats against his life. Wulsten admits saying 
that unless the Chieftain ceased its attacks on him he would be 
obliged to "thresh" McBride, but says he threatened nothing more. 
He claims to have had no idea of using fire arms. Thus matters 
stood at the time of the meeting on Thursday morning. 

On Thursday morning McBride entered the postoffice. That 
he went there in search of Wulsten I hardly believe, for I have very 
conclusive testimonj- on that point from Hon. H. C. Thatcher. 
Wulsten was there, however, engaged in examining an express 
package he had just received. McBride says, "Are you sober 
this morning?" Wulsten replied, "What do you mean?" Ale- 
Bride says, "I mean that you shall retract the language and 
threats 3''ou made last evening." "Do \o\\ intend to come here 
to insult me again," sa3^s Wulsten; and just here occurs a very 
important difference in the testimony. McBride saj'S that with 
Wulsten's last remark he made an effort to draw his pistol, where- 
upon he (McBride) fired. Wulsten says he made no motion for 
his pistol, and that McBride fired upon him while his hands were 
filled with twine, and that he had no idea that McBride was about 
to shoot. Allowing the reader to draw his own conclusions re- 
garding the correctness of the two statements, it may be stated 
positively that McBride fired two shots with evident intent to 
kill, the first of which took effect in Wulsten's left arm, inflicting 
a severe and painful flesh wound, but not a dangerous one. Wul- 



106 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



sten did not get his pistol out until after he got out of the post- 
office into the streets, and then did not fire it, but went at once to 
Dr. Thombs, who dressed his wound, and under whose care he is 
now doing well. Wulsten is improving rapidly, and I believe will 
soon be able to return to the colony, where he is very anxious to be. 

Such is as near a correct statement as I am able to give of this 
unfortunate occurrence. Regarding the feeling here, I can very 
readily assert that there are two parties. McBride's friends have 
been most active, and the result is the ''card" which appeared in 
the last issue of the Chieftain denouncing the News and Tribune. 
It could be met by a counter one, for McBride is by no means sus- 
tained by all Pueblo. Neither is Wulsten. The feeling is becom- 
ing political. The democrats, so far as I know, sustain McBride, 
to a man, and there are some republicans who also do; while many 
of the influential members of the republican party denounce the 
affair as a premeditated attempt at political assassination, and 
endorse fully the editorial published in the News. Not a few, 
and I beheve a majority of the signers of that ''card" did so on 
"hear-say" evidence; and I am also told that some of them would 
like to withdraw their names. This latter statement, however, 
I have only on hear-say. Whether McBride's attack was pre- 
meditated or not, whether it was political or not, one thing is 
certain, his paper has assumed a position toward these colonists 
that is both unfriendly and unjust, and as the paper is democratic 
in its tone and tendencies, republicans naturally inquire — Why is 
this so? I can answer the question on no other ground than that 
these emigrants are republicans. 

Since writing the above paragraphs, I have met two persons 
who assert that one of the employes of the Chieftain office was 
standing near the door of the postoffice, armed with a large club. 
This the employe denies, however. One of the two parties also 
asserts that he saw the first shot fired, and that Wulsten was 
making no attempt to get at his pistol, and that he was taken 
entirely at a disadvantage, and that McBride on coming out of 
the postoffice remarked that he "permitted no man to call him a 
liar without making him account for it." On the other hand this 
whole thing is denied in toto by the employe referred to before. 

Such is a statement of this case, as near as I can get at it. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



107 



I have tried to place it fairly before the public, and now express 
no personal opinion. McBride waived an examination and has 
given bonds of $1,000 to appear at the next term of the district 
court. The affair will therefore be judicially investigated. 

W. R. T. 



[WuLSTEN Not Intoxicated.] 

^An inteUigent German, recently arrived from Chicago, in- 
forms the News that he has long been the intimate personal friend 
of Carl Wulsten, and says the report that he was drunk at the time 
of his difficulty with McBride cannot be true, because he never 
knew Wulsten to drink anything stronger than beer, and very 
seldom even a glass of that. 



[Progress in German Colony.] 

^Mr. Billy Marchant returned from the Wet Mountain 

Valley on Sunday. He looks as brown and hardy as an old moun- 
taineer, and gives us the following interesting items from that 
locality. The German colony have sown 125 acres of grain, and 
propose putting in 100 acres more. The whole is to be fenced. 
There is a colony garden of 30 acres, and each family have a garden 
of 50x100 feet. There are 125 families and 28 single men in the 
colony, the latter being mechanics. The saw mill will be running 
in about forty days. The colonists are living in tents. A house 
25x80 has been erected, and is well finished, and contains the post 
office, the treasurer's and secretary's office and five stores on the 
lower floor, and on the upper floor there is a school room. There 
are 28 American famiUes, and about 100 Americans — men, in all. 
The valley will doubtless cast about 400 votes, and contains not 
less than 1,000 inhabitants. There is a daily increase in this 
number. The feeling in the colony toward Wulsten and among 
themselves is most friendly, and everything is progressing pros- 
perously and well. There is not one-twentieth of the valley yet 
occupied. There is no need for irrigation, water is abundant, 
timber plenty, and grass most luxuriant. No finer valley exists 
among the Mountains of Colorado, and none is destined to be more 

Waily Central City Register, May 3, 1870, p. 4. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, May 24, 1870, p. 4. 



108 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



quickly developed. Its opportunities for stock growing are ex- 
cellent, its soil rich and productive, and nothing is wanted but 
labor, capital and enterprise to hasten its progress. There is no 
section to which we wish better success. 



THE GERMAN COLONY. ^ 
Their Doings to the Present Time. 
Tents, Log Houses, Hotel, Mills, 
School, Crops, Gardens, &c. 



Everything Prospering. 



Colfax, Fremont Co., C. T., 
May 13, 1870. 

Messrs. Woodbury & Walker: — 
Having from time to time seen in the columns of your paper 
notices of our Colony, I thought perhaps a few lines concerning 
our affairs might not be unwelcome. 

When we emigrated to this country it was not, it is true, under 
so many disadvantages as did many of the settlers of your city 
and the surrounding towns, but still, to persons entirel}^ ignorant 
of the hardships and requirements of a ''trip across the plains," 
it was quite a tax upon their patience and endurance, but we stuck 
to it, leaving Chicago the 8th of February and Fort Wallace, 
Kansas, the 25th, arriving safely, and with no accident worthy of 
mention, at our destination, March 21st in the afternoon. 

To persons as famihar with this portion of the country, as it 
is presumed most of your readers are, a description of the scenery 
of our valley would be superfluous, but to us, coming from the 
swamps and prairies of Illinois, it constitutes one of their chief 
attractions of our new home. 

The valley being long and narrow, does not confine the vision, 
and each day discovers some new beauty in our surroundings, as 
spring advances. 

We have been here too short a time to judge of the cUmate, 
but so far, it seems as favorable as the most exacting could require. 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, May 26, 1870, p. 1. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



109 



Upon our arrival here we found so much to be done that 
seemed of equal importance, that after due consideration it was 
deemed advisable to form the Company into ''squads," setting one 
squad upon each portion of the work. Thus to a casual observer, 
scarce anything seemed to be doing, but a great amount has been 
accomplished nevertheless. 

We have one large building containing over 6,000 feet of 
lumber, all hewn and formed of hea\'y timber, the interstices woven 
with willow twigs instead of laths and plastered, outside and in- 
side. This building will contain (for the present) a store, drug- 
store, and business offices, while above there is a large hall intended 
for any purpose that a hall may be required. We have a large 
blacksmith shop ''in full blast," a tin and cooper shop, and all 
the trades under progress to a greater or less extent. 

We are still living in tents, but expect to vacate them in a 
short time for log houses, which are nearly ready for erection, the 
entire buildings being prepared ready for joining, which requires 
but a short time. These (about 100) are intended as but tem- 
porary houses. A number of men are engaged in burning brick 
and lime, (for which we have an abundance of material) which 
will furnish us in a short time with substantial brick houses, 
which are to have all the "modern improvements." 

There are over 400 acres of ground under cultivation, of which 
wheat, rye, oats, barley, etc., form the staple articles — all up and 
looking finely. Also several hundred acres more are being pre- 
pared for seed. 

The private gardens are a little removed from town, and this 
year consist of an equal portion of ground given each member, 
and enclosed together. It is a little inconvenient, but it is only 
for one season, and next year every man will have his garden sur- 
rounding his house. 

We have splendid water, of course, and good timber. 

The saw mill is being put up about one mile from town. 
It is over one hundred horse-power, and v\dll be of immense ad- 
vantage to us and the surrounding country. Connected with it 
is a grist and planing mill, lath, shingle, sash, door and blind ma- 
chines. All are prospering, despite the opposition some of the 



110 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



residents of Colorado favor us with. Indeed, the more opposition, 
the more benefit, as it will and does attract others to join us whom 
we gladly welcome. 

We have also a school district designated and known as the 
8th School District, and will soon have a school house, and can 
reasonably expect to have a school worthy of Colorado, as we have 
among us several professional teachers. 

Neither have we forgotten the traveling public, as our next 
building is to be a hotel, where we can furnish all who favor us with 
a call, with a wholesome meal and a clean bed at living prices. 

We have been singularly fortunate regarding health, there 
having been no illness save that of several men who were injured 
by being cut while hewing timber, and who are all well or nearly 
so, and the sickness and death of several children, and an old 
woman, who really died of old age. Five infant children died, 
and seven have been born since we left Chicago, There has not 
yet been a single case of illness from disease, so Colfax must both 
lie in a healthy climate and possess a healthy population. 

But I fear I am occupying too much space in your valuable 
columns, so for the present, adieu. 

J. T. J. 



[Prospects Good in German Colony.] 
^Charles Steinle has just returned to Black Hawk, from Wet 
Mountain Valle}^ The colonists all appear satisfied, and are 
busily at work. There have six families joined since their loca- 
tion, and applications for admission are made daily. The Colony 
have their crops mostly planted, and own a saw mill that is busily 
engaged in sawing out lumber for their flouring mill and their 
houses. There has but one family left the colony, and that was 
by reason of ill health. There are two stores there now, on one 
of the other of which, each single man is allowed a credit of two 
dollars for every day's work. The town is laid out, and as soon 
as spring duties will permit, is to be built up. Wulsten is about 
leaving for a short trip to Washington, with the intention of pro- 
curing an additional grant of land, if possible. The colonists may 
well be pleased, as their prospects are very good. 

Waily Ceniral City Register. June 3, 1870, p. 4. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



111 



[No Special Grant of Land to German Colonists.] 
^It has been stated that Col. Wulsten, president of the German 
colony in Wet Mountain valley, has gone to Washington to pro- 
cure an additional grant of land for the colony. We know nothing 
on the subject beyond this brief statement, but the word "addi- 
tional" has no application to the case, as no grant of land has ever 
been made to the colony. The colonists take their lands under 
the provisions of the homestead law, like other settlers. If Col. 
Wulsten has gone to ask for a gift of land to the colony, it is not 
at all likely to be secured. Congress has never made any such 
grant, and is not likel}^ to estabhsh a precedent which must be 
followed in all other cases, unless settlers on the public lands are 
to be partiallj^ treated, and discriminations made in behalf of 
some to the disadvantage of others. The homestead law is Hberal 
enough, and is just and impartial in its provisions. 



[Wulsten in Denver.] 
^Col. Carl Wulsten, president of the German colony of Wet 
Mountain valley, arrived here yesterday, and is stopping at the 
American. He is en route to Washington on important business 
for the colon}^ The colonel was urged by many of his friends to 
stay and have McBride indicted at the next meeting of the grand 
jury, but he considers the interests of the colony as being of vasth^ 
more importance than his own, and will not let his personal affairs 
interfere with the duties he owes to the colony as its chief executive 
officer. He will address the Turners at their hall tonight. We 
are pleased to welcome him to Denver and are sorry that he can- 
not remain longer with us. 

[Amendment to Homestead Law Urged.] 
^Carl Wulsten's effort to get a grant of lands for the German 
Colony of Colfax, has been spoken of in the Democratic papers of 
the Territory, either as an accomplished fact or likely to become 
so, and the reason assigned is invariably that of politics. We 
have said but little on the subject thus far, because we did not 
know positively the status of the bill or what it proposed to do. 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, June 6, 1870, p. 1. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, June 10, 1870, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, June 14, 1870, p. 1. 



112 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



In conversation with Mr. Wulsten a few days ago, we obtained 
his idea relative to the matter, and think it a very good one in- 
deed. It is not to obtain a grant of lands as such grants are gen- 
erally given, but to make the homestead law applicable to in- 
corporated societies or colonies, as well as to individuals. For 
instance, at present, a person may locate on 160 acres, and at the 
end of five years obtain title to his land by virtue of the improve- 
ments. One hundred men doing the same would thus take 16,000 
acres of government land. Mr. Wulsten wishes to make the 
homestead law applicable to his colony as a whole, that is, obtain 
a grant of lands in a body, equal to 160 times the number of men 
belonging to the colony actually living on the lands. It is well 
known that the men of the Colfax colony are poor. They have 
escaped from the over-crowded streets of Chicago, where the best 
they could hope for was to obtain regular daily wages, enough to 
keep them supplied with the necessaries of life, and to occupy a 
humble tenement in some by-corner of the city: and are now 
established in a cit}^ of their own, where they can be their own 
masters and live a life ten thousand times preferable to that which 
they have left. There they can improve their condition as God 
has given them a right to do, but being all poor, their progress 
must be slow, and if they can increase the rapidity of their success 
in any manner, v/e bid them God-speed. Now the effect of getting 
the lands to which they are entitled, in one body, while it takes 
no more acres from the United States than the colony is entitled 
to by existing law, yet according to Mr. Wulsten's designs, it 
would give them the means of raising sufficient sums of money 
to improve their condition at once. A large tract of land, bonded 
by the incorporated society, could be made to command a large 
sum of money. It strikes us as a very good amendment to the 
Homestead law — to allow colonies the same privilege an individual 
now has. It would result in populating the country with thrifty 
colonies, instead of a few coming now and then, straggling here 
and there as at present. It certainly is a method worth trying, 
and we hope Mr. Wulsten may be successful in his attempt. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



113 



[Life in the German Colony.] 
From our Traveling Correspondent.^ 



Colfax, Freemont County, 
June 25, 1870. 

We are up where the melting snows drip down upon us in 
gentle showers each afternoon, and in refreshing dews at evening. 
The air is highly tonic, salubrious, and intensely briUiant. In the 
cool of the morning before the heat of the sun had veiled the moun- 
tains with misty clouds; when the face of this green valley was 
bathed in a limpid translucent atmosphere; where beautiful birds 
of song made mellow music over and around me; with snow-clad 
mountains at my back; where sixty miles away to the southeast 
the Spanish Peaks loomed up through the gray mist; and as I 
sweep the horizon with my telescopic vision. Greenhorn Mountain 
comes in range almost in front of me; still on the northeast, sev- 
enty-five miles. Pike's Peak is plainly discernable, with vast cliffs 
of snow clinging to its back, and a cloud speck playing around its 
culmination; fifteen miles intervene between me and the foot-hills 
of the low range of serrated mountains that form the eastern rim 
of this Alpine basin; a mountain stream is playing at my feet whose 
source is among the snows but a short distance above me. Such 
were my sensations on the morning of the 10th of June, as I rested 
on a little elevation one mile above the town of Colfax, at the foot 
of the western range that shelters Wet Mountain Valley. 

In company with Mr. Judd and Mr. Koch, two members of 
the German Colony, we left Canon City on the 7th inst., for the 
German's headquarters, via Oak Creek Pass. There is nothing 
remarkable about the trail except it may have been traversed by 
scalping blood-thirsty savages a hundred years before the voice of 
civilization began to echo through these wild solitudes. The 
approximate distance from Canon City to Colfax by the route 
traveled, in our judgment, is at least forty-five miles. We found 
a passable road for loaded teams the entire distance, save about 
ten miles. We would hate, however, to send any of our pleasure 
seeking friends over that "ten miles" if we ever expected to see 

Waily Colorado Tribune, June 28, 1870. p. 2. 



114 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



them again. That part of the route is in the canon where Oak 
Creek cuts its way through the first range of mountains and de- 
bouches among the foot-hills that border the plains. It is not quite 
impassable even for wagons, for some had passed through before 
us, and one young man whom we overtook after leaving Canon, 
passed through with two horses and a wagon, at the same time we 
did, and eight wagons of Germans followed soon after. 

There are efforts being made by the Colony and others of 
Freemont count}^ to secure by subscription a sufficient amount 
of money with which to make a tolerable road; but in my opinion 
they had best apply their means to a more feasible route — bridge 
the Arkansas at the McCandles Ford, go twenty miles farther 
round, with a good natural route, would save a thousand per cent, 
to the people and afford a better road than can possibly be made of 
the trail, b}^ any reasonable means. 

To some of our part}^ who were recentty from the East, the 
scenery by the trail and especially through the canon, was awe- 
inspiring and sublime. But to old Coloradans in general, and 
mountaineers it would be simply ''interesting." We have seen 
fifty places in the mountains as remarkable, and numbers emi- 
nently more wild-grand and sublime. 

The first night we camped at the head of the canon, twenty 
miles from Canon City. Our way through the canon was neces- 
sarily slow and wearisome, yet we stumbled on, over huge boulders, 
through dense jungles of mountain shrubbery, every few minutes 
splashing through a creek that zizzagged across our path about 
forty times, in a distance of five miles. Night spread her sable 
curtain over us, long before we reached the head of the canon, 
which was to be our camping place. Thus we were confined in a 
narrow mountain defile, with bold awful rocks and lofty mountains 
on either hand, with cimmerian darkness over us, and an appalling 
death-like silence all around. Our sensations, while plunging 
through the canon in the face of more than Egyptian night, can- 
not well be described : it made our ears tingle and our pulses beat 
so actively that we imagined we could almost hear them thump. 
Our horses instinctively trembled at every step. We shouted, 
sang, screamed and whistled, that we might dispel the weird and 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



115 



monotonous silence of the deep gloom that shut us in. Our horses 
were sure-footed, and they clung to the narrow trail that wound 
us up to the head of the canon with a degree of instinctive fortitude 
and self reliance, that greatly increased our attachment for the 
noble animals. My little French Canadian would every now and 
then stop and look up the immense perpendicular rocks that were 
to the right and left of us, as it contemplated the rugged grandeur 
of the scene, but if she could catch a glimpse of anything through 
the darkness, it was more than we could do. 

On arriving at the head of the canon we came to the wagon 
left by our friends as they came down. Here we arranged to put 
in the rest of the night. A fire was kindled, coffee was prepared, 
and we enjoyed the hospitality of our friends with a keen relish, 
while our pony luxuriated on a bountiful supply of grass and oats. 
We were awakened at early dawn by a great number and variety of 
birds that made vocal the little glen which served for our resting 
place. Breakfast over and we moved on. Our way for the next 
ten miles took us through the bluffs and foot hills between the first 
range and Wet Mountain Valley. There is nothing remarkabty 
interesting pertaining to that part of the route. The road winds 
over and around the low hills, through little parks and valleys, up 
and down and across quite a number of small shining branches 
that were almost hidden from view by the grandeur of grass along 
their borders. In the valley, and our curiosity is at once height- 
ened. For miles to the right and left and in front of us, we were 
greeted with a scene resembling a smooth shaven lawn, robed in 
emerald splendor, and rising with a gentle swell close up to the 
western range. We enter the valley near its lower or northern 
end, cross Snake Creek, its principle tributary, and arrive at Mr. 
Wm. Vooris' for dinner. Here all things look inviting. Their 
little milk house on the brink of Swift Creek, is a model of neat- 
ness. Their table groaned beneath a load of such deHcacies as 
are not often met with in these mountains. We marked them as 
a people of culture and refinement, which we found to be true on 
a further acquaintance. 

There are fifteen or twenty families living in this part of the 
valley, and weekly additions of one or more swell that number. 
Their mail facilities are very inconvenient; the mail route should 



116 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



be directed through here, and an office established in this neigh- 
borhood; we hope the Department will not fail to accommodate 
these aspiring pioneers at an early day, Canon City, forty miles 
away, is now their pos toff ice address. 

We are yet fifteen miles from Colfax, and must bid adieu to 
this section for the present, and hasten on to our destination. 
Our route is on the west side of Grape Creek, up the valley and 
along the mountains which slope to the east. The most interest- 
ing feature of this trip, is the great number of streams that flow 
down from the western range, and debouche their waters into 
Grape Creek, which flows at right angles with them, running north 
through the heart of the valley, and debouching into the Arkansas 
a short distance above Canon City. We were obliged to splash 
through near twenty considerable streams in making that fifteen 
miles; the largest portion of them were of a suitable size for good 
trout streams. If this section ever suffers from drought, it will be 
when the earth melts with fervent heat, and the elements roll up 
like a scroll. Five miles this side of Colfax, we pass on our right 
a beautiful body of pine timber, embracing an area of about one 
thousand acres, owned, held or claimed by one ''Captain Horn 
& Co." 

Colfax is situated on a slightly elevated pine ridge, about a 
half mile in width, and running back to the base of the mountains, 
a distance of two or three miles. The descent is considerable to 
the east, with a more moderate one to the north; while at the south, 
the country rises gradually above the town, and but a few miles 
to the west, some of it rises two thousand feet above the timber 
line. 

The Germans have selected for their future homes, a sightly, 
and beautifully romantic place. A foaming mountain torrent 
dashes through the grove near its southern border, which will 
serve the town with pure water, and drive all the manufacturing 
machinery they will require for many j^ears. On our arrival at 
the colony, we found them clustered together under some tall 
pines, and living in tents like a band of military. The babel of 
tongues that greeted my ears in the early morning, and at eve- 
ning when they were all in from their several employments, coming 
from the throats of three hundred people, who were hammering 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



117 



away with all their might, in EngUsh, German, French, Mexican, 
Italian, and some half dozen other languages, all at the same time, 
together with over a hundred goats, and a great number of chick- 
ens, with sheep, dogs, horses and cats, horrible peafouls and bray- 
ing mules, all massed in two acres of ground, and tooting their 
horns at once, may be imagined, but cannot be described. 

The town is laid out in square acre lots, and each member 
has assigned to him one of these parcels. The lots are all surveyed 
and numbered. The members innocently gamble for their places 
by drawing cuts, then each one selects the acre that corresponds 
with his number; thus they have no cause for complaint. The 
plan seems to work very well; it gives each family ample room for 
dwellings, out-buildings, gardens, etc. Shortly after our arrival 
they commenced to scatter out upon their lots, and in two or three 
days but very few remained of the original cluster. Thus was the 
strange confusion broken up — scattered through the forests, and 
buried in its depths. Headquarters had the appearance of a 
deserted village; and the little store, and the town-house, and the 
bell that was suspended between two trees nearby — the black- 
smith shop, the doctor's tent, and a few other tents, v/ere all that 
remained of that scrambling, nois}^, busy, busthng community 
that were there on our arrival. They had gone to work like 
an army of beavers, each upon his own little kingdom, clearing 
away the underbrush, trimming up the shrubbery, fencing in their 
lots, collecting material for their houses, and performing such in- 
genius labor as only the thrifty and industrious Germans have a 
disposition to do. I find it will prolong my letter to an immoderate 
length if I enter into all the details that might be interesting per- 
taining to this enterprising colony and their beautiful valley. I 
must, therefore, generalize. 

The colony is a co-operative companj^ each of the members 
having a common and general interest. They have a President, 
Vice-President and Treasurer. Their Secretary goes by the name 
of ''Book-keeper." The original terms of adm.ission to member- 
ship were $250.00; with a pro rata increase of fifty dollars per 
month. So that to become a full member on the first of June, 
with equal rights and privileges, required to be paid into the com- 
pany's treasury, the sum of four hundred dollars, and on the first 



118 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

of July it will require $450.00, and so on, for a time. The com- 
pany is organized for a term of five years, and no member has a 
right to withdraw during that time unless he forfeit his admission 
fee, and the labor he has already devoted, up to date of with- 
drawal. Members are not permitted to do business, or speculate, 
independent of the company. If a member has money or other 
capital, he may loan it to the company at ten per centum per 
annum. They are charged individually for everything obtained 
for themselves and families, and they are paid two dollars per day 
out of the company's fund for each day's work performed for the 
company. They have machines adapted to every branch of busi- 
ness necessary to such a colony. There are eighty-six members 
of the company, numbering about three hundred souls. They 
have on the ground the machinery for an excellent grist mill and 
saw-mill. One circular saw is already in operation, and the large 
mill will be completed within a few weeks. Their cattle number 
about one hundred head, mostly beef cattle, and very fat. They 
milk twelve or fifteen cows, and about one hundred goats. If I 
am not mistaken, they informed me their crop embraced an area 
of about one section of land, and their wheat was looking well. 
They have a company garden of about ten acres. But one m.em- 
ber has left the company since its organization, and that one by 
reason of poor health. They have some very good horses and 
mules and several head of work cattle. From all I could learn, 
there is harmony and general satisfaction among the members. 
The company's books are open to the inspection of any member or 
members of the organization, who may desire to examine them, 
and a committee is often appointed for that purpose. Everj^thing 
seems to be conducted in a fair and impartial manner. Their 
officers are men of large practical experience, and courteous gen- 
tlemen. Their men and women have generally large and well- 
developed physical organizations. The children were sun- 
browned, and tough as wild cats. We saw no pale, consumptive, 
ghostly-looking creatures among them. Old and young take to 
labor as natural as a duck takes to water. They have a brick- 
yard in full blast, which is turning out a very good quality of brick. 
I saw on the ground the machinery for a brewery, but they are so 
bountifully supphed with a more wholesome beverage in the life 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



119 



and health-giving waters which God has poured in glorious 
munificence all about them, that it may be sometime before they 
have that peculiarly German appendage in operation. Several 
fine showers have watered the valley during my stay here, and the 
whole face of it is covered over with a dense mat of the finest 
grasses that ever took root in a rich and genial soil. If the climate 
of winter in this valley will compare favorably with that of the 
summer, it certainty must be a delightful place to live in, both for 
man and beast. There can be no better dairy region in the world 
than this in summer. And I am told by those who have lived 
there in winter that they are not severe, and that their stock main- 
tain themselves on the range throughout its entire season. 

Three miles north-east of Colfax, in a cozy place of unsur- 
passed loveliness, lives Mr. D. M, Baker and his pleasant family, 
whom we had formerly known at Rushville, on Cherry Creek. 
He came here in April, and has sixty head of fine American cattle, 
a number of horses and mules — is prepared to do his own black- 
smithing and that of his neighbors. He has already completed 
quite a large and substantial dwelling house, and seems to be in a 
fair way to lead a life of ease and independence. I must bid the 
generous, warm-hearted Germans, and all others in the valley, 
(for such I found them,) a hearty good bye. If I have said what 
I should not have said, it has not been done through malice or 
prejudice; and if there are things not spoken that I should have 
said, my friends will remember it cannot be all told in a single 
letter. H. 



REORGANIZATION OF THE GERMAN COLONY.^ 

Office German Colonization Asso'n.,) 
Colfax, Col. Ter., June 30th, 1870./ 

Messrs. Woodbury Walker, Editors and Proprietors Colorado 
Tribune: — According to Article 6, Paragraph 4, of our Constitu- 
tion, the Board of Directors shall render a full report of all business 
transactions of the Society every three months, during a general 
meeting of all members of the Society, which shall be called for that 
particular purpose. 

Waily Colorado Tribune, July 22. 1870, p. 2. 



120 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



On account of the many urgent matters requiring the atten- 
tion of all hands, the accounts were not all recorded for the first 
quarter of the current year until some time in June, when the 
Company were informed that the books were ready for examina- 
tion. 

The Company selected Messrs. Louis Wilmers, Henry Olsen, 
Chas. Lanzendorfer, Henry Wessels and John Schopp, as a Com- 
mittee for this purpose, with instructions to report the result to 
them so soon as possible, in general meeting, which report was 
made on the 19th inst., in substance as follows: 

The Committee, after a critical, but impartial examination 
of the accounts, and the system adopted by the officers of this 
Company for the transacting of Company business, would state 
that, in their opinion those intrusted with it are incompetent, and 
that the interests of the Society require an immediate change, 
and suggest that all (but Mr. Wulsten, now absent) be suspended 
for one week, for the purpose of allowing time to consider what 
could best be done to serve the interests of all. 

The Company accepted the suggestion and appointed Mr. 
Henry Olsen, General Manager, pro tem. 

At the expiration of which time a general meeting was called, 
and all the members of the Board were present, except Mr. Wul- 
sten, President, who was absent. Geo. Merten, Treasurer, and 
Albert Philipp, Secretary, handed in their resignations, which 
were accepted, and Messrs. Frederick Diez, August Schwarze and 
Henry Wessels were elected Trustees for the unexpired term of '70. 

Messrs. Geo. Merten and Albert Philipp positively refusing to 
resign, the company, after due consideration concluded that the 
interests of this society demanded that they be suspended, which 
was done by the sanction of a large majority, and appointed Mr. 
John Koch, Treasurer pro tem., and Mr. Henry Olsen, Secretary 
pro tem. 

The authorized officers of this company are now — Carl 
Wulsten, President; Emil D. Nielsen, Vice-President; John Koch, 
Treasurer pro tem.; Henry Olsen, Secretary pro tem.: Frederick 
Diez, August Schwarze, and Henry Wessels, Trustees. 

These changes have been made from a sense of duty, and want 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



121 



of confidence in the executive and business ability of the former 
administration. 

The old members are among the most respected men of this 
company socially, and no one of them has been charged with any 
criminal act, man}^ of their warmest friends advocating a change. 

Since the election everything moves on as if by magic, peace- 
fully and quietly, each and every one accepting and performing 
cheerfully the duty assigned him. 

This is a fair and impartial statement of facts. Yours re- 
spectfully, Henry Olsen, 

Sec'y pro. tern,, 

German Colonization Association. 

P. S. Since writing the above, Mr. Charles Lanzendorfer has been 
elected an additional trustee for the unexpired term of 1870. 

Henry Olsen, 

Sec'y pro. tern. 



[North Missouri Railroad Praised by Wulsten.] 

^Carl Wulsten publishes a card in the Missouri Democrat 

to C. N. Pratt, general agent of the National Land Company at 
Chicago, and to Mr. Moore, local agent of the same at Kansas 
City, for their kindness and attention to the new colonists he has 
just brought out. Of the North Missouri railroad and its officers 
and employees he says: "The courtesy and consideration given 
to the welfare and comfort of members of the German Coloniza- 
tion Company of Colfax, Colorado, entitles them to the highest 
kind of praise. The officers and employes of this road studiously 
endeavored to make us comfortable, carry us and our property 
safe and without delay over their road, and are entitled to this 
public acknowledgement. We heartily recommend this railroad 
to our countrymen and colonies." We ask attention to this most 
favorable notice of the North Missouri by General Wulsten as 
endorsing what we said the other day and would suggest to our 
readers that tickets over it can be purchased from D. Tom Smith, 
at the Kansas Pacific railway office. 



^Dailu Rocky Mountain News, August 21, 1870, p. 4. 



122 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Good Crops in Wet Mountain Valley.] 

— ^Mr. E. P. Horne is in town from the Wet Mountain valley, 
and informs us that Gen. Carl Wulsten has been succeeded in the 
presidency of the Colfax colony by Henry Olson. . . . The 
farmers are mostly done harvesting, and have had excellent crops. 
Potatoes yielded most remarkably, as did the wheat, oats and 
barley, and all grains and vegetables. . . . Some farmers lost 
their crops by early frosts, but none who sowed in time. . . . 
The yield of hay is large and probably no finer crop of grass was 
ever gathered. . . . The United States surveyors are at work 
in the valley. . . . Many colonists are coming in and the gen- 
eral affairs of the colony are prosperous, as are also those of the 
valley. Success to this growing section. 



[Nielsen Succeeds Wulsten as President of German 
Colony.] 

^Gen. Carl Wulsten writes us that he has resigned the office 
of President of the German Colony at Colfax, and that he has 
ceased to be a member of the above Colony. He may be addressed 
hereafter at Canon City. Mr. Emil D. Nielson, Vice-President 
of the colony, has been promoted to the Presidency. 



[Some Colonists Leave Wet Mountain Valley.] 

^The Colfax Colony. — As we go to press, Emil D. Nielson, late 
President of the German Colonization Society, at Colfax, Fremont 
county, Mr. Schleuter and family, and many others, numbering 
in all about twenty-five persons, have just arrived in Pueblo from 
Wet Mountain Valley. The heads of these families are excellent 
artisans, and have already found employment. From necessity, 
as but few, if any, houses can be rented, some of them are com- 
pelled to build at once. Hence-forward these industrious, useful, 
sturdy Germans will make Pueblo their home. The wisdom of 
their choice no one can doubt. Other members of the German 
colony will soon follow in their wake. 

^ Daily Rocky Mountain News, September 12, 1870, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, September 20, 1870, p. 4. 
^Colorado Chieftain, November 10, 1870, p. 3. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



123 



[Failure of German Coloxy.] 

(In a description of Wet Mountain valley conditions, written by 
an agent of the paper now returned) ^ 

So far I have not said much in reference to the German Colony 
from the fact that their affairs are so mixed up that I don't know 
what to say. From all I can gather from the contradictory nature 
of the reports in circulation concerning them, I should conclude 
they are in rather a ''bad row of stumps." To use the expression 
of a member of the colon}^, they "habe peen schwintle out of 
ebretings", and ''habe peen humpug" ever since the}^ "goom into 
te walley". The reader can form his own conclusions as to the 
source from which their troubles came. It is unfortunately true 
that they did not raise anything this season to live on this winter 
and during the next farming season, and their mone\^ and credit, 
through the bad management of their leaders, are pretty well 
"played out". The colony ask a very grave question, which but 
few men can answer correctly, and that is, What has become of 
the forty-two thousand dollars paid into the treasury before start- 
ing from Chicago, when all they have to show for it are five hun- 
dred goats, (worth S2,000), machinery" for saw and planing mills 
(worth 86,000), perhaps a thousand dollars' worth of agricultural 
implements, and two hundred head of cattle, for the payment of 
which almost their entire propert}^ is mortgaged, besides an in- 
debtedness of several thousand dollars which otherwise hangs over 
their heads. Several have become disgusted with the colony, 
forfeited all the interest they had in it, and gone to other parts of 
the valley and taken up ranches on their own account. Others 
have left the valley entirely, while still others have gone out to 
labor during the winter to lay in suppHes for the coming summer. 
The remainder, with commendable energ\^, still stick to the im- 
provements they have made, which are considerable, full of hope 
that they will be ultimately successful. They are busih^ engaged 
with their saw mill, and by this time are'sawing shingles, but they 
will not be likely to saw an}^ lumber before spring. Owing to the 
great demand for shingles on the Arkansas, I think from their 
manufacture they will be able to live during the winter, and per- 



Wolorado Chieftain, November 10, 1870, p. 1. 



124 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



haps lay something by for the summer. If they can ''freeze out" 
the adversity which has already befallen them by another year, 
those who remain will be successful. If they had got into the val- 
ley about two months sooner, so as to have planted their crops 
at the early opening of spring, they would have been a great deal 
better off than they now are; or if, instead of Carl Wulsten, they 
had had some good, experienced Colorado ranchman to lead them, 
they would have been, by the aid of the capital they had con- 
solidated, in splendid, prosperous circumstances. . . . 

I must not overlook the fact that there are fully as many, if 
not more, Americans in the valley than Germans. Unlike the 
Germans, they are scattered all over the valley. . . . The 
Americans, with the exception of Mr. Horn, . . . also failed 
in their crops, and for the very same reasons that the Gennans did. 

THE GERMAN COLONY IN WET MOUNTAIN VALLEY. ^ 
The Chieftain says that Emil D. Nielson, late President of the 
German Colonization Societj^, at Colfax, Fremont county, Mr. 
Schleuter and family, and many others, numbering in all about 
twenty-five persons, have just arrived in Pueblo from Wet Moun- 
tain Valley. A correspondent of the same paper gives a doleful 
account of the situation of the colony; says they are without 
money or credit, and in many cases have nothing to live on 
through the winter. If these statements are true, something 
should be done for their comfort. We know that the people of 
Denver will not see the German, or any other colony starve. If 
they have been unfortunate their first year in not raising crops, 
they must be assisted by those who have the means, and if there 
is to be any suffering, the officers of the colony should at once let 
the facts be known, and let the rest of the Territory learn what is 
required to help them through the winter. 

THE GERMAN COLONY OF WET MOUNTAIN VALLEY. ^ 

Their Situation at the Present Time. 

Messrs. Editors: — Having seen several articles in Colorado 
journals, of late, derogatory to the success of the German Coloniza- 



Waily Colorado Tribune, November 12, 1870, p. 2. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, November 21, 1870, p. 2. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



125 



tion Company of Wet Mountain Valley, I avail myself of your 
valuable columns to refute said articles, and in as brief a manner 
as possible represent to the public the true state of affairs. The 
people of the Colony, as a body, are satisfied that they have se- 
lected as favorable a location as can be found in Colorado for the 
successful carrying out of their project, which was to afford those 
of small means opportunity, by concentrating their labor and 
capital, to provide homes and a competency for their families. 
They have so far succeeded as to reach their destination, build 
temporary log houses, erect their machinery, which consists of a 
grist, saw, shingle, and planing mills. The shingle mill is now in 
successful operation and to their satisfaction they have established 
the fact, by actual experiment, that all the hardy cereals and veg- 
etables can be grown without irrigation in quantities and of a 
quality superior to those produced in many parts of Illinois, In- 
diana, Ohio and states in the same latitude. 

Statements circulated that we are destitute to an extent that 
looks to an early disbanding, and that large numbers are leaving, 
are untrue, and appear to the undersigned as if the failure of the 
enterprise is a result most desired by some. There has been quite 
a number of our members left, to the benefit of the company, 
as they are a class not to be satisfied with any condition less than 
that enjoyed by people of wealth, and they exercised a very un- 
wholesome influence. That we are poor, and anticipate many 
hardships and privations during the ensuing winter, is a fact 
which we do not wish to conceal. Our crops have failed, for the 
reason that we arrived too late to plant in time for them to mature, 
which is a very severe drawback. While poor in money, we feel 
rich in possessing so many willing hearts and strong hands, and 
we recognize no such word as fail. All we ask or desire of the press, 
is a fair and impartial statement of facts. In closing, I will say 
that the colony owes a debt of gratitude to the Governor, to the 
Colorado Tribune, and many of the citizens of Colorado, for their 
many acts of kindness and good will, and for which, we hope to 
prove ourselves worthy. 

Respectfully, 
J. T. J. 



126 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



THE GERMAN COLONY. ^ 
Wet Mountain Valley — Condition of the Colonists — Future 
Prospects, &c. 

From Mr. L. F. Wilmers, President, and Mr. J. T. Judd, a 
member of the Colon}', we have learned much of interest about the 
settlement of Wet Mountain valle}^ The colonists reached the 
ground very late and consequently raised but a small crop the 
past season. Suffering and prospective starvation have been re- 
ported but we are pleased to sa}^ there is no danger. There may be 
much inconvenience and some discomfort during the winter, but 
they are going into it with strong hearts and determination. For 
next year they are well fixed and expect to make large crops. 

The people as a community are well satisfied and contented. 
Two families left and removed to Pueblo and the Chieftain erron- 
eously reported the number of persons as twenty-five. A few are 
working temporarily about Canon City and at other places along 
the Arkansas valley, but all will go back to Colfax in the spring. 

Messrs Wilmers and Judd go today to Central to procure a 
steam engine for Colfax. They will be in Denver again next week 
and will gladh' answer all inquiries about the colon}'. 

[Report of Failure of German Colony Confirmed.] 
2 We had a call from W. H. H. Smith, of Wet Mountain Valley, 
on Thursday of last week, ... He fully corroborates all that 
The Chieftain has recently said concerning the German Colony, 
Mr. Judd, the News^ ''reUable informant", to the contrarj^ not- 
withstanding; that their affairs are even in a more deplorable con- 
dition than our ''jour" represented them to be. 

[Departures from German Colony Offset by Accessions.] 
. . . ^The Germans [of Wet Mountain Vallej^] are fre- 
quent visitors at our canon, bm'ing such articles as we have for 
sale, when they want them, and selling in return some of their com- 
modities. Although man}' are leaving the organization, about as 
many are joining them, so that they keep their nimiber good, and 
will no doubt succeed and do well as a colony. We understand 



^Daily Rocky Mountain Newi, November 24, 1870, p. 4. 
^Colorado Chieftain, December 1, 1870, p. 3. 
^Colorado Chieftain, December 8, 1870, p. 1. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



127 



several Americans have joined them of late, who will perhaps be 
enabled to exercise a better influence over them. Carl went by 
here, a week or so ago, feehng pretty well over his late expedition. 
He thinks he will prove a success, but has had quite enough of the 
colony business. One or two of the late seceders have taken ranches 
in the Huerfano above us, and moved over their families and 
stock. . . . [Letter from 'Ranchman'] 

[Colony Store Destroyed by Fire.] 
— ^A letter from Mr. Judd, secretar}- of the German colony, 
dated Colfax, the 27th ult., at three o'clock a. m., says that the 
store, with all its contents of provisions, records, thirty-five 
Spencer rifles, ammunition, etc., was destroyed by fire that morn- 
ing. The first intimation of the fire was the explosion of a keg of 
powder about one o'clock. The origin is unknown. The loss is 
a heavy one on the colony, and is to be greatly regretted. 

[Germans Cheerful Despite Difficulties.] 
(Correspondence of the TrihuneY 
THE GERMAN COLONY. 

Colfax, Fremont Co., Col. Ter.,) 
Januar}^ 4th, 187L / 
Editors Tribune: — The year eighteen hundred and sevent}^ 
will long be remembered by the members of the German Coloniza- 
tion Companj^ as one replete with hardships and disappointments. 
After a tedious journey of five weeks from Ft. Wallace to this place 
in the depth of winter, the bleak aspect of the valley on their 
arrival here — a prairie-fire had consumed the grass and blackened 
the forests — little tended to raise their drooping spirits. After 
undergoing the privation of every comfort they had been accus- 
tomed to, the crops, which looked so promising, and upon which 
they had so fondh^ counted, were killed by an unusually early 
frost. They worked industriously at the erection of a saw-mill, 
but long before its completion, the water supply, with which they 
hoped to run it, gave out. Their credit was exhausted, their 
provisions nearly so, and many members, despairing of success 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, January 4, 1871, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, January 9, 1871, p. 4. 



128 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



of the undertaking, left the Colony. Those who have remained, 
however, show a manly determination to fight the thing through. 
When the last calamit}^ befel them, in the total destruction of 
their store and all its contents, on the morning of the 29th ult., 
between twelve and one o'clock, they apparently, for the first time, 
fully recognized the fact that their only hope lay in their individual 
efforts, and they aroused themselves to the exigency of the mo- 
ment. The loss is veiy severe, and is for msmy reasons to be 
deplored, still, if it has the effect of inducing eYeiy man to do 
his dut}^ faithful^, one month's labor may retrieve it, and the 
impetus thus given to the company cannot but prove beneficial. 
Occurring as it did in the dead of night, the first intimation the 
people received of the conflagration was through the explosition of 
100 pounds of gunpowder, which had been stored away in cans 
on a shelf in the store. The shock was really terrific; the earth 
trembled for miles in circumference. As the greater part of the 
provisions donated by the generous business men of Denver, had 
fortunately been given out, though mam^ articles of value had 
been consumed, the loss will not be so keenly felt. The origin of 
the fire is attributed to a defective fire-place, and your corre- 
spondent having noticed several others built by the same mason (?) 
who constructed this one, had wooden sills and sundrj^ other pre- 
ventatives from fire, he would make bold to state that the cause 
assigned is a plausible one. The amount of the damage cannot 
be definitely ascertained, owing to the difficulty of placing a value 
on the building; however, it will hardly fall short of $3,000 

On Monday the 2nd inst., the annual election of officers of the 
society was held, resulting in the choice of IMr. Jas. T. Judd for 
President, Mr. Charles Wehrhahn for Treasurer, and IMr. John 
Anton Schopp for Secretarj^ The selection of Mr. Judd is a very 
happy one indeed. As bookkeeper of the association he displayed 
a thorough knowledge of business, a high regard for the rights of 
creditors and a willingness to do any duty assigned him. Of clear 
judgment himself, he is nevertheless, ever ready to hear the opin- 
ions of others, before drawing conclusions; of indomitable energy, 
he never leaves to others what he can possibly do himself, and is 
ever ready to set the men an example in industrj^; very careful 
in forming his plans, when once his course is marked out, he goes 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



129 



in heart and soul, and does not stop until the result is attained; 
frank, courteous and unassuming in his manners, what he says 
he says to the point, with a quiet determination, which admits of 
no refusal. Altogether, he is eminently qualified for the position. 
It is true he has many difficulties to encounter, difficulties which 
might deter many an abler man from the position. Still, let them 
but second his endeavors, as they should, and the success is as- 
sured. Mr. Wehrhahn is known as a steady, industrious man, 
ready to do his duty to the best of his abihty. Mr. Schopp hav- 
ing been elected to the position he now holds, proves that he en- 
joys the confidence of the company. Messrs. Ferd. Barndollar 
& Co., to whom the colony are indebted to the extent of several 
thousand dollars, are offering the people ever^^ reasonable assist- 
ance to enable them to pay off their indebtedness and pave the 
wsiy to success, having procured for them a portable engine, ten- 
horse power, with which they can make 20,000 shingles in twenty- 
four hours. The action of this firm reflects the more creditably 
upon them, as they are amply secured for the amount coming to 
them, and contrasts favorably with that of another creditor who, 
after exacting a Shylock mortgage, left the Society to go to the 
dogs, with a hearty "God-speed." A social event, the first of its 
nature in the Valley, transpired on the 2nd inst., in the marriage 
of Albert Vannetter to Miss Ehza Jane Jarvis, both of Wet Moun- 
tain Valley, at the residence of the bride's father. 

L. 

[Prospects Good for Success in Wet Mountain Valley.] 
THE WET MOUNTAIN VALLEY COLONY. ^ 

The fact, that a good many members of the German Colony 
in Wet Mountain Valley have left that association, and that their 
crops failed last summer, have given rise to a very general impres- 
sion that the whole enterprise is a failure, and that those who have 
adhered to their original plans and remained with the Colony are 
in a state of semi-starvation; in fact that the whole thing is a hope- 
less undertaking. 

It was of course but a natural consequence that, in a co-oper- 
ative society of such magnitude, some would be found who did not 

^Colorado Chieftain, January 26, 1871, p. 2. 



130 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



agree with the management, from which cause a few have left the 
Colony, but the great majority who have done so took the step 
from seeing that they could earn good wages here and elsewhere, 
which they preferred to do to waiting for the next year's crops. 
As to the rest, we have the most satisfactory assurances that the 
Colony is in a very fair way, and with good prospects of success. 

Mr. V. B. Hoyt, who has just returned from a visit to the 
Valley, says that the state of things there has been greatly mis- 
stated. Every family has already a good and comfortable log 
house, and several frames are already up for completion in the 
spring. 

A gentleman living but nine miles from the Colony, raised 
a large crop of superior wheat last year, and gives it as his opinion 
that the Colony crops failed from no other cause than that sowing 
was commenced too late, and that little fear need be entertained 
as to the crops this year. 

The machinery arrangements are perfect. 

One turbine wheel, estimated at from one hundred to one 
hundred and forty horse power, can be made to work, as required, 
a saw, grist, shingle and planing mill, all of which are in working 
order. Water is expected, in abundant quantities to run the wheel, 
by the 1st of May. 

There is plenty of timber, of extra quality, close at hand, with 
which to supply the mills. The shingle mill is capable of pro- 
ducing from fifteen thousand to twenty thousand a day. A steam 
engine has been suppUed by Messrs. Ferd. Barndollar & Co., with 
which to complete the contract to them of one million shingles. 
The machinery is capable of performing one thousand dollars' 
worth of work per week. 

The cattle of the colony are in a splendid condition, owing to 
the good natural shelter of the hills and the large amount of hay 
in store, which is said to be of a quahty superior to any in the dis- 
trict. 

That it is a good valley for cattle, the fact that herds belong- 
ing to gentlemen living in Pueblo and the neighborhood are re- 
ported from there in fine condition, and that all the herders speak 
highly of it, are convincing proofs. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



131 



The finances of the colony are not nearly so bad as is generally 
supposed. They have been straightened for cash, and are in debt, 
but considering the amount of property the debts are small, and 
once the machinery is set to work, there is no doubt that these 
will soon be cleared off. The straightforward course of the Colon- 
ists in money matters has inspired every one with confidence in 
them, and, if not pressed until they are well at work in the spring, 
they will no doubt meet all their engagements. 

Mr. Judd, the President, has proved himself capable and hard- 
working, and Mr. Hoyt represents his books as the best kept he 
has ever seen. The President is a thorough-going business man, 
and, if supported by the rest, is almost sure to bring the Colony 
safely through their difficulties. 

The members are anxious to open direct communication with 
Pueblo, and they believe that, with the assistance of those living 
on the way, and a little other help, they can render the Hard- 
scrabble available, which will shorten the distance by nearly forty 
miles. 

The colonization of Wet Mountain Valley is an experiment 
which all are watching with interest, and if in the ensuing season 
the careful preparations for correct farming, which the Colonists 
are making, prove successful, the Valley will rise to a place of very 
considerable importance. 

The industry and perseverance of the association, as well as 
their frugal management, deserve every success, and unless some 
misfortune which cannot be forseen by any one happen, latest 
accounts seem to indicate an early rise to prosperit}^, which every- 
body wishes them. 

[Causes of Failure German Colony.] 

— ^It is generally understood that the German Colony, of 
Wet Mountain Valley has failed. What the real cause may have 
been we cannot say, but we judge that two, at least, have operated; 
one cause being the great elevation of their location, that is, 
something like 7,000 feet; the other, a want of American business 
management. The officers were, sometime ago, deposed, and 

^Greeley Tribune, April 19, 1871, p. 2. 



132 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



many of the Colonists left, while their financial affairs were in a 
hopeless condition. We understand that they established a 
Brewery early, which, of itself, is enough to ruin any Colony. 
And yet, after all, we hear that something is to be done there this 
year in the way of cultivation, which we hope is to be the case; 
still, where frosts come in July, no great results can be expected. 

[Miscellaneous Notes Illustrating Conditions in Wet 
Mountain Valley in 1871.] 
iMr. W. H. H. Smith, of the Wet Mountain Valley, called 
upon us yesterday. He informs us that things are flourishing 
there, and that silver has been found in Oak Creek. 

^The Wet Mountain German colony is non est. The early 
administration of affairs threw the colony into inextricable con- 
fusion, and scarcely avoided its entire disorganization. 

Territorial News^ 

The Wet Mountain colonists are rejoicing over a deep fall of 
snow. 

^It is said that the CoKax colony in Wet Mountain Valley is 
reviving. 

^The case of The People vs. Sam. McBride, on the charge of 
assault with intent to kill Carl Wulsten, was brought up at the 
last term of the district court of Pueblo county, when a nolle 
prosequi was entered and McBride discharged. The recognizance 
of witnesses was forfeited. 

Letter from Canon City.^ 
Last week a terrible storm visited the German Colony, in 
Wet Mountain valley, doing much damage to the crops. 

Wet Mountain Valley Items.^ 
The German colony saw mill is being removed to a tract of 
timber five miles down the valley from Colfax. The mill is also 
putting in a new engine. 

^Colorado Chieftain, February 16, 1871, p. 3. 

2Daily Rocky Mountain News, February 28, 1871, p. 4. 

ilbid., April 27, 1871, p. 1. 

iDenver Daily Tribune, May 12, 1871, p. 4. 

sDaily Rocky Mountain News, June 17, 1871, p. 1. 

'Colorado Chieftain, July 13, 1871, p. 2. 

^Ibid.. September 21, 1871, p. 1. 



GERMAN COLONIZATION COMPANY 



133 



[WULSTEN ON THE WeT MOUNTAIN CoLONY.] 

^In 1869, the writer, propelled by a desire to ameliorate the 
physical condition of the poorer class of Germans, who were con- 
demned by a cruel fate to work in greasy, ill-ventilated and nerve- 
destroying factories of the great city of Chicago, formed a band of 
about a hundred into a colony, took them and their families out 
of the nauseous back allej^s and cellars of the over-crowded Garden 
City (sic!) and brought them to "El Mojado". But short-sighted 
is man, and his ways do "gang aft aglee'\ This was in the spring 
of 1870. The organization of this colony stood until fall, when it 
collapsed, every pater familias from thence shifting for himself. 
The writer had found evidences of mineral wealth, had investigated 
the whole Sierra Mojada, and discovered that a great trachytic 
dyke traversed the Sierra from northwest to southeast. Based 
upon these observations, the founding of an agricultural and in- 
dustrial colony upon the co-operative plan should have been a 
success instead of a failure. Collectively a failure, it has individ- 
ually become a distinct success, for every family w^hich entered 
"El Mojada'^ is today in perfectly independent circumstances. 
Mter the dissolution of the ''Colfax Agricultural and Industrial 
Colonization Company of Fremont County", about December, 
1870, some thirty families of the compan}^ took possession of the 
quarter sections of land to which they were entitled under the 
homestead law, and started to housekeeping severallj^, and suc- 
ceeded signally. . . 

iWulsten, "El Mojada, or the Wet Mountain Valley," in Binckley 4 Hartwell, Southern Colcrado 
(1879), p. 107. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



A COLONY PAMPHLET 



THE 

CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 

CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS, 
with 

COAIPREHEXSIVE CHAPTERS 
on 

AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION, CLIMATE, 

THE NEW TOWN OF LONGMONT, 
SCHOOLS, SOCIETIES, CHURCHES, ETC. 

LONGMONT, COLORADO TERRITORY, 

July 1st, 1871. 

Denver, Colorado; Rocky Mountain News Printing House. 1871. 

OFFICERS OF THE COLONY. 

President, JUDGE Seth Terry. 

Vice President, - -- -- -- -- -- -- - Burton S. Barnes. 

Treasurer, - -- -- - - John Townly. 

Secretar}^, Frank C. Garbutt. 

Engineer, - Richard Fawcett. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

Seth Terry, R. Streeter, 

B. S. Barnes, J. Lincoln, 

F. C. Garbutt, Hon. Wm. Bross, 

E. J. Coffman, G. S. Bowen, 

J. M. Mumford, Charles Emerson. 

TRUSTEES. 

Seth Terry, E. J. Coffman, 

Dr. Charles Emerson. 

iReprinted from copy belonging to Mr. C. W. Boynton of Longmont, 

137 



138 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



AUDITING COMMITTEE. 



Chaiincey Stokes, John H. Bartlett, 

Judson W. Turrell. 



C. N. Pratt, General Agent, Chicago, Illinois. 

ORDER OF BUSINESS. 



TO GOVERN THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 



1. Call to order by the President. 

2. Reading the minutes of previous meeting. 

3. Reports of standing committees. 

4. Reports of special committees. 

5. Presenting of bills. 

6. Communications and petitions. 

7. New and unfinished business. 

8. Remarks for the good of the Colony. 

9. Adjourn. 



The Council shall be governed by parliamentary law, as laid 
down in Jefferson's Manual. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 



ART. I. The officers of the Colony shall consist of a President, 

Vice President, Secretary, an Executive Council of nine, including 

these officers as members ex-officio, a Treasurer, and an Auditing 

Committee of three, whose duties shall be as follows: 

Sec. 1. The President shall have the general supervision of the 

entire interests of the Colony, preside at all meetings of the same, 

and act as Chairman of the Executive Council. 

Sec. 2. The Vice President shall act as superintendent of the sale 

of lots and lands, make locations, introduce colonists to their 

selections — devoting his entire time to the work — and preside at 

meetings in the absence of the President. 

Sec. 3. The Secretary shall keep the books of the Colony, placing 
the same, at the close of every three months, in the hands of the 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



139 



Auditing Committee, attend to correspondence, and record the 
proceedings of the Executive Council. 

Sec. 4' The Executive Council shall administer to the wants of 
the Colony, adopting such measures as shall, in the best manner, 
conduce to the welfare and prosperity of colonists as a whole. 
Sec. 5. The Treasurer shall, under bonds, receive the funds of 
the Colony, paying out none except upon a written order, signed 
by the Secretary and President or Vice President, and shall place 
his accounts, at the close of every three months, in the hands of 
the Auditing Committee. 

Sec. 6. The Auditing Committee shall, at the close of every three 
months, audit the accounts of the Colony. 

ART. II. Terms of office shall continue one year, or until successors 
are elected, unless removals are required on account of neglect or 
misconduct. 

ART. III. The officers shall receive such reasonable compensation 
for their services as the Executive Council shall determine upon. 
ART. IV. The Executive Council shall inaugurate such measures 
and adopt such rules as shall in the best manner conduce to the 
prosperity of the Colony. 

ART. V. Persons becoming members of the Colony, must be of 
strictly temperate habits and good moral character, and shall 
assent to this plan of organization. Each member shall pay an 
initiation fee of five dollars (S5) on enrolling his name, to be used 
in defraying the expenses of the preliminary organization and 
locating the Colony, and the further sum of one hundred and fifty 
dollars (S150), which payment shall entitle him to all the rights 
and privileges of membership. 

ART. VI. One person shall not be entitled to take more than one 
membership in the Colony, and each membership shall have a 
single vote. But parents, who are bona fide colonists, may take 
an additional membership (for which the parent shall be trustee) 
for one child, and another membership in addition, if there are 
two more children, to be represented in the same way. One mem- 
bership may also be owned by two or three persons, to be repre- 
sented by a trustee, in whom the powers and privileges belonging 
to the membership shall be vested. The number of memberships 
shall be limited to one thousand. 



140 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



ART. VII. Each member shall be entitled, for his certificate, to 
a selection of five to forty acres, depending upon its distance from 
the town site, and the further privilege of purchasing one business 
and one residence lot, at a cost of twenty-five to fifty dollars each, 
according to location. 

ART. VIII. The lands adjoining the town site are divided into lots 
of from five to forty acres, according to their distance from the 
town centre, and all laid under water from the irrigating ditches. 
Such parcels of land are to be received as an equivalent for mem- 
berships, each membership being entitled to one selection. These 
designated parcels of land shall be conveyed by the Trustee to 
those selecting them; but no deed shall be delivered to a member 
until he shall, in person or by representative, have made improve- 
ments, in good faith, upon his selection. If such improvements, 
which must be satisfactory to the Executive Council, are not made 
in one year from the date of selection, the land shall be forfeited 
by the colonist, who may, however, make a new selection, subject 
to the same rule. If the omission to improve continues to the end 
of the second year, the selection and membership shall be forfeited, 
and the fee of membership returned to the colonist. Lots, outside 
of those distributed as above, may be selected by members of the 
Colony, but to be paid for at a price to be fixed by the Executive 
Council, provided that the number of acres under the irrigating 
ditches owned by one individual shall not exceed one hundred and 
twenty (120) acres. 

ART. IX. The following standing committees, each consisting of 
three members, shall be elected by the Executive Council, at the 
beginning of each year, whose tei-m of office shall be for the current 
year, unless sooner discharged by the Council: 

1. Finance — Terry, Mumford and Barnes. 

2. Irrigation — Mumford, Coffman and Streeter. 

3. Printing and Advertising — Barnes, Garbutt and Fowler. 

4. Surveying — Coffman, Mumford and Terry. 

5. Schools — Garbutt, Lincoln and Barnes. 

6. Manufactures — Streeter, Coffman and Mumford. 

7. Selection of Lots — Coffman, Streeter and Barnes. 

8. Public Parks — Streeter, Lincoln and Mumford. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



141 



INTRODUCTION. 

The special difficulties that have heretofore attended every 
effort to settle Colorado and develope her vast resources, are at 
present entirely removed by railroads and colonization. Indi- 
vidual efforts at farming have only been undertaken along the bot- 
tom lands of the various streams, on account of the expense of 
irrigating the uplands. Colonization introduces a new era. It 
overcomes all the obstacles attending single efforts, and aids ma- 
terially in the quick development of every industrial pursuit. 
It furnishes a larger amount and better quality of working popula- 
tion. It also induces men of capital to invest in Colorado, and 
remove their families to this Territory and establish permanent 
homes. Men of education and refinement will no longer feel that 
in bringing their families to Colorado they will remove them beyond 
the realm of civihzation, to endure a Hfe of mental, moral and social 
isolation; but they will gladly transplant them to this new field of 
enterprise, where, with temperance and morality inscribed on our 
banner, we feel assured that everything will elevate and inspire; 
and thus, while adding to the success and attractiveness of the 
Colony, they insure its success, and built to themselves comfort- 
able and desirable homes. 

The discovery of gold among the sands of the mountain val- 
leys in 1859 was the beginning of life to Colorado. Thousands 
flocked across the Plains in eager scramble for the fabled wealth. 
Fortunes were made and lost; the few won, many struggled for a 
bare subsistence. From that time till the present, the growth of 
the mineral interests of Colorado has been firm and profitable until 
the product of 1869 was full three millions of dollars. 

But inexhaustible as is Colorado's mineral wealth — progressive 
as henceforth its development — predominant and extensive as are 
its mountains — high even as are its valleys and plains — in spite 
of all seeming impossibilities and rivalries, agriculture is alreadj'-, 
and is destined always to be, its dominant interest. Hence our 
faith in its prosperity and its influence among the Rocky Mountain 
States; for agriculture is the basis of wealth, of power, of morality. 
It is the conservative element of all national and political and 
social growth; it steadies, preserves, purifies, elevates. 



142 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



The grains, the vegetables and the fruits of the temperate 
zone grow and ripen in profusion; cattle and sheep live and fatten 
the year round without housing or feeding. 

Stock-raising is a simple and profitable business. The ani- 
mals can roam at will, and a single man can tend hundreds. These 
three great interests — mining, farming and stock-raising — natur- 
ally shade into others, and already there are the beginnings of 
various manufacturing developments, for the materials and in- 
centives for such undertakings are without stint. 

Coal mines are abundant, and several are being profitably 
worked along the possessions of our colony. 

In addition to these interests, we ever have the majestic hills, 
high above the wide world, pure and bracing atmosphere, pictur- 
esque scenery, to invite our attention. It is to them America will 
go, as Europe to Switzerland, for rest and recreation, for new and 
exhilarating scenes, for pleasure and for health. We feel confident 
that the verdict has already been passed — that here along the 
range of the Rocky Moimtains, within this wedded circle of 
majestic hill and majestic plain, under these skies of purity, and 
in this atmosphere of elixir, lies the pleasure-ground, the garden, 
and the health-home of the nation. 



LONGMONT. 

The Name of the Town. 

The Executive Council have been careful to select a name for 
the new town which should embrace or suggest some leading and 
permanent feature of interest. Among aU the imposing objects 
that help to make up that picture of unrivaled beauty and grandeur 
which will forever greet the eye, first and foremost stands Long's 
Peak, and the name LONGMONT has therefore been decided as 
most appropriate. 

LOCATION. 

The report of the locating committee, sent to Colorado to 
select suitable location for the settlement of the colony, was made 
on the first of February, and upon their recommendation a tract 
of some 60,000 acres of government and railway lands were se- 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



143 



lected, situated between the Platte river and the base of the moun- 
tains, commencing about twenty-five miles north of Denver, and 
embracing all the lands unoccupied in six townships, all of which 
can be easily irrigated from the Boulder, Left Hand, St. Vrains and 
Little Thompson creeks, at a very moderate expense. There is 
an abundance of good building stone on the tract, with a vein of 
superior coal adjoining the tract, seventeen feet thick, which is 
mined without sinking shafts. There is lumber at the base of the 
mountains which can be floated down the St. Vrains creek, on 
which stream the town is located. 

The Denver and Boulder Valley railroad is completed within 
six miles of the town, and will run along the south side of the tract 
the entire length. 

Arrangements are already on foot to construct a road direct 
from Erie to Longmont; also one from Greeley to the mountains 
via this place is proposed. 

ORGANIZED COLONIZATION. 

There is no man integral within himself. We are all parts 
of one grand community, and it behooves every man to know what 
his neighbor is about. Hence we unite, for mutual benefit, large 
corporate interests to economize the movement of people by 
colonies, and immediately secure to members thereof all the home 
institutions, social and material. The advantage of the coloniza- 
tion system for the West, consists in simultaneous occupancy of 
the lands, and by co-operation of labor and mutual help, each 
makes a permanent, comfortable home on his own tract. 

The maximum of each man's power is increased by unison 
with the labor of others as in public works, manufacturing, etc. 
A great reduction in the cost of transportation, implements, 
materials, stock and supplies can be purchased at manufacturers, 
or v/holesale price — saving several retail dealers' profits. Cattle, 
sheep and hogs can be herded cheaper by co-operation. Home- 
sickness is prevented. Although the land is new and the country 
strange, there is a community of old friends; — a pure and healthy 
tone is given to social fife. Communities made up of miscellaneous 
settlers from all sections and nationalities, require years to become 
homogeneous socially, and prosperous in their industries. Or- 



144 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



ganized emigration secures within the landed Hmits of the colony 
the control of public affairs, the benefit and control of school lands 
and moneys donated by the State and National Government for 
common schools, and higher institutions of learning. 



r.^MIXG IN COLORADO. 

The cost of improving a farm in Colorado varies greatly, 
owing to locaht3\ The first necessity is a house. If near timber, 
that will probably be of logs. Two men with a team will get them 
out and upon the ground in from four to ten days. Four men more 
make the work come fighter, and will raise the walls in a day, and 
the two will then complete it in three or four more days. If 
timber is not near, lumber (sawed timber) wiU probably be used, 
costing at the saw mill Slo to S18 per thousand feet, or twice as 
much delivered. Lime for plastering costs at the kiln, thirty or 
forty cents per bushel, and bricks for chimneys, about S8 per thous- 
and. If the settler is at all ingenious, he will do the most of his 
work himself, no matter of what he builds. A laborer to assist 
will cost from S25 to S40 per month and board. 

Plowing is next to be thought of, but owing to the nature of 
the native grasses of this region, which do not make a tough, heavy 
sod, that work is not much more difficult than the plowing of 
fallow ground. A good pair of horses, mules or oxen, with a light, 
sharp, steel plow, will turn over almost any of the Colorado prairie. 
It is onh' in the low wet bottoms that strong teams and big plows 
are necessaiy. Plowing may be done in the fall, spring or simimer. 
For wheat it is much better in the fall, and then the seed may be 
sown in Februaiy or ^larch. — the earlier the better. The cost of 
breaking new land should not exceed $2.50 per acre, counting full 
wages for team and man. 

Irrigation, or providing facilities therefor comes next, and to 
the uninformed is realh' the great bugaboo to western settlement. 
Provision must be made for bringing a supply of water from some 
peimanent source through the farm, in such a wry that it can be 
used when and where necessaiy. To this end the settler will 
usually join in with his neighbors, and they together will construct 
a ditch one, or five, or ten miles long, as the case may be. The 
first cost may be $50 or SlOO or even S200 each, and after that 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



145 



the expense of keeping it in repair will be merely nominal. The 
ditch, once constructed along the upper side of the farm, it is but 
a trifling matter to conduct the water to any part of it. A plow 
furrow does the work. It furnishes a living stream through the 
garden, the yard, and the stock corral. By laying a few rods or 
hundred feet of wooden pipe, fountains are secured or flowing hy- 
drants in the kitchen or wash-room. With flowing water at his 
command, the farmer insures the growth of his crops. He is no 
longer subject to loss by freaks of the seasons, which in almost 
every country bring occasional droughts that cut off all farm pro- 
duce. Land that is irrigated is never worn out and impoverished. 
The streams that come down from the mountains are always laden 
with the elements that make it fertile; the elements that have, in 
fact, created the wonderfully productive valleys and plains of 
Colorado and neighboring Territories. It is a question well sup- 
ported in the affirmative, by the result of experience, whether the 
actual benefit to land by irrigation does not more than counter- 
balance the expense thereof, without taking into account the crop 
at all; many averring that it is the cheapest and best way of 
manuring. 

But leaving all these points out of the question — the assur- 
ance of crops, benefit to the ground, etc., — it is unquestionably 
cheaper to irrigate land in Colorado than to drain it in Illinois, 
Iowa, or Missouri. If any one is disposed to dispute the assertion, 
let him present the proofs and we will respond — taking the common 
average and a series of years, with no exceptional cases. 

Fencing is left to the last, because it is not absolutely neces- 
sary. Settlers generally make one crop before beginning to fence, 
and in some portions of the Territor}^ that have been settled for 
ten years, there are no fences, neighborhoods having regulations 
about the herding and care of stock. The first or second faU and 
winter will do for fencing, and then the labor will be done mainty 
by the farmer, his team or teams, and hired help. First fences are 
generally built of posts and either poles or boards. The team haul- 
ing hay, grain, or other produce to the mining towns in the moun- 
tains, returns with fencing materials. If posts or poles, they cost 
nothing but the cutting; if boards, the cost is $15 to $18 per thou- 
sand feet. If wire is used, the cost of that material will be about 



14G EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



forty cents per rod; the posts twenty cents, and putting up say 
fifteen cents. A good fence either of boards or wire, may be esti- 
mated, including all materials and labor, from seventy-five cents 
to one dollar per rod. 

In return, the farmer, having insured his crop by providing 
for its irrigation, may count upon an average yield of wheat of 
twenty-six to twenty-eight bushels to the acre; or, if he will give 
it extra care in plowing or planting, he may increase that return 
to forty, fifty, sixt}^, or even seventy bushels per acre. His oats 
will yield from forty to eighty bushels; barley, thirty to sixty; 
potatoes, one hundred to three hundred, and cabbage, ten to twen- 
ty tons to the acre. The largest crops mentioned have been ex- 
ceeded — some of them one hundred per cent. 

Having produced these crops, which will doubtless look large 
to many, the farmer then has a market at home — to supply the 
large and rapidly growing mining towns, settlements and camps, 
which always brings cash and at the highest prices. For instance 
— wheat, oats and corn, have seldom if ever rated lower than three 
cents per pound, and other products in proportion. And these 
rates will doubtless be maintained, because the mining interests 
are growing fully as fast as the agricultural, and the home producer 
will always have protection equal to what it would cost the distant 
producers to transport to his home market by rail, a distance of 
four hundred miles or more. 



PRESENT CONDITION OF CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 

From the first of March, 1871, down to the present time, the 
growth of the colony has been steadily progressive. Scarcely a 
day has passed but one or more colonists have arrived on the 
ground, selected their lots and lands, and set about improving 
them to their own liking. Before the first of March, 1872, the 
full number of colonists holding certificates of membership will be 
on the ground, their present and future interests fully identified 
with the colony. Success is already ours. There have been lo- 
cated by members of the colony, and deeds issued, as follows: 
Forty acre lots, 165; twenty ditto, 20; ten ditto, 15; five ditto, 75; 
residence lots, 357; business lots, 307. Of eight foot wide ditches, 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



147 



fourteen miles have been constructed; four foot ditto, nine miles; 
side and lateral ditches and channels from two feet down, twelve 
miles. The main ditch is now completed, and water is now run- 
ning the entire length of Main street, and in several other streets, 
shorter distances. The excavation of the lake in the northwestern 
portion of the town, which is intended to cover from two to four 
acres, is let, and is progressing rapidly. Although once the bed 
of a body of water, it is not deep enough, and an artificial excava- 
tion is to be made to be filled from the irrigating ditch. Up to 
the present time the field crops and gardens have flourished finely 
without artificial irrigation. In addition to the ditches already 
mentioned, six miles of main and lateral ditches are under contract. 

The following is a statement of branches of business already 
in operation in Longmont: 

A bank, three dry goods stores, three hardware stores, one 
furniture store, three groceries, two general stores, three agri- 
cultural implements and wagon depots, one lumber yard, three 
blacksmith shops, two shoemakers, one photograph artist, one 
drug store, two hotels, butcher, barber, lawyer, surveyor, four 
physicians, three insurance agents, bakery and confectionery, 
milliner, dressmaker and fancy dry goods, cigar and tobacco store, 
livery stable, and three contracting carpenters. Abundant water 
power for manufacturing purposes will be afforded by the canal; 
it is certain that a flour mill will be erected this summer; parties 
have been looking at a site for a woolen mill, who say they propose 
building the present year. 

A brick-yard is already in operation, and under contract to 
furnish the brick for two or more blocks this season. 

A post-office is established, furnishing a daily mail from Den- 
ver and the East. 

The social, religious, and educational interests of the colony 
promise to be of a high order. 

Already a school building 24x40 has been erected; Col. B. L. 
Carr of Illinois having been engaged as principal; building lots 
have been chosen by the Presbyterians, Congregationalists and 
Methodists, who each intend to erect churches immediately. 

For the present, union service is held in the school house. 



148 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



There are built, or in the process of building in the town, 
and immediate vicinity, upward of two hundred houses, from the 
humble frame to the more pretentious cottage or mansion, in- 
cluding several business blocks on Main street which would do 
honor to many of our eastern towns that boast more years than we 
do weeks. There are in the town of Longmont three of the best 
water powers anywhere to be found, capable of driving a flouring, 
paper and woolen mill, and with light expense; while along the 
various irrigating canals belonging to the colony, are innumerable 
water powers only waiting the advent of enterprise, ability and 
capital to set the wheels of industry in motion. 

Industry, Temperance, and Morality are the watch-words of 
the Chicago-Colorado Colony. The colony was first founded on 
temperance principles. In each and every deed given for land or 
town lots, is inserted this clause, ''It is hereby stipulated by the 
parties hereto, that no spirituous or malt liquors shall ever be sold 
or given away, as a beverage, on the premises herein described by 
said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators 
or assigns, upon penalty of forfeiting all right, title, and interest 
in the above described premises, to parties of first part, and their 
successors in trust, forever." 

In addition to our churches, we are not wanting for societies, 
such as Good Templars, Glee Clubs, Cornet Band, Base Ball, 
Strawberry Festivals in their season, frequent excursions to the 
mountains, all of which lend the charms of old communities to 
our new and flourishing Longmont. 



AGKICULTURE AND IRRIGATION 

Time was when these plains were designated the Great Amer- 
ican Desert. There are books of geography yet in use in the 
schools of this territory, in which they are so described. And so 
they were to those who, having eyes, saw not. 

But, as in the poem of the Sleeping Princess in the Woods, 
who waited but the coming of the fortunate Prince, whose passion- 
ate kiss should awake her to life, and all about her to activity, so 
the slumbering Princess of the Plains but waited the coming of 
the Fairy Prince, the touch of whose magic wand should kindle 
into a beauty unknown before the charms lying hidden in her 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



149 



veiled bosom. And at the magic touch of water, lo! the powers 
lying dormant for unnumbered ages suddenly awoke, and from 
out the lap of nature flowed abundant evidence that these were 
fertile instead of sterile plains. 

Irrigation is no new thing. To those accustomed to the rain- 
falls east of the Missouri river, it may become at first a power 
misapplied, because unknown; but adaptation to circumstances is 
one of the peculiarities of the American mind, and not for any 
length of time is there any "new thing under the sun." 

Old in theory and practice, in the lands of the East, to this 
source must we trace the wonderful fertility of the valley of the 
Nile, whose narrow belt of 3,000 miles extending through six 
degrees of latitude, for centuries supported a population so vast 
that even China's countless hordes dwindle into insignificance. 
Not Egypt alone, nor China, but nearly all the lands of the Orient 
have availed themselves of this all-powerful adjunct to agricul- 
ture, and thus supported a population that would otherwise have 
depended upon distant countries for the necessities of existence, 
and so lost their main source of growth and strength; for agri- 
culture is the true mother of the nations, and from her exhaustless 
bosom they receive the nourishment that sustains their life. 

The agricultural area of Colorado is a little less than 18,000 
square miles, comprising about 11,500,000 acres all highly pro- 
ductive, but in the main requiring irrigation — "a savings bank 
crammed with riches since Noah's flood" — and ready, therefore, 
to honor drafts to an unhmited amount; for "irrigated land never 
wears out," as the experience of eastern nations testifies. 

Colorado vegetables are now sold east of the Missouri river, 
and flour and grain reach all the States. The crops of the current 
year have been carefully estimated as follows: Wheat, 750,000 
bushels; corn, 700,000 bushels; oats and barley, 650,000 bushels; 
vegetables and potatoes, 500,000 bushels; — while the hay and dairy 
product will have a market value of not less than four millions of 
dollars. Ninety-seven bushels of wheat have been raised on one 
acre of land on the South Platte. Oats have reached the same 
number of bushels to the acre; and Governor McCook is our au- 
thority for the statement that 250 bushels of onions have been 
raised on half an acre. These, of course, are exceptional cases and 



150 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



the result of high cultivation; but the average of the crops may 
thus be stated: Wheat, 30 bushels; oats, 55; corn, 30; potatoes, 
250; onions, 300; beans, 30; Ruta Baga turnips, 30 tons; beets, 30 
tons. These figures may be relied upon as being, if any thing, 
below the average. 

In this connection we may observe that farmers here have 
no difficulty in turning the soil. Two horses or a pair of cattle 
plow the ground with the greatest ease, and fwo acres can be plowed 
by one man in a single day. 

A few words in relation to beets. The growth of sugar beets 
here is simply enormous. The soil seems peculiarly adapted to 
their cultivation, and hundreds of acres could be profitably grown 
if some far-seeing and enterprising capitalist would but invest a 
few spare thousands of dollars in the erection of a beet sugar mill. 
Here we have all the essential elements of success. Soil and 
climate are favorable; there would be an abundance of supply, and 
a home market ready to absorb all that could be produced. What 
seems to have been a failure at Chatworth, Illinois, in Longmont 
would be a magnificent success! 

At the Denver Fair turnips were on exhibition, and curiosity 
impelled us to measure the largest; it was forty-two inches in cir- 
cumference. Cabbages weighing fifty pounds were too common 
for especial mention; and we could easily credit the story of the 
prudent house-keeper, who sent her child to market for the smallest 
head he could find, and he came home bending under the weight 
of a fourteen-pounder, having searched vainly for one of less weight. 

That grapes will thrive, we had evidence — some choice Isa- 
bellas were on exhibition — and that small fruits will flourish, is 
beyond a doubt. We have seen with our own eyes an acre of 
Wilson strawberries yielding eighteen hundred quarts of the largest 
and finest quaUty of fruit. The time will come, and that in the 
not far-distant future, when vast establishments for canning fruit 
will be scattered over the Territory; and the berries of Colorado 
will be the delight of the epicure and the never-failing resource 
of the careful housewife, whose ''sweetmeat" days will be among 
the events of the past. 

Of stock raising, we have but space to touch briefly. The 
vast ranges are too well known. This and the neighboring terri- 



ii ■ 

CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY ^^^li [ ^ ^^^-^^^^^f^ ^^^^^^ 

tories of Wyoming, Montana and Utah must, for generations to 
come, supply and control the beef, mutton, wool, hide, cheese, 
butter and horse markets of the United States, and simply because 
they can produce these articles cheaper and better than any other 
portion of our country. The percentage of loss is less than winter- 
ing in the States on corn and hay, and here we feed nothing, 
herding stock on the dry gama or bunch grass of the plains; the 
air is so fine that these grasses cure on the ground, losing none of 
their nourishment, and the climate is so mild and genial — a very 
Itahan climate — that stock can range and feed all winter, and keep 
in excellent condition. Alexander Majors, of Nebraska City, late 
of the freighting firm of Majors, Russell & Waddell, giving his ex- 
perience, sums up the whole matter as follows: ''I say, without 
hesitation, all the country west of the Missouri river is one vast 
pasture, affording unequalled summer and winter pasturage, where 
sheep, horses and cattle can be raised with only the cost of herd- 
ing.'' 

PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



Longmont proudly boasts of a well assorted and first-class 
library. Under the munificence of the Colony's Benefactress, 
Mrs. E. Thompson, of New York, a truly first-class library building 
26x50 feet has been erected, a bell hung in the tower, and an organ 
placed in the Lyceum room, and the library hall filled with books. 
For this truly noble and praiseworthy deed the colonists extend 
to Mrs. Thompson their sincere thanks, and assure her that she 
will ever be held in grateful remembrance. 

To Mr. C. N. Pratt, our agent at Chicago, thanks are due for 
the organ and bell. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR MCCOOK, BEFORE THE 
COLORADO AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: This annual exhibition of our 
society probably possesses more of interest to the public at 
large, and to the people of the Territory, than any previous one. 
It is, for us, a trial event; for we have challenged the attention of 
the whole world to our mineral resources and productive capacity; 
as I looked around me to-day, I was convinced that we had thor 



152 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



oughly vindicated the claims of Colorado to being richer in present 
wealth and future promise than any or all of the Territories of the 
Union. 

About the best definition of the word agriculture I have ever 
seen, is that agriculture is the mother of provisions, and was first 
discovered by Cain, and has since been discovered to be a very hard 
way to make an honest living — that is the old-fashioned definition. 
The science, however, as exemplified in this Territory, is not so 
difficult, for we improve on the original plan of Providence by 
providing our own rain in the shape of irrigation. 

To those who dislike this method of cultivating the soil, I 
would say that as the area of cultivated and irrigated land in- 
creases, and a greater surface is exposed to evaporation, rains in- 
variably become more frequent and more abundant; in other 
words, as the amount of irrigation increases, the necessity for it 
apparently decreases; and the experience of the people of those 
localities in the western country, where irrigation has been most 
extensively practised, has been that it relieves them from the ex- 
tensive failure of crops through drouth, and, if properly conducted, 
the yield is from twenty-five to fifty per cent, greater than that 
secured by ordinary cultivation in the east, even in the most fruit- 
ful seasons, and under the most favorable circumstances. 

The physical difficulties we have to overcome are not so great 
as a past generation overcame when they hewed down the forests 
of Ohio and Indiana, and ate their daily rations of calomel and 
quinine amid the swamps of the Wabash and in the valley of the 
Miami. Thirty years ago the prairies of Illinois and Iowa were 
regarded as more unpromising and unproductive than these great 
plains which surround us. Ten years ago the rich valleys of the 
Platte, now yellow with golden harvests, were considered part of 
the ''Great American Desert:" and even yet the geographies sent 
out here to teach the youth of Colorado the greatness of this ex- 
pansive country, have not been corrected; and within the area 
marked, ''American Desert", I have seen produced the best cereals 
of the world; and the country marked "Great Buffalo Range" is 
now supplying Chicago and St. Louis, not with buffalo beef, but 
with fat Colorado steers. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



153 



I think this country, though as well adapted to agriculture as 
any other of the Territories or States, is yar excellence the pastoral 
country of North America; and our Texas neighbors are showing 
their faith in this fact by driving large numbers of their stock into 
the Territory. The grasses here have been found richer and more 
succulent than grasses further south, furnishing even in winter 
better and more nutritious grazing than the coarser grasses of 
that region. I am told that cattle brought here from Texas in- 
crease twenty per cent in size and weight during a single year; 
and in a countrj^ where the natural increase in sheep is nearly a 
hundred, and of cattle from sixty to eighty per cent.; where there 
is abundant pasturage for thousands of herds, there can be scarcely 
a limit to the amount produced. Now that the railroads have 
come, we will be able to supply the markets of Chicago and St. 
Louis with beef as good in quality and cheaper in price than that 
raised in the valley of the Mississippi. 

The most conclusive evidence I can present that this territory 
is beginning to be recognized as the best stock-growing country 
of the West, is the fact that nearly $120,000 have been here in- 
vested in herds, during the past spring and summer, and this 
principally by rnen who have heretofore been engaged in stock- 
growing further east, and have now come here for the purpose of 
making Colorado their permanent home. Instead of being se- 
questered and isolated as heretofore, we will now be right on all 
the thoroughfares between the east and west. This is the centre 
of the continent, and our geographical position, as well as our 
physical resources, must force us into wealth and importance. 
I heard a distinguished national public man say that the majority 
of the territories were an incubus on the government; and that, 
with their Indian wars, isolated position, unpromising future, and 
expensive organizations, the nation would be better off without a 
majority of them, but Colorado had a geographical position and 
pastoral wealth which would always make her an unfortunate 
necessity to a United American Republic. 

******************** 

To-day the heart of every Coloradan must be filled with pride 
at beholding this grand exhibition of riches and plenty, these in- 
disputable evidences of substantial progress in a land out of which 



154 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



so many wise men of the East have said, in years gone by, ''that 
no good things could come." Could these "doubting Thomases" 
be with us to-day, to feast their eyes on these samples of our mar- 
velous resources, would they not believe that they have seen the 
most sublime illustration of human faith, human courage and hu- 
man industry this country has shown? If they did fail to see all 
this, not even the Lord of Hosts could help their unbelief. 

You have looked not only to the physical and pecuniary ad- 
vancement of the territory, but, with prescient wisdom, you have 
made provision for the cultivation of the human faculties by 
organizing a sound system of public education. If you ask me 
what this has to do with agriculture and industry, I will tell you. 
It induces the immigration of a class of people who, more than all 
others, help to give wealth and stability to the country, because 
they are working for the future as well as for the present; for their 
children as well as for themselves; men who recognize the benign 
influences flowing from the encouragement and development of 
a perfect system of moral and intellectual as well as physical train- 
ing. They beheve as I do, in attractive homes and pleasant fire- 
sides; and with them, and the splendid physical vigor of our people, 
I look for Colorado to furnish in the next generation, a race of men 
and women that will be the physical and intellectual superiors of 
any on the continent, and make this state foremost in the ranks of 
our nation's march to imperial greatness. It has always been a 
pet theory of mine that this great western country will in time 
give birth to the controlling political and physical elements of the 
United States; and just here I would consel you not to exhaust 
all your resources of time and capital in raising good fat cattle, 
plump grain, luscious fruits and nutritious vegetables. You must 
raise good men and lovely women as well. I am sorry there is 
not a separate department here for the exhibition of babies. I 
beheve in vigorous babies and plenty of them, particularly in a 
new country like this; and I believe also in educating the little 
fellows after they come — for without education they are mere 
animals; and a country with an ignorant population, no matter 
how great its resources, must degenerate and become politically 
and socially debauched and demoralized, an element of material 
weakness to the nation instead of material strength. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



155 



Civilization has come to us kindly, and will make this one of 
the most favored spots in all this favored land. We have every- 
thing here to invite men who wish to make their homes in this 
new west, to come and make their homes with us; climate, soil 
and mines, all contribute to make this country attractive. We 
have the climate of Italy, and soil rich as the Delta of the Nile; 
and our glorious mountains ribbed with gold and silver, and the 
most beautiful in the world, carry, as the Arab proverb says of 
Lebanon, winter on their heads, spring upon their shoulders, and 
harvests in their bosom, while summer sleeps at their feet. 

God has given us a land of promise, of many resources and 
great beauty! AH we have to do to assure a future worthy of the 
gifts Providence has so bountifully bestowed upon our territory, 
will be to remember that the prosperity of every people is always 
proportionate to the number of hands and minds usefully em- 
ployed. 



SMALL FARMS. 



Many writing from the States about Colorado, think the con- 
ditions regarding land are the same as in Kansas and Nebraska, 
hence 160 acres is the smallest amount they would be willing to 
take. The truth is, only a small part of Colorado can be culti- 
vated since irrigation is a necessity, and if each man is to have a 
large farm, only a few can be accommodated; besides, in a large 
colon}^, the farms must be small, or isolation will be inevitable, and 
the colony will break down by the vast extent of ground it attempts 
to cover. Further than this, the yield is so large from an acre, 
as to make it impossible for a man to cultivate and to take care 
of the products of many acres. All through Colorado, more land 
is under ditches than can be cultivated. Everywhere, the world 
over, land sells highest where the holdings are small and popula- 
tion dense. Where farms are large, schools are poor, productions 
are limited to such articles as can be raised by cheap and unskilled 
labor, and society is scarcely worthy of the name. It is probable 
that 40 acres of land in Colorado, with water, will make as large 
a farm as can be profitably tilled, and when to this is added the 
vast outside stock range, one need not be troubled about land. 



156 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



GRAZING IN COLORADO. 



In the whole of America, North or South, there is not a more 
beautiful, a more fertile, a better watered, nor a finer and healthier 
climate, nor better and more reliable grazing, both summer and 
winter, than is in the upper valleys of these two Plattes. The 
whole region, from the head of the Cache la Poudre south to Den- 
ver, is perhaps the best watered and the most desirable locaUty 
for all purposes — fruit, farming or stock-raising in America. It 
would take a book to particularize all of these clear, swift mountain 
streams. It will be sufficient to say that the region drained by 
the streams mentioned, beginning with Lodge Pole creek on the 
north, and ending on the south with Clear and Bear creeks, con- 
tains 12,000,000 acres of unequaled pasture lands. 

Thousands of stock men can find the best of locations by 
living streams,with bottom lands for small grain and vegetables, 
and corn, if any man in the midst of an unbounded country of 
grazing, where sheep and cattle need no hay nor shelter, will still 
adhere to such a slavish life as corn raising. There is plenty of 
timber in the mountains and foot hills, and coal, iron, limestone 
and clay. There are fine settlements in the most of this region, 
and still room for untold numbers more of people who could settle 
within reach of railroads, mails, schools and churches. 

The mean temperature of this region for spring is 42° to 45°; 
for summer, 75°; autumn, 50° to 55°; for winter, 30° to 32°; for 
the year, it is 50° to 55°; In the spring eight inches of water 
falls; in the summer six inches; autumn, four inches. In the 
winter eighteen inches of snow fall; equal to 13^ inches of water. 
The mean temperatures and average snow and rain falls are onl}^ 
the generalities of climate. I will only say that the winds are 
mostly from the west, and temper our cHmate, coming as they do 
from the great stream of the Pacific waters that washes the western 
coast. The rain fall of the spring, is from gentle continuous rains; 
that of summer is from showers. The snow falls in small quan- 
tities and soon disappears; the quantity being too small, and last- 
ing too short a time to make sleighing. In stating the number of 
clear and cloudy days, the chief beauty of our climate will appear. 

I have taken meterological observations for nearly six sum- 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



157 



mers, with great care, and have fully studied the results, and I 
think that out of 365 days in the year, more than 300 are clear. 

Dr. H. Latham. 

A PERFECT DAY. 

Thanksgiving Day, the 24th of November, 1870, was one of 
Colorado's perfect days — not to be beaten anywhere else on this 
globe. You may bestow all your best epithets upon it, and then 
you will feel that you have not half expressed its beauty and glory. 
From the moment the sun rose upon the distant snowy peaks, till 
its last rays covered them with a veil of violet and purple, it was 
a warm and delightful day and even far into the night it was as 
balmy as an evening in summer. The thermometer stood near 
70° for a large part of the day. And yet, it was not a remarkable 
day for this latitude, — the whole of November has been a month of 
sunshine, though all the glories of the month seem to have culmi- 
nated on Thursday, as if to do honor to the day. 

WHAT COLORADO OFFERS. 

Standing alongside of the Rocky Mountains, how the mind 
runs back to our youthful, vague and mythical knowledge of their 
grandeur and sublimity! How difficult to realize that, whereas, 
twenty years ago their location and character, and the fertile 
fields at their base, were simply known to, and the wild home of 
the, "red man," now cities of thousands of inhabitants spring up 
in a breath, with society as various and as cultured and as organized 
as in New England. 

All this seems dream-like; yet wonderful and rapid has been 
the growth of Colorado; and more wonderful the birth and first 
growth of Longmont, the centre of attraction to our colony. 

Longmont enjoys a fine climate the year through, is favorably 
located for trade, and is endowed with a scene of mountain pano- 
ramic beauty one hundred miles long, now touched with clouds, 
now radiant with sunshine, then dark with rocks and trees, again 
white with snow, now cold, now warm, but always inspiring in 
grandeur, and ever unequaled by the possession of any other town 
in America. 

Yet, still as the father of it all, Long's Peak lifts its hoary 



158 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



head high above its surroundings, and holds in its lap no less than 
thirty-nine lakes, alive with trout and rich in commanding beauty. 
Reader, would you view Long's Peak or the grand snowy moun- 
tains in all their diversified forms — would you see their subhmity 
and greatness — would yon have the very soul lifted on high? 
Then stand in Longmont at the close of day, and, in wonder and 
awe, behold the sun as he sinks in the West. 

The geographical prominence and parentage of Long's Peak 
are but type and promise of Colorado's future relations to the de- 
veloped and developing life of the nation. Stretching two hun- 
dred and sixty miles north and south, and four hundred miles east 
and west, her territory has two divisions. The mountains on the 
west — east of which are the Plains — a high rolling plateau from 
four to five thousand feet above the sea level, richly watered by 
streams from the mountains; the strips along the rivers ripe for 
abundant harvests of grains and fruits and vegetables, the whole 
already the finest pasture land of the continent, and with irriga- 
tion, for which the streams afford ready facility, capable of most 
successful cultivation; beautiful in its wide, treeless sea of green 
and gray, with waves of land to break the monotony and lift the 
eye to the mountains with towering tops of rock and snow. 

As to the possessions of our colony. Prof. F. V. Hayden, in 
the report of the United States Geological Survey, thus speaks: 

"The valley of St. Vrain is one of these valleys of erosion, with broad 
table land or terraces on each side, leaving the divide in the form of a contin- 
uous bench, extending far down into the prairies, giving to the surface of the 
country a beautiful and most artificial appearance. Between St. Vrain and 
Left Hand creeks there is a broad plateau, about ten miles wide, which is as 
level to the eye as a table top. As we come from the north to the south side 
of the plateau, we can look across the valley at least ten miles, dotted over 
with farm houses, fenced fields and irrigating ditches, upon one of the most 
pleasant views in the agricultural districts of Colorado." 

For health, Colorado has no equal. We insert the following: 

"Ten years since, while completing my professional education in Phila- 
delphia, I was suddenly attacked with hemorrhage of the lungs. Having cause 
to fear hereditary predisposition, I was thought to be a victim of the fell 
disease, consumption. I concluded to try a change of climate. I came as 
far west as the Missouri, but without relief. I then came to the base of the 
Rocky Mountains, in Colorado. On arriving here, my symptoms were quickly 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



159 



improved, and although it required two years for my lungs to become sound, 
I now have had eight years of good health, and a prospect of longevity. I can 
also certify that my case is a Jac simile of very many others, whom I have pro- 
fessionally treated; and who, in leaving the humid atmosphere of the eastern 
and middle States, left the cause of their disease. 

Your most obedient, 

'J. N. Jones, M. D.' " 

Hundreds of such testimonials could be cited, but space will 
not allow. Hence, in candor, we conclude that Colorado offers 
homes to the homeless, health to the diseased, and an abundant 
remuneration for industry, enterprise and for wealth. 

For information respecting transportation j reduced rates of 
freight, etc., apply to C. N. Pratt, Agent, Chicago, III.; and for 
matters concerning the colony, apply to either Mr. Pratt, of Chicago, 
or to¥. C. Gar butt, Secretary of Longmont Colony. 



IMPROVEMENTS REQUIRED. 

In answer to those enquiring the nature and extent of the im- 
provements required to gain complete title of their land, we would 
say that cases and circumstances will materially vary. Many will 
be able to erect commodious farm houses, and place their land all 
in working order the first year, while the poor man, though in- 
dustrious, will not be able to accomphsh so much. Industry, at- 
tention to one's own business, and go-ahead, are the real require- 
ments. Those qualifications would insure success in any under- 
taking. Reserving the right in all cases to give weight to the 
above, the Executive Council have determined that the require- 
ments will be, as follows: On outstanding selections, improve 
ments to be valued at two hundred dollars, though, if one builds 
in town, only one hundred dollars will be required on the farm 
lands. 



TRANSFERS OF MEMBERSHIPS. 



No transfer of a membership will be recognized unless placed 
upon the back of the membership and entered upon the colony 
books. 



160 



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EXCERPT FROM 
COLONY DAY BOOK, 1871 



1871 DAY BOOK 

CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY^ 



June 20 Paid Wm. Holly's bill for 75 00 





board 6 week's at S12 50 






75 00 


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21 John Parnell on account of R. Lewis & Co 


33 


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A. Clawson & Co 


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100 00 


11 


" " John Hentzler on a/c 
R. Lewis & Co 


76 


75 


76 75 


tl 


" John Horsman on a/c 
R. Lewis & Co 
A. Clawson & Co 


30 


70 


17 60 
13 10 


11 


" Mason Duncan on a/c 
Ditch 


6 


75 


6 75 


it 


" " James Entwhistle for board while 
working on ditch 


1 


50 


1 50 


li 


" Thomas Manners on a/c 
A. Clawson & Co 


34 


95 


34 95 


n 


" D. H. Howes for Corn 


23 


45 






for freight on bell &c 


4 


00 


27 45 


Pg2] 








it 


" Received of A. D. Holt bal. on Mem. 


65 


00 


65 €0 


It 


" " of Henry Krueger on Mem. a/c 


50 


00 


50 00 


It 


" of John Madling on Mem. a/c 


50 


00 


50 00 


tt 


" Received of Horace Howes on Mem. a/c 


150 


00 





150 00 



iln City Hall at Longmont. The entries in this Day Book begin with June 20, 1871 and end with 
April 13, 1900. Only the first section of this book has been reprinted here; a Day Book for the first montluiaf 
the Colony could not be found by the editors. 



182 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 
Paid Joseph Blomely on a/c Ditch 15 00 

15 00 

June 24. Rec'd the time of the Engineer corps for week ending 
June 23 





R. Fawcett 


6ds 


$6 00 








J. W. Lincoln 


434 


4 00 


19 00) 






H. F. Pardy 


6 


2 308 


13 85) 






A. Millise 


6 


2 308 


13 85) 






W Newton 


6 


2 308 


13 85) 






Wm. Mumford 


6 


2 308 


13 85) 


119 63 




Richard J Williams 4 ds 




9 23) 




it u 


Paid John Melvin on 
School 


a/c 




1 49 


1 49 


it u 


Received of Chas Martin on Res. 330, and 








Bus. 100 




430 00 


430 00 


[pg 3] 












" 26 


Paid H. F. Pardey on 


a/c 




12 00 





Engineer 12 00 

" " Received of Jdseph Blomelley on Business 

Lot a/c 40 00 on Residence Lot a/c $25 65 00 65 00 
^' " Paid J. H. Wells order favor B S Barnes 25 00 

25 00 

" 20 Received of W. B. Sigley on Lot a/c.(Res.) 50 00 

50 00 

of Chas. Emerson on Business Lot a/c 

120 00 120 00 
" of J. C. Pratt on Business Lot a/c 40 00 

40 00 

" " " of Henry Frank on Membership 

a/c 104 78 104 78 

old receipt 25 00 

Mumfords order 79.78 
" " " of Warren BUnn on Business Lot 

a/c 50 00 50 00 

" " " of J. C. Pratt on Residence Lot a/c 40 00 40 00 
" of Wm. Boot on Business Lot a/c 40 00 

40 00 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 183 
26 Paid W. A. Thompson on Salary a/c Cash 12 00 

12 00 

4] 

E. Masterson on School a/c 8 50 

8 50 

J. Hetzel on Labor a/c 17 83 17 83 

" Robert Lewis on Bus. Lot. a/c 200 00 

200 00 

" " Robert Lewis on R. Lewis & Co a/c 30 90 

30 90 



it ii 



Geo. Tarbox on a/c R. Lewis & Co 33 96 
A. Clawson & Co 19 25 53 21 

" John Horsman on A. Clawson & Co a/c 18 00 

18 00 

" " J. M. Mumford Jr. on a/c R. Lewis 

& Co. 6 87 

6 87 

" Orson Mathews on a/c R. Lewis & Co 7 50 

a/c A. Clawson & Co 57 50 65 00 

27 " F. C. Garbutt on School a/c 51 95 

182 00 233 95 

28 " G. L. Penston on a/c R. Lewis & Co 55 00 

A. Clawson & Co 62 50 117 50 

L. Henney on a/c A. Clawson & Co 70 00 

70 00 

" Received of Jacob Welch on Bus 50 Res 40 90 00 

90 00 

5] 

^' Paid John Hannon on a/c A Clawson & Co 25 31 

25 31 

" J. L. Heron on a/c R. Lewis & Co 55 00 

" A Clawson & Co 65 00 120 00 
" Reed, order on Terry & Bhss per Chas. L. 

Bliss on Membership & Lots 240 00 240 00 

28 Reed, of E. L Mead on Membership and 

two Lots 235 00 

235 00 



184 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



John Townley for Teaming, 5 00 

John Edser for Labor 1 12 



29 Reed, of Emerson & Buckingham for 

Membership & Lots 245 50 245 00 

29 Reed, order on Terry & Bliss from Chas. 

BHss — addition 15 Lot 5 00 

5 00 

30 Paid Sullivan Morse for Labor, putting in 

Window, in office 6 00 6 00 

W. Dell for work driving colony team 15 00 

15 00 
5 00 
1 12 

" H. F. Pardey for work on Engineer 

corps 22 00 22 00 

Received of John E. Day on Bus a/c 80 00 

80 00 

10 00 

25 00 

16 15 



[pg6] 

June 30 Paid W. Newton for work on Engineer 

corps 10 00 

" 20 Received of W. B. Sullivan Morse in part 

pajTTient of Mem. & Lots 25 00 

" 28 Paid Henry Lewis on order R. Lewis & Co 16 15 



" 30 Received the time of the Engineer Corps 
for the week ending June 16th 

R. Fawcett 6 ds. $6 00 36 00 

H. F. Pardey 6 ds. 2.308 13 85 

A MilKce 6 ds. 2.308 13 85 

W. Newton 6 ds. 2.308 13 85 

W. Mumford 6 ds. 2.308 13 85 91 40 

" 26 " of H. Chadbourn in part payment 

of lots (Bus.) 45 00 45 00 

July 1 of Edwin Wright in full payment 

of Res. Lot. 50 00 

" 50 00 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 185 



" 3 " of E. B. Kellogg in full payment of 

Res. Lot. 40 00 

" " " of Edward Lyman in part payment 

of Mem. & Lot (Res. $50) 125 00 

" Paid J. D. CofPman for Teaming on 

Streets 12 50 

" " Received of Mrs B S Barnes, on Bus 50 

Res 40 B S Barnes Trustee 90 00 

[pg 7] 

Paid A. Clawson & Co for Labor on Ditch 30 00 



(( (( 



1 " J. W. Lincoln on Engineer Corps. 24 00 

Amos Millice on Engineer Corps 5 00 

" F. C. Garbutt for 100 Greeley 

Tribunes 4 00 

" F. C. Garbutt for Colony Sign at 

Denver 20 00 



40 00 
125 00 

12 50 

90 00 

30 00 
24 00 
5 00 

4 00 

20 00 



F. C. Garbutt for Tritch's Hard- 
ware Bill 116 00 

for Purchases and Fare at Denver 14 00 

for Advertising in St. Louis Repub- 
lican 45 50 

for Draft to W. N. Byers Printing 

to June 30/71 86 00 

for Draft to Woodbury and Walker 

for Printing to June 30/71 121 85 383 35 

Emerson and Buckingham 

for Exchange 1 40 

1 40 



186 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 
3 " D.S.Coffman for Teaming on Ditch 48 00 

48 00 

3 J. D. Coffman for labor on Lake ParklS 00 

" Streets 30 00 45 00 
20 Received of J. J. Hall on Bus. a/c 120 00 

120 00 

[pg 8] 

July 3 Paid E. J. Coffman. Salary 25 00 

25 00 

3 " Mason Duncan Work on Ditch 13 50 

13 50 

" 6 John Dawson on a/c R. Lewis & Co 6 25 

A. Clawson & Co 9 75 16 00 
" 6 " James Entwistle on a/c R. Lewis 

& Co. 6 25 

A. Clawson & Co. 6 00 12 25 

" " " T. J. Laws work on Ditch 5 00 

5 00 

Wm. H. Lee ''Blacksmith's Bill" 10 70 

10 70 

" Streeter and Turrell on a/c School 3 80 

'' Mumford 25 55 
*' Office (Ex- 
pense a/c) 30 50 59 85 
'' F. C. Garbutt money advanced to 

record Deeds 10 00 

10 00 

June 29 Received of Edward Lyman for Mem. in- 
stallment 100 00 

100 00 

July 7 " of Edward L. Johnson on Mem. a/c 100 00 

100 00 

June 24 of Chas. M. Martin on Mem & 

Initia a/c's 155 00 

155 00 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 187 

[pg9] 

June 28 ''of Elizabeth C. Mead on Mem. and 

Initia a/c's 155 00 



" 29 " of P. Buckingham on Mem. a/c 150 00 

July 1 "of Emerson & Buckingham on 

Mem. a/c. 150 00 

" 3 " of Abel R. Strother on Mem. a/c. 150 00 

June 29 " of P. Buckingham on Initiation a/c. 5 00 

July 1 of Emerson & Buckingham on In- 

itiation a/c. 5 00 

3 " of Abel R. Strother on Initiation a/c. 5 00 
7 Paid Laws Bros, for Liver>^, 100 00 

'' H. A. Ransom for work on Streets 28 12 
" W. H. Dickens for Hay 24 00 



[pg 10] 

July 8 Paid H. J. Lockhart for Poles 14 00 

7 " A. Clawson on a/c A. Clawson & Co 25 00 
" " J. H. Wells for services 60 00 



155 00 
150 00 

150 00 

150 00 
5 00 

5 00 
5 00 
100 00 
28 12 
24 00 



8 '' J. M. Mumford on a/c G. Clawson 45 00 

A. Clawson 10 00 55 00 
" R. Lewis & Co on a/c 15 48 



15 48 

14 00 

25 00 

60 00 

" Seth Terry for bill of D. S. CofPman 83 00 

Moving barn 30 00 113 00 



188 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

" Received of J. B. Barclay in payment of 

Res. Lot. 50 00 

6 " of Wm. Wright in payment of Res. 

lot. 50 00 

7 " R. M. Hubbard on Mem. a/c 15 00 

" 11 Paid Mason Duncan on a/c Ditch 27 00 

13 Received of H. Chadbourne for Bus & 

Res. Lots @ $40 80 00 



(C u 



' of C. N. Pratt on Initiations a/c. $150 00 
Office expenses 35.00 115 00 

13 Credit J. M. Mumford for error of July 6th 

and charge Ditch a/c same amt. 25 55 



50 00 

50 00 
15 00 
27 00 

80 00 

115 00 

25 55 



Received of J. C. Hummell on Bus. Lot 

a/c 140 00 

140 00 

[pg 11] 

July 13 Expense 4 00 

To R. Lewis & Co for two shovels, 

charged by mistake. 4 00 

June 24 Paid W. Busch on a/c R. Lewis & Co 65 00 

65 00 
27 50 
27 00 
25 00 



July 10 A. Cushman on a/c Park, for Labor 27 50 

''11 '' M. Duncan for labor on Ditch 27 00 
' F. C. Garbutt for postage stamps 25 00 



June 19 Credit Membership a/c and charge R. 

Lewis & Co 37 15 

A. Clawson & Co 22 00 59 15 
(H. Frank's Mem) 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



189 



" " Credit Membership a/c and chge. Ditch 20 63 

(H. Franks Mem.) 20 63 

May 18 Ditch a/c Dr. to Perry White 

2 Yoke Oxen and man III/2 dys @ $5 57 50 
1 man 6^ 2 25 15 18 

Self 4 2 25 9 00 

Building Bridge by Contract 20 00 

Hay sold to Blomeley and chged 2 00 

Milk Sl,75 Vegetables 3 25 to CCC 5 00 108 68 
" 18 P. White Dr. to Membership 155 00 

Water right for 40 acres of land and lot in 

town 155 00 

July 18 Received of Frank Haeden on Bus 10 & 

Res 10 20 00 

20 00 

[pg 12] 

July 15 G. Robinson Cr. 24 days @ U 25 work 

on Park, 30 00 

Labor on Coal Bank 5 ds. @$1 50 7 50 

Ditches 3 @ 1 25 3 75 41 25 

July 15 R. Fawcett 2 pr Blankets 11 00 

1 Tick 2 50 

Board 8 25 21 75 

17 A. Clawson to be chged from G. Clawson's 

a/c 35 00 

35 00 

Credit H. W. Preston. Cash 55 63 

old receipt. 55 00 110 63 

" 12 Paid Milwaukee Daily Guide per draft 

F. C. Garbutt, for adver, 6 25 



13 " Freight for Library (chairs) to H. J. 

Lockhart 6 45 

" " W. F. Mumford on a/c Engineer 

Corps 22 00 



6 25 



6 45 



22 00 



190 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

14 G. Clawson on a/c. Park $59.12 

Ditch 5.00 



64.12 







Paid Mumford $45.00 


19 


12 
















19 


12 




(( 


A. Clawson & Co on a/c Ditch 


150 


00 
















150 


00 


H (I 


ii 


J. Parnell on a/c Coal Bank 


7 


50 
















7 


50 


[pg 13] 














July 15 


Paid J Parnell on a/c Coal Bank 


3 


75 
















3 


75 


( ( < < 


ii 


J W Lincoln on Engineer a/c 


15 


00 
















15 


r\f\ 

00 


ii 11 


<< 


Jos. Blomelley on Street a/c 


45 


00 
















45 


00 


i( f( 




A. Clawson on Coal Bank a/c 


41 


00 
















41 


00 


<( (I 


n 


H. W Preston on Ditch a/c 


6 


75 
















6 


75 


u 17 


n 


Turner and Deem for Teaming 


2 


50 










Work on Lake 


2 


50 


5 


00 


it ii 




Geo. Hanson. Street a/c 


15 


00 
















15 


00 


a 11 


It 


W A Thompson on Salary a/c 


33 


00 
















33 


00 


(C (( 


n 


W J Atwood for bill of July 7/71 


5 


12 
















5 


12 


(( a 


charge Seth Terry on Membership a/c 














(J. H. Bartlett 


100 


00 
















100 


00 


if (( 


Credit Seth Terry with 


10 


00 








on 


J Randolphs a/c not collected 






10 


00 



Received of H. G. Hastings on Res. Lot 

a/c 40 00 

40 00 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



191 



[pg 14] 

June 30 Received the time of the Engineer corps 
up to June 30th 
Richd. Fawcett 6 dys @ S6.00 36 00 

H. F. Pardey 4 @ 2 31 9 24 

Amos. MilHce 6 @ 2 31 13 86 

W. Newton 6 @ 2 31 13 86 

W. Mumford 3^ @ 2 31 1 16 

J. Jr 5 @ 2 31 11 55 85 67 

July 7 Received time of Engineer corps up to 







July 7tn 














riicn. rawcett 


5 ds 


@ $6 00 


oU 


uu 






H. F. Pardey 


2 " 


@ 2 31 


4 


62 






A. Millice 


2 " 


@ 2 31 


4 


62 






W. Newton 


1 " 


@ 2 31 


2 


31 






J. Mumford Jr 


3 


@ 2 31 


6 


93 






R. J. WilHams 


3 " 


@ 2 31 


6 


93 


{( 


14 


Received time of 


Engineer corps up to 










July 14th 














Rich Fawcett 


6 ds 


@ $6 00 


36 


00 






H. F. Pardey 


6 " 


@ 2 31 


13 


86 






A. MiUice 


6 


@ 2 31 


13 


oO 






W. Newton 


3 


@ 2 31 


6 


93 






J. Mumford Jr 


6 " 


@ 2 31 


13 


86 






R. J. WilHams 


3 " 


@ 2 31 


6 


93 


(( 


18 


Amos. Millice 3 ds on Ditch last spring 










@ $1.50 






4 


50 


(( 


(( 


Over, credit June 30 W. Newton 


10 


00 


(( 


(( 


W. Newton, charge with Membership 150 


00 






Initiation 






5 


00 


[pg 15] 












July 


18 


W. Newton. 5 days lost time @ $2,308 


11 


54 


(C 


(I 


H. F. Pardey 5 days lost time @ $2,308 


11 


54 



55 41 



91 44 

4 50 

10 00 
155 00 

11 54 
11 54 



192 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



18 Over, credit June 30 H. Pardey 22 00 



June 24 Paid R. Williams on Engineer a/c 9 23 

July 18 A. MilKce lost time 3 ds @ $2,308 6 92 

Rent of shanty A. Millice (chge. 3 25 

" charge H. Pardey rent of shanty 3 25 



" D. T. Cotter for Ditching 19 10 



22 00 



18 Credit Saml. Sumner on Res. Lot. a/c. for 

work for R. Lewis & Co 20 20 

and on Streets 17 50 37 70 

" 18 Charge W. Newton for rent of shanty 3 25 

3 25 

18 Over credit June 30 A. MiUice 5 00 

5 00 

18 Credit H. T. Lewis 5 ds @ $2 25 on Streets 11 25 

on Ditch 3 ds @ 2.25 6 75 18 00 

" Credit H. Hawes for 3 ds @ $2.25. Ditch 

a/c 6 75 



6 75 
9 23 
6 92 
3 25 
3 25 



[pg 16] 

July 19 charge S. R. Lyon rent of shanty 2 25 

7 ds lost time @ 2.308 16 15 18 40 

" 17 Paid Geo. Robinson Cash 10 00 

10 00 

17 " B. S. Barnes Expenses to and from 

Denver 16 50 



16 50 
19 10 

M. Duncan for Ditching 13 50 

cash 13 50 

" J. Smith on Street a/c 29 25 

" School " 1 50 30 75 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 193 

18 



[pg 17] 



18 



" J. M. Mumford on Ditch a/c 168 


00 






Expense a/c 


6 


00 


174 


00 


Use of team and building shanties 










" J. Mumford Jr. on Ditch a/c 


91 


38 












91 


38 


" E. J. Coffman. work on Park 


25 


50 












25 


50 


Chge Wm. Bramwood Business Lots 


70 


00 












70 


00 


Receive of Wm. Bramwood Cash 


70 


00 












70 


00 


Jl dlU. XI. Jrx.. XVctll&Ulll KyDaii JUdJ-liv d,/ Kj 


o 


25 












K 
o 




Paid Thos. Dinsmore on Street a/c 


9 


00 






Coal Bank 


2 


25 


11 


25 


Paid B. S. Barnes, a/c Ditch. (S. Morse) 


12 


00 












12 


00 


H. F. Pardey Cash Balance in full 


6 


63 












6 


63 


" H. T. Lewis, a/c Coal Bank 


14 


00 












14 


00 


" R. J. Williams Cash. 


13 


86 












13 


86 


Received of J. B. Thompson on Mem. a/c 


50 


00 












50 


00 


Received of Elmer Beckwith on Residence 










Lot a/c 


50 


00 






Business Lot a/c 


50 


00 


100 


00 


Received of B. K. May on Mem a/c 


50 


00 












50 


00 


" of E B Kellogg on Res. Lot a/c 


10 00 












10 


00 


of M. A. Everett on Initia a/c 


5 


00 












5 


00 


" of J. A. Titus on Mem. a/c. 150 


00 






Initia " 


5 00 






Res. Lot. 


50 


00 


205 


00 



194 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 
" of J W. Bramwood on Mem a/c 150 00 

150 00 

" " chge J M. Mumford on Mem a/c 150 00 

150 00 

[pg 18] 

July 10 Received of Sarah E. Martin on Mem. a/c 150 00 

150 00 

11 Received of Horace Chadbourne on Mem- 
bership a/c 150 00 

150 00 

" of E. A. Hastings on Membership a/c 50 00 

50 00 
50 00 
50 00 



15 " of John Ecker on Residence Lot a/c 50 00 

" of J. B. Thompson on Mem. a/c 50 00 

" of Sarah E Martin on Initiation a/c 5 00 

5 00 

" " of E. A. Hastings on Initiation a/c 5 00 5 00 
20 Charge MadUng rent from May 20th to 

July 15th 7 weeks 3H weeks® 1.00 3 50 

3 50 

Charge Krueger rent from May 20th to 

July 15th 7 weeks 33^ @ LOO 3 50 

3 50 

' * * ' Chauncey Stokes paid with bill of work on 

Colony Building 18 ds © $5 00 90 00 

for Bus. Lots $40 90 00 

" Res. " $50 
90 

[pg 19] 

July 20 Paid Thos. Walker for 33^ ds @ $2 30 8 05 

on Engineer a/c 8 05 

18 Charge Seth Terry Dr a/c 17127 99 

17127 99 

" Credit Seth Terry Cr a/c 15650 48 

15650 48 

from Statement of July 18/71 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 
' 19 Paid F. C. Garbutt for Postage 5 00 

' " H. T. Lewis for Park a/c 5 00 

Nursery 12 00 

'20 Thos. Walker on Engineer a/c En- 

tered see above 

' " Benj Vansant on a/c A. Clawson 

& Co 16 84 

Coal Bank 2 70 

' " " I. L. Herron on a/c A. Clawson & Co 87 50 



C( (C 



Lyman on Coal Bank a/c 



2 00 



June 1 Received of L. A. Loomis on Bus. Lot. a/c 

Res. " 85 00 



July 28 

[pg 20] 
June 1 



of C. Allen on Res. Lot a/c 



45 00 



of S. Williams on Bus. Lot a/c 35 00 

of N. J. Atwood on Mem. a/c 150 00 

of N. J. Atwood on Bus. Lot a/c 50 00 

Res. Lot a/c 40 00 

of H. T. Porter on Bus Lot a/c 20 00 

Res. " a/c 20 00 

of Eliz. Cushman on Bus. Lot a/c 40 00 

of J H Wells on Bus Lot a/c 40 00 

of Geo. W. Liber on Res. Lot a/c 40 00 



Received, of Thos. Walker on Initiation 

a/c 5 00 



195 

5 00 
17 00 



19 54 
87 50 
2 00 

85 00 
45 00 

35 00 
150 00 
90 00 
40 00 
40 00 
40 00 
40 00 

5 00 



196 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

9 Received of F. C. Avery on Membership 

a/c 150 00 

Initiation a/c 5 00 155 00 

" 9 Received of E. R. Avery on Membership 150 00 

Initiation 5 00 155 00 

5 Received of D. H. Howes on Res. Lot a/c 50 00 
[pg 21] 

5 on Bus. Lot. a/c 50 00 

note 100 00 

100 00 

" Received of J B Smith in full payment of 
last installments of two Mem. note at 4 

months 110 00 

110 00 

May 22 Received of Francis Horsman on Bus. 

Lot. a/c 18 25 

18 25 

Received of J. L. Bond per F. C. Beckwith 

on Mem. a/c 300 00 

on Initia " 10 00 

Bus. Lot " 40 00 

" Res " " 40 00 390 00 

" 24 Received of F. C. Garbutt on Bus. Lot a/c 50 00 

50 00 

" Received of Thos. Walker on Res. Lot a/c 40 00 

Bus 40 00 80 00 

" " Received of J. Humphrey on Mem. a/c 150 00 

" Init. 5 00 

Res Lot.'' 50 00 205 00 

" " Received of H.W. Stocking on Mem. a/c 150 00 

on Res. Lot. a/c 50 00 

Init. " 5 00 205 00 

" " Received of H. C. Hill on Mem. a/c 150 00 

Init. 5 00 

Res. Lot " 45 00 200 00 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 197 

tpg 22] 



May 24 Received of Fisher on Mem. a/c 


100 00 






Res Lot " 


50 00 


155 00 




Initia " 


5 00 




25 Received of M. Smith on Bus. Lot. a/c 


50 00 










50 00 


It 


Received of Wm Stoddard on Mem. a/c 


50 00 


50 00 




" B. S. Barnes on Bus. Lot a/c 


50 00 


50 00 


" 26 


of E. B. Newnam on Mem a/c 


150 00 






Initia 


5 00 


155 00 


ti ti 


" of F. H. Bishop on Res. Lot a/c 


65 00 


65 00 


(I (I 


" of Thos. Howard on Mem a/c 


150 00 






Initia 


5 00 


155 00 


n u 


of E. J. Cushman on Mem a/c 
Bus. Lot a/c 


150 00 
50 00 






Initia " 


5 00 


205 00 


It i( 


^' of Luserne Allen on Mem a/c 


150 00 


150 00 


(( (( 


" Wm. Leach entered 






[pg 23] 








May 26 


" of J. Blomelley on Res. Lot a/c 


15 00 






Bus. " 


10 00 


25 00 


tt u 


" of S. Morse on Res. Lot. a/c 


25 00 


25 00 


H (( 


" of J. E. Benson on Mem. a/c 


25 00 


25 00 


29 


" of J -B Smith on Mem. a/c 


50 00 


50 00 


It tt 


" of A. W. Cushman on Res. Lot a/( 


I 40 00 


40 00 


tt tt 


" of J. Townley on Res Lot a/c 


50 00 






Bus. Lot " 


45 00 


95 00 


« tt 


of J. Bury per John Townley on 






Bus. Lot a/c 


50 00 






on Res Lot a/c 


45 00 


95 00 



198 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

30 of J. W. Picot on Mem a/c 150 00 

Initia " 5 00 155 00 

" " " of Saml. Williams on Bus. Lot a/c 15 00 

15 00 

" " " F. C. Garbutt on Bus. Lot a/c 50 00 

50 00 

"29 " J. Townley. loan to make print, of 

R. R. Lands 400 00 

400 00 

[pg 24] 

June 1 Received of Geo. Robinson on Mem. a/c 1 74 

1 74 

" 1 " of J. W. Bramwood per. Wm Bram- 

wood on Initiation a/c 5 00 

5 00 

" " of G. S. Bond on Res. Lot a/c 50 00 

Bus. " 40 00 90 00 

" 5 " of D. H. Howes on Res. Lot a/c 50 00 

Bus. " " 50 00 100 00 

Recording Deeds 00 00 

" " " C. Price on Res. Lot a/c 40 00 

40 00 

" " Thos. G. Foster on Bus. Lot a/c 40 00 

40 00 

" " " of Chas. Price on Bus. Lot a/c 35 00 

35 00 

" 6 " Wm Wright on Bus. Lot a/c 40 00 

40 00 

" " " C. H. Wheeler per W Buckingham 

on Bus. Lot a/c 40 00 

Res. Lot a/c 40 00 80 00 

" 7 "J. Townley for Sumner on Bus. Lot 

a/c 40 00 

40 00 

" 15 " of H. Chadbourne on Bus. Lot a/c. 40 00 

40 00 







CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 
■ 




199 


[pg 25] 










" 8 


i( 


of Peter La Rue on Mem, a/c 


150 00 








Initia a/c. 


5 00 


155 00 


(( i( 


n 


of Peter La Rue on Bus Lot a/c 


50 00 








Res. 


40 00 


90 00 


t( u 


t( 


of J F. Randolph on Res. Lot a/c. 


40 00 












40 00 


(I (i 


11 


of Peter La Rue rent of two shanties 


, 8 00 












8 00 


(( (( 


it 


of Edward Averj' on Bus. Lot a/c 


50 00 








" Res. 


40 00 


90 00 


(< << 


t( 


of Frank Avery on Bus. Lot a/c 


50 00 








Res. " 


40 00 


90 00 


t( (( 


ft 


of Herbert J. Davys on Mem a/c 


150 00 








" Bus. Lot 


40 00 


150 00 






" Res 


40 00 


40 00 










40 00 


14 


It 


of J. C. Pratt on Bus. Lot. a/c 


40 00 












40 00 




ti 


of Seth Terry on a/c . 


500 00 












500 00 


" 15 


ti 


of C N Pratt on Res. Lot a/c. 


40 00 












40 00 


[pg 26] 










June 16 Received of E. E. Aldrich on Mem. a/c 


50 00 












50 00 




tt 


of Jno Townley on Bus. Lot a/c 


50 00 








Res. " 


35 00 


85 00 






Mem. 


86 


86 00 




It 


of R. M. Hubbard on Mem. a/c. 


15 00 












15 00 


il a 


ti 


of Anna Boice on Mem. a/c. 


50 00 












50 00 


{( It 


it 


of Anna Boice on Res. Lot a/c 


40 00 








Bus. " 


40 00 


80 00 


It tc 


it 


of A W Cushman on Bus. Lot a/c 


40 00 





40 00 



200 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



19 



13 



July 22 



of B S Barnes on Bus. Lot a/c. 50 00 

of Frank A Cass on Mem a/c 50 00 

of N T Bradner on Mem. a/c 30 00 

of Alonzo Wilson on Mem. a/c. 150 00 

of Louis F Rivoux on Mem. a/c. 150 00 



[pg 27] 

June 19 Received of Alfred Day on Mem a/c. 300 00 

Initia 10 00 

July 22 ''of Louis F. Rivoux on Initia. a/c. 5 00 



21 Paid J. D. Coffman on Ditch a/c. 50 00 

21 " Terry & Bliss on a/c Ditch 150 00 

24 " Jno. W Lincoln on a/c Engineer 

service 16 00 

27 Credit Dennis T. Cotter on Coal Bank a/c 9 00 

" Credit D. T. Cotter on Coal Bank a/c 12 00 

" Credit D T. Cotter on Ditch a/c. 2 25 

D. T. Cotter difference on lots 20 00 

'' D. T. Cotter Cash Balance on Mem. 1 75 

" Charge D. T. Cotter Mem. 150 00 

and Credit by old receipt 50 Mem 

& 5 In 55 00 



50 00 
50 00 
30 00 
150 00 
150 00 

310 00 
5 00 
50 00 
150 00 

16 00 
9 00 

12 00 
2 25 

20 00 
1 75 
150 00 

55 00 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



201 



" 23 Received of G. S. Phillips on Bus. Lot a/c 160 00 
[pg 28] 

8 of M H. Davis on Res. Lot a/c 40 00 

5 " of P. Buckingham on Bus. 75 and 

Res 170 145 00 

6 of Abel Strother on Res 45 Bus 37 80 00 
15 of John Ecker on Initia a/c. 5 00 



160 00 

40 00 

145 00 
80 00 
5 00 



31 Discovered overcredit for Judge Terry of 

$500 cash, and charged it to credit for 

services for same amt 500 00 

24 Cash rec'd of Judge Terry and turned over 

to Townley May 9 2386 50 

rec'd of Judge Terry 500 00 

rec'd from sundry sources 

not before credited 127 37 

Reed from Townly (loan) 400 00 

Colony Team 40 00 

" Amt. into to credited to Seth Terry to be 

debited 15650 48 



EXCERPT FROM 
MINUTES 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES^ 



Longmont April 9th 1872 
The Board of Trustees met pursuent to adjournment Thursday 
evening April 11th at 1/2 past 7 OClock P. M. 

present Messrs Streeter Atwood Coffman Townley Hummel 
Atty Wells and Baker Sec'y 

President Terry being absent meeting called to order by the 
Secretary and on motion Mr Streeter elected President Pro Tern. 

Minutes of previous meeting read and approved Motion by 



iln City Hall, Longmont. The first section of the Minutes is printed here to illustrate the character 
of the business transacted. The Minutes for the earlier period could not be found. 



202 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Atwood that Wm. Stoddard be allowed the $1.50 stricken from 
his Bill against the Colony last fall 
Carried 

A W Cushman proposed to act as Trustee on Sec 17-2-69 on the 
new plan to secure Titles 

Motion by Coffman that A W Cushmans offer be refered to 
the Committee on Selection of Lots. Carried 

Finance Committee ask further time to make their report in 
the matter of Carr & Day 

Motion by Coffman that they be given until Saturday even- 
ing to make their report Carried 

Committee on appraisal of Lots report that Lots 5 & 6 in 
Block 66 are worth $70.00 each 

Motion by Atwood that the report be accepted and adopted 
Carried 

Motion by Atwood that the proposition made by the com- 
mittee of the Highland Ditch Co to purchase the Colonys interest 
in the Excelcior Ditch free from encumberance be refered to the 
Ditch Committee to report as soon as possible 

Carried 

Motion by Atwood that A Clawsons order for ditch Scrip in 
favour of J. C Hummel for $40.00 be allowed Carried 

Motion by Coffman that Mead & Co request for Ditch order 
to E F Beckwith for $7.50 

Carried 

[pg 81 F L Smith requested deed for Lots 9 & 10 in Block 57 also 
for his 5 acre lot in 33-3-69 

On Motion Mr Smiths request was refered to Committee on 
Selection of Lots Carried 

Motion by Hummel to adjourn until Saturday evening at 
1/2 past 7 OClock P M Carried 

A K Baker Sec'y 

April 13 

The Board of Trustees met pursuent to adjournment Saturday 
evening April 13th at 1/2 past 7 OClock P. M. 

present President Terry and Messrs Streeter Hummel Atwood 
Townley Coffman Atty Wells and Baker Sec'y 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



203 



Minutes of previous meeting read and Approve Mr Townley 
requested the appraisal of Lot 7 in Block 36 

Motion by Streeter that the appraisal of Lot 7 in Block 36 
be referred to Committee on Appraisal of Lots Carried 

W B Sigby applied for three lot membership and to have lots 
2-3 & 4 in Block 43 for the same 

Motion by Atwood that Sigbys application be referred to 
Committee on Selection of Lots Carried 

Motion by Atwood that A Clawson Order to Seth Terry for 
$100.00 in Scrip be allowed also A Clawson Bill for 15 days labour 
of B K May on Rock work on ditch at $1.50 per day $22.50 

Carried 

Motion by Atwood that G H Wells Order on the Colony to 
Mrs M A Allen be allowed 
Carried 

Finance Committee report in favour of accepting Messrs 
Carr & Days propposition to do the business for the Colony 

Motion by Hummel that the report of the Committee be 
accepted and Adopted Carried 

[pg 9] On Motion Streeter Wells and Baker were appointed a 
Committee to complete the arrangement with Carr & Day 

Motion by Streeter that a certain communication to Gen 
Sickles on Rail Road matters be signed by the Board of Trustees 
Carried 

Motion by Atwood that a Committee of five be appointed to 
be called a Rail Road Committee Carried 

On Motion Messrs Wells Sigby Streeter Buckingham Atwood 
be that Committee Carried 

The Highland Ditch Co made a propposition to purchase the 
Colony s interest in the Excelcior Ditch will pay for the same in 
paid up ditch Stock Viz $5350.00 for the Rock work and Clawsons 
work have Mead & Co Contract assigned to them together what 
the Colony has paid them also the Tools & Camp &c belonging to 
the Colony Motion by Coffman [?] that the Highland Ditch Co 
propposition be accepted Carried 

Motion by Hummel that Mr Wells in conjunction with the 
Ditch Committee be instructed to get up the necessary papers 
Carried The Committee on Irrigation report in favour of con- 



204 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



tinuing the clause as now inserted in Colony deeds in relation to 
ditches Carried 

Motion by Townley that the report of the Committee on 
Irrigation in relation to the right of way for ditches be accepted 
and adopted Carried 

Motion 

Motion by Coffman to adjourn until Tuesday evening April 
16th at 1/2 past 7 OClock P M Carried 

A K Baker Sec"y 
[pg 10] April 16 

The Board of Trustees met pursuent to adjournment Tuesday 
evening April 16th at 1/2 past 7 OClock P. M. 

present President Terry & Messrs Atwood Townley Coffman 
Atty Wells and Baker Sec"y 

Minutes of previous Meeting read and approved 

Motion by Atwood that the contract with Messrs Carr & Day 
shall continue for two years Carried 

Motion by Coffman that the Contract with Carr & Day be 
signed by the President and Secretary Carried 

A K Baker resigned as Secretary of the Chicago Colorado 
Colony to take affect at the close of the business April 16th 1872 

Motion by Townley that the resignation of A K Baker as 
Colony Secretary be accepted Carried 

Motion by Coffman that B L Carr be Secretary of the C C 
Colony in the place of A K Baker resigned Carried 

Motion by Atwood that J C Barcley Order to C Wiseman be 
allowed 

Carried 

Henry Frank requested to know if he purchased the $50.00 
John Medlong has paid towards a Membership if he could apply 
the same on a Membership for himself 

Motion by Atwood that Henry Franks request be referred to 
Committee on Selection of Lots Carried 

Committee on Appraisal of Lots report that Lot 7 in Block 
36 is worth $75.00 

Motion by Atwood that report be accepted Carried 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



205 



Motion by Townby that Lot 37 in Block 52 requested to be 
appraised by A K Baker be referred to Committee on Appraisal 
of Lots Carried 

[pg 11] Henry W Preston requested to know if he could exchange 
his water deed for three Town Lots 

Motion that Prestons request be refered to Committee on 
Selection of Lots Carried 

Judge Terry offered to take the N W and the N }^ of N E 
14 of Sec 9-3-69 off the hands of the Colony 

Motion by Atwood that Judge Terrys Offer be refered to 
Committee on Survey Carried 

Motion by Townley to adjourn until Saturday April 20th at 
1/2 past 7 OClock P M Carried 

A. K. Baker Sec"y 
April 20" 1872 

Board met pursuant to adjournment at 7.30 P. M. Present 
President Terry Messrs. Townley Atwood Baker Streeter Hum- 
mell atty, Wells. Carr Sec. Minutes of last meeting read and 
approved Mr. Baker presented his report of the condition of the 
colony April 16" 1872. Moved by Streeter that the report be 
accepted and spread upon the records and that the publisher of 
the "Press" be requested to publish the same Carried 

''Longmont April 16. 1872. 
"To the Honorable Board of Trustees of the C. C. Colony 
Gentlemen. 

'^The Secretary of the C. C. Colony would respectfully make 
"the following condensed report of the affairs of the colony as shown 
"by the colony books at the close of business at the present date 
" Colony Dr. on Accts $5188.77 Due on book a/c $235.01 
" Bills payable 1449.50 Bills receivable 225.69 



Ditch scrip out- 460.70 
standing 1209.80 



7848.07 Balance $7387.37 



206 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 




$2256.38 
1772.71 



Owing to Treasurer 



483.67 



"Value of town lots Jan 1" 1872 
"Value of town lots sold 



$49905.00 
1390 00 



Value unsold 



$48515.00 



'Memberships sold since Jan 1. 1872. 
Initiation fees 



$1039.97 
35.00 



"All of which is respectfully submitted 

"A. K. Baker secretary" 

Mr. Mead appeared and requested some changes in his contract 
with Highland Ditch company Moved by Townley that the mat- 
ter be referred to the Ditch committee Carried. 

Finance committee reported that Mr. Bakers bill for $55.00 should 
be allowed Moved by Atwood that the bill be allowed Carried. 
Mr. Coffman appeared and took his seat in the Board. 

Committee on selection of lots reported on the matter of Mr Frank 
referred at the last meeting. Moved by Townley that Mr Franks 
request be granted on condition that no town lots be allowed on 
the Membership Carried 

Moved by Streeter that it shall be optional with the Board of 
trustees to declare selections forfeited on expiration of contract 
time and that no contract shall be considered forfeited until so 
declared by the Board Carried 

Committee on apprisal of lots reported a recommendation that 
Lot 37 in Block 52 be put up at auction and sold to the highest 
bidder 

[pg 13] Moved by Atwood that the report be adopted Carried 
Moved by Atwood that Woodworths bill be allowed and an order 
be drawn in payment of the same drawing two (2) percent interest 
until paid. Carried. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



207 



Moved by Coffman that lot 37 in Block 52 be sold on next Saturday- 
afternoon at 2.00 O'clock Carried 

Moved by Streeter that the matter of paying interest on unpaid 

bills be referred to finance committee Carried. 

Moved by Streeter that E. J. Coffman be allowed deeds to Lot 13. 

B. 77. price $70.00 and to lots 16 & 17 in Block 76. Carried. 

Moved that Seth Terry's order from A Clawson be allowed and 

ditch scrip be issued and charged to Clawson Carried 

Moved by Baker that Mr. Ecker be allowed to five acre lot 

Carried 

Moved by Coffman that F. L. Smith have deeds to Lots 9 and 10 
in Block 57 also a contract to 5. a. Lot 14 in section 33. 
Moved by Atwood that the matter of printing circulars be referred 
to committee on manufactures. Carried 

Moved by Baker that Mr Ransom have deed to lot 2 in Block 36 
upon complying with condition Mr Atwood paying balance 
due more than balance of his acct. Carried 
Committee on finance reported adverse to Mr. Sigbeys selection. 
Moved by Streeter that the report be accepted and committee 
be continued Carried 

[pg 14] Mr. Clawson asked for $200 in money and balance of his 
account in scrip. Moved by Streeter that his request be granted 
and the money paid as soon as possible Carried — 
Mr Streeter offers to surrender his claim in Section 31. T. 2.68. on 
condition that a sufficient amount of money be apphed in extin- 
guishment of Buckinghams claim on the town site 
Moved by Atwood that Section 31 be sold for not less than six 
dollars per acre Carried 

Moved by Atwood that ditch scrip be issued in payment of all 
claims for labor on the ditches. Carried 
Moved by Atwood that Dr Bond's selection be allowed contract 
time six months Carried 

Moved by Atwood that Anna Boyce selection be allowed contract 
time six months, Carried 

Moved by Baker that all lots on Main St when sold be sold at 
auction to the highest bidder, Carried 

Moved by Atwood that one seeder be charged to Mr. E. J. Coff- 
man and one to Mr. BHnn — and one to Judge Terry — Carried 



208 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Judge Terry proposes to take the N. W. 3^ and N. 3^. of N. E. \i 
of section 9 Town 3. 69. and pay the balance due on the contract 
releiving the colony from all further payments. Moved by Baker 
that the proposition be accepted Carried 
Moved by Streeter that if Mr Hummell advance money on con- 
tract 702 the colony will assign to him any of the [pg 15] unpaid 
contracts Carried — 

Moved by Atwood that committee on apprisal of lots be ordered 
to make an apprisal of all the property of the colony and report 
at the nixt meeting Carried 
Adjourned to Tuesday evening April 23, 1872 

B. L. Carr Secretary. 

Board met pursuant to adjournment Tuesday evening April 23 
1872 present Messrs Coffman Streeter Atwood, Townly, Wells, 
Atty. Carr secretary In the absince of the President Meeting 
called to order by the Secretary. No quorum being present voted 
to adjourn to meet on Saturady April 27 1872 

B. L. Carr Secretary. 

Longmont Colorado. 
Saturday Evening. 
Apr. 27. 1872. 

Board met pursuant to adjournment. Present. President Terry. 
Messrs. Baker. Coffman, Streeter, Hummel, Atwood, Townly 
Atty. Wells, Day appearing for Carr Secretary, absent. 

Minutes of last meeting read, corrected and approved. 
Mr Bellmans bills for work and materials presented and refered to 
finance committee. Mr Atwood chairman finance committee re- 
poted favorable to Bellmans bill No 1. 
Voted that Bellmans Bill No. 1. for $17.50 be allowed. 
Voted that Ramnals bill for $10.68 be allowed and charged to 
Clawson. 

[pg 16] Voted that Bellmans bill No. 2. for $46.55 be allowed. 
Voted that Streeter and Turrell's bill for $69.85 be allowed and 
that $48.20 of that am't. be charged to Clawson 
Streeter of the committee on Manufacturies reported that he had 
secured the printing of the plan adopted by the board for securing 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



209 



the titles to those holding lands on Railroad Sections, in the 'Tress*' 
and that he had secured 60 copies of the paper containing said plan. 
Voted that the Colony take the 60 copies and assume the payment 
Voted that they be sold at 3 cts. each. 

Voted that the Att'y. be instructed to prepare form for blank agree- 
ment and bond for the use of persons wishing to take advantage 
of the plan to secure titles to railroad land, and that the Sec. have 
a sufficient number of them printed. Mr Baker asked leave to 
introduce the following Resolution. 

Resolved. That all monies received for the sale of Colony prop- 
erty after paying the Colony debts, shall be appropriated to the 
payment of Colony land until the titles are perfected except so 
much as may be required for needful expense. 

Resolution adopted 
Voted to refer the application of N. P. Reynolds for Lots 51 and 
52 in Block 75, to committee on apprisal of Lots. 
Committee reported favorable to the request of Perry White for 
deed to his Lot. 

Voted that a deed for said lot be issued. Committee on Aprisal 
of outside Lands reported Report adopted. 
Voted that Lots 1 and 2 in Block 80 be sold at [pg 17] Public 
Auction on next Saturday at 2 oclock P. M. Shaws order on 
Meads a/c referred to ditch committee. Voted that Stodards 
request for deeds to his Membership selections be referred to com- 
mittee on selection of Lots. 

Voted that the Secretary be instructed to advertise by posting 
notices, for bids for the enlargement of the Coffman ditch so that 
it should be 8 ft. wide on top, 5 ft. wide on the bottom and 2}^ ft. 
deep, bids to be put in for the enlargement at so much per rod, 
payment to be taken in town lots at their cash valuation. 
Voted that the matter of proposals be referred to ditch committee 
with power to act. 

Voted that Mr Webster is entitled to his deed 
Voted that Mr. Townley be allowed to apply a membership on the 
purchase of Lot 37 in Block 52 and that the balance due from him 
on said purchase be applied on his note against the Colony and 
that the Membership be endorsed as fully satisfied 



210 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



The President appointed Messrs Coffman Baker and Streeter as 
judges at the election to take place on Thursday May. 2d. 
Voted to adjourn 

Seth Terry President 

Byron L Carr Secretary 
pr Day 

[pg 18] Pursuant to adjournment the Board met on Tuesday 
April 30" 1872 Present Messrs Streeter. Townley Atwood Coff- 
man Hummell. Carr. Secretary. In the absence of the President 
Mr. Streeter elected President pro. tem. 
Minutes of the last meeting were corrected and approved. 
Mr. Blinn called for an apprisal of lots 7. in Block 77 

Referred to committee on apprisal of lots. 
Voted that Mr. A. W. Cushman be allowed to act as Trustee for 
section 17 in township 2. N. range 69 west 

Voted that both Mr Felton and Mr Webster be allowed an exten- 
sion of time on their contracts of thirty days in which to complete 
their improvements 

Voted that the order of N. P. Raynolds to W. B. Sigbey be accepted 
and paid in scrip if the amount be due. 

Voted that W. B. Sigbey be allowed to take lots two (2) three (3) 
and four (4) in Block forty three (43) on his Membership. 
Voted that a committee of three be appointed to make apprisal of 
lots to be given in payment of enlarging the coffman ditch and that 
the different proposals be referred to suit committee The Chair 
appointed Messrs Atwood Townley and Hummell as suit com- 
mittee 

Voted that Mr. R. S. Lyon have deeds to lot No. ten (10) in Block 
No. 35. Deed to be made to T. A. Vaneuran. 
Voted that the contract with R. S. Lyon be taken up and a new 
contract be given to Streeter and Hummell on sixty days time, the 
colony to be at no expense for conveyancing — Adjourned to 
Wednesday May. 1. 

[pg 19] May 1st 1872 Board met pursuant to adjournment, 
present President Terry Messrs Streeter, Townly, Atwood, Coff- 
man Hummell 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



211 



Mr. Atwood of the special committee on apprisal of lots reported 
as follows: 

"Longmont. May 1st 1872. We the undersigned select committee 
"appointed to assess lots and colony trees would report that we 
have assessed the following: 
''Lots 21 & 22 Block 26 $50 100 



3 


& 


4 " 


66 "50 


100 


5 


(( 


6 " 


66 "50 


100 


15 


(( 


16 " 


78 "60 


120 


7 


a 




80 "65 


65 


14 


11 


(< 


80 "55 


55 


14 


ii 


u 


81 


50 


8 




(( 


81 


45 


1 




(( 


82 


45 


1 




(( 


83 


45 


2, 


7, 


&8, " 


83 $45 


135 



860 

Elm & Maple trees from 5th to 12th rows inclusive 150 
Larch 1000 @ 3.00 30 



$1040 

"And would report in favor of accepting the bid of H. W. Preston 
"& Co. it being the lowest bid, to be paid in above colony prop- 
"erty as assessed and lots be deeded to the contractors as fast as 
"the work progresses the colony reserving 20% until same contract 
"is completed for fulfilment of said contract 

W J Atwood ch com^' 
John Townley. " 
Voted that the report be accepted and adopted 
[pg 20] Voted that the Secretary be instructed to place the colony 
books in the hands of the Auditing committee to be audited up to 
May 1st 

Committee on apprisal of lots reported lot 7. in block 77 apprised 
at $7. voted that the report be adopted. 

committee on apprisal of lots reported the apprisal of lot 51 in 
block 65 at $65. and Lot 52 at 90 dollars. 
Report accepted and adopted. 



212 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Voted that Mr. A. H. Andrews be requested to confer with Mr 
Wells &Beaumert and arrange sometime with Crawford in reference 
to securing a title to part of the town site and that the colony 
accept Mr. Andrews' proposition to loan them money on good 
security 

Voted that Messrs Streeter Coffman and Atwood be a committee 
to confer with Mr Andrews and that they have power to act in 
the matter 

Voted that the value of lot 7 in block 36 be set at $65 cash 
Voted that the deed for lot 7 in block 36 be made to John Townley 
and that a proper endorsement be made on his note. 
Voted that the Returned Deeds and contracts be referred to com- 
mittee on selection of lots to act in connection with Mr Wells and 
report at the next regular meeting — 
Voted to adjourn 

B. L. Carr Secretary 



CERTIFICATE OF ORGANIZATION^ 
Know all men by these presents that we Peter J. Kelley, Seth 
Terry, and William N. Byers, desiring to form an incorporated 
company for the purpose of aiding, encouraging, and inducing 
immigration to the Territory of Colorado under the provisions of 
Chapter 18 of the Revised Statutes of Colorado Territory and of 
the amendments thereto approved February 11th, 1870, do hereby 
make this our certificate in writing and do state, certify, and 
declare — 

FIRST — That the corporate name of the said company shall 
be The Chicago Colorado Colony; 

SECOND — That the objects for which said Company is 
formed are for the purpose of aiding, encouraging and inducing 
immigration to the Territory of Colorado, and to aid generally in 
promoting the industrial and productive interests of the Country. 

THIRD — The amount of Capital Stock of said Company shall 
be Twenty Thousand Dollars which shall be divided into One 
Thousand Shares of Twenty Dollars each. 



^Office of Clerk of Boulder County. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



213 



FOURTH — The term of existence of said company shall be 
for the period of Thirty years from the date of the signing of these 
presents; 

FIFTH — The number of Trustees to manage the affairs of 
said Company shall be Three until otherwise ordered by a vote of 
the Stockholders. The Stockholders may at any meeting called 
for that purpose by a majority vote, increase the number of said 
Trustees to Nine ; 

SIXTH — Said Trustees for the first year or until otherwise 
ordered as aforesaid, shall be Peter J. Kelley, Seth Terry, and 
William N. Byers; 

SEVENTH — The principal place of business of said Company 
for the time being shall be at Denver in the County of Arapahoe, 
Territory of Colorado, with the right to change the same to such 
Town or City as may be formed by said Company in the County 
of Boulder in said Territory, at any time when the Trustees shall 
decide so to do, and with the right to carry on a part of the business 
of said Company outside of this Territory. 

EIGHTH — The operations of said Company shall be carried 
on in the Counties of Arapahoe, Boulder, and Weld in the Terri- 
tory of Colorado ; 

NINTH — The Trustees of said Company shall have power 
to make such prudential By-Laws as they ma}^ deem proper for 
the management and disposition of the Stock and business affairs 
of said Company, for prescribing the duties of officers agents 
artificers and servants that may be employed, and for the appoint- 
ment of all officers and agents for carrying on all kinds of business 
within the objects and purposes of said Company. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and Seals 
at Denver in the Territory of Colorado this First day of February 
in the year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and 
Seventy-one. 

( Peter J. Kelley (Seal) 
Witness < Seth Terry (Seal) 
( WiUiam N. Byers (Seal) 

Filed in office of County Clerk of Boulder County, August 
11, 1871. 



214 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



ANNUAL REPORTS 



REPORT OF TH^ CONDITION OF THE CHICAGO COLORADO 
COLONY AT THE CLOSE OF BUSINESS DECEMBER 31ST, 1871.^ 

958 Town Lots $50,000.00 

32 5-Acre Lots 3,200.00 

2347 85/100-acres of land 3,720.00 

School House 1,600.00 

Colony House and outbuildings 1,500.00 

Bills & Accounts Receivable 1,798.10 

Ditches 7,000.00 

Office Furniture, Safe, etc. 385.00 

Personal Property 501.05 

Fencing 300.00 

Colony Trees 550.00 

Cash 291.65 
Bought of Denver Pacific 
Railway and Telegraph Co. 
18025 27/100 acres of Land 
on which has been paid 14,157.00 

Interest on the same 3,397.68 17,554.68 



Liabilities 

4700 acres of R. R. Land sold 
Accounts and Bills payable 

Capital Stock 
Capital Stock paid in 





$88,400.48 


$22,000.00 




3,995.12 


$25,995.12 




$62,405.36 


20,000.00 




12,000.00 





$ 8,000.00 

We certify that the above statement is correct according to 
our best knowledge and belief. 

Seth Terry, President 

Enoch J. Coffman 
Charles M. Martin \ Trustees 
W. J. Atwood 
Rienzi Streeter 

Alexander K. Baker, Secretary 

^Office of Clerk of Boulder County. Filed January 20, 1872. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



215 



SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY. 

Statement for the year ending December 31, 1872: 



Capital $20,000.00 

Paid up Stock 14,880.00 
Receipts during the year: 

From sale of Town Lots S 7,068.52 

Railroad Lands 1,550.00 

" Memberships 1,195.65 



S 9,814.17 



Disbursements : 

Expenses S 2,609.72 

Paid on Railroad Lands 2,956.23 

Paid on Excelsior Ditch 2,526.51 

Bills payable redeemed 899.85 

Paid outstanding Book Accounts 821.86 



S 9,814.17 



Assets : 

Town Lots $42,931.48 

Railroad Lands 58,837.08 

Ditches 3,500.00 

Lands to which patents are held 3,490.00 

Buildings 2,020.00 

Trees (estimated) 1,000.00 

Office and School furniture 600.00 

Bills receivable 365.14 

Due on book accounts 330.51 



LiabiHties 

On Railroad Lands 
Excelsior Ditch Scrip 
Unsatisfied memberships 
Bills payable 



$113,074.21 

$53,994.15 
3,274.26 
776.67 
1,647.75 



iQffice of Clerk of Boulder County. Filed January 13, 1873. 



216 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Outstanding Book Accounts 1,849.44 
Unpaid Orders 30.80 

$61,573.07 
Charles E. Day, Secretary 

Certified to by : 

Enoch J. Coffman 
W. J. Atwood 
E. B. Newman 
J. C. Hummel 
E. H. Andrews 



Trustees 



ANNUAL STATEMENT OF THE FINANCIAL CONDITION OF THE CHICAGO 
COLORADO COLONY, FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1873^ 



Capital Stock $20,000.00 

Capital Stock paid in 16,800.00 

Assets : 

Town Lots $12,000.00 

Railroad Lands 10,163.43 

Patented Lands 1,500.00 

Sundry individual a/c's 320.42 

Bills receivable 313.24 

Highland Ditch Stock 1,800.00 



$26,097.09 



Liabilities : 

BiUs payable $ 1,030.00 

Excelsior Ditch orders 1,069.82 

Sundry individual a/c's 950.57 



$ 3,056.39 



Excess of Assets over Liabihties $22,940.70 



iQffice of Boulder County Clerk. Filed January 20, 1874. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



217 



We certify the foregoing statement to be correct : 
William J. Atwood, (Vice President) 
J. B. Thompson \ 
E. J. Coffman / 
William S. Condit > Trustees 
John Townley I 
John C. Hummel / 

Charles E. Day, Secretary, C. C. C. swears to the above, 
December, 31, 1871 [1873]. 



7 



218 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE 



WILLIAM N. BYERS CORRESPONDENCE^ 

[p. 285] Sept. 11, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt, 

Gen. Ag't N. L. Co. 

Ill Dearborn St, Chicago. 

Dear Sir : Enclosed I hand you map as promised with good 
colony locations numbered from 1 to 6. 

No. 1, on Box Elder creek, is a body of magnificent land which 
can be irrigated from the Cache-a-la-Poudre. It extends up near 
to the timber and mountains; has coal, lime, building stone and 
iron. The Union colonists will relinquish sufficient of their west- 
ern territoiy to let No. 1 down to the river and will also assist in 
digging a large irrigating ditch. We can sell of good land in No. 1. 
about 16,000 acres and a colony can secure about same amount 
of gov't land. It is almost entirely unoccupied. 

No. 2; almost same description but already containing a num- 
ber of first [p. 286] class settlers. Timber convenient; water from 
Cache-a-la-Poudre ; lime, iron, stone &c abundant. Probably 
15,000 acres Railway land and like amount of Gov't. No. 3; a 
most desirable large body of land with varied surface and great 
capacity; very fertile and nearly all can be irrigated from Big 
Thompson and St Vrain creeks. Ditches will be very cheap. 
We have here nearly 50,000 acres and Gov't a like amount. 
No, 4; 8,000 to 12,000 acres of first class river bottom land and a 
valuable concession in the town of Evans. Timber can be brought 
down the Platte, Thompson and Cache-a-la-Poudre. Water from 
first and last named. Railroad throught it. County seat at 
Evans. 

No. 5; Similar to last mentioned; 20,000 to 25,000 acres for sale; 
Gov't a like amount ; very little taken up ; irrigation easy & cheap 
from Platte; stock range east-[p. 287] ward, unlimited; railway sta- 
tion and town site wherever desired; coal on southern portion. 



iMr. Byers was the general manager in Colorado for the National Land Company. The following 
letters are taken from his letter copy book, March. 1870— June, 1871. 



^ ^Ml^^ySi^ COLORADO COLOHir 




LONGMOOT. COLORADO. 

(Tlic prahiiblc d:ilc i.f tlii- iii.ip is iSTI ) 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



219 



No. 6; 15,000 to 25,000 acres of mountain and plain adjoining; 
former covered with timber; plain can all be irrigated from Platte; 
excellent farming and grazing land; between the Denver and 
mountain markets; all kinds of stone, coal, iron, gypsum &c; 
splendid water powers; will have railway soon. 

Average price of all these lands about S4 per acre on five 
years' time. The Gov't land $2.50 per acre by pre-emption or 
free by homestead. Can offer other colony sites soon along K. P. 
railway. Smaller colonies can be provided for almost anywhere 
desired. Yours Truly 

Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen Manager 



[p. 334] Oct. 21, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 
Genl. Agt. Nat'l L. Co. 
Ill Dearborn St. Chicago, 

Dear Sir: Your favor of 15th is at hand this day. Its con- 
tents are very cheering but just such as are coming from every 
where. I think we will do very much toward filKng up this country 
next year. Am very sorry that prospective arrangement with the 
Union Pacific hangs fire. 

Mr McCoy came yesterday and has gone to the mountains. 
I devoted most of yesterday to him and on his return will take him 
to Greeley and other points. I fear his mind dwells more upon 
certain lectures and consequent prospective $50 fees than anything 
else. I expect Mr Young, of the Sun, and Mr Bowen, of the 
Independent, here in a day or two. I want to post them as thor- 
oughly as possible. 

We copied the Journal's^ account of your lunch yesterday 
and I have written another paragraph today. . . . 

Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen Manager 

I send papers, & order the laws [? illegible] regularly. 



^Chicago Journal, October 14, 1870; copied in Rocky Mountain News, October 21, 1870. 



220 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[p. 390] Nov. 17, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 

Gen. Ag't. N. L. Co. 

Ill Dearborn St. Chicago. 

Dear Sir: Your favor of 13th came last night. Mr. Pinker- 
ton came up on last evening's train bound to go directly on. I 
gave him a letter to Col. Lamborn, passes to St Louis and he left 
on the 9 p. m. train. He will probably be calling upon you about 
as soon as this. 

Gen. Cameron and Mr Meeker have both gone to Chicago as 
I understand to aid you in the colonj^ scheme. With the three 
and your home help I have no doubt you are fully able to start 
the ball rolling. So of the Indianapohs convention; Gov. McCook 
has been in your city for some days and you have doubtless seen 
him. I believe he goes thence to Indianapolis on the 23d, so that 
[p. 391] with yourself, Col. Loomis, the Governor, Messrs Meeker, 
Cameron and Pinkerton (if they all go) Colorado and our com- 
pany wiU be abundantly represented. I would Uke to go but am 
very busy and would, at best, have to hasten back immediately. 
I think I had better hold on here until after Col. Loomis' visit, 
and we get the K. P. lands in shape. Then I can go and stay as 
long as I can be of use. Probably, also, some of your present 
enthusiastic volunteers will be wearing out and you may need to 
fill their places. If our lists get on promptly I hope to sell 20,000 
acres of land in Dec. and as much more in January. Let me hear 
often from yom colony. Yours Tmly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 
[p. 392] Gen Manager. 

P. S. A gentleman from Jackson Miss., and Atlanta, Ga., assures 
me that there is a strong desire among many of the better class of 
people there to remove to Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado and New 
Mexico. A Colorado man is now organizing a colony at Memphis 
to come to Col. to engage mainly in mining. My informant says 
that all that is necessary to secure thousands of excellent citizens 
is to give them information and cheap transportation from Atlanta, 
Jackson, Chattanooga and other cities in that region. While 
together at Indianapolis talk the matter up. I suppose can get 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



221 



favorable contracts with the through railway lines south and with 
steamers to St Louis or Kansas City. 

W. N. Byers. 



[p. 434] Dec. 24, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 

Gen. Agt. N. L. Co. 

Ill Dearborn st. Chicago. 

Dear Sir: Your favor of 20th at hand. I regret to say that 
there is absolutely nothing in the way of printed documents upon 
the resources and productions of Colorado apart from its mining 
interests. There have been some books — one large and several 
small — upon the mines of Colorado but they are all old now. Of 
the agricultural resources there is nothing. 

I am often asked for catalogues of our lands; people evidently 
supposing that we have pamphlets describing same. Such a work 
with some general articles upon the Territory would be vastly 
useful I think. There will be a hand book out soon — mainly a 
directory, which 1 will send you. I mail an agricultural report 
& some sUps. Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers 

Gen. Manager 



[p. 447] Jan. 5, [187] 1. 

Col. C. N. Pratt, 

111 Dearborn st. Chicago, 

Dear Sir: Yours of 31st ult. requesting me to attend your 
meeting on the 12th inst. is just at hand. I would like very much 
to go and would do so if I had passes but at present I have nothing 
to carry me out of sight of town. I have applied to Col. Lamborn 
and if pass is received in a day or two will try to get off, though the 
notice is somewhat short. 

I see by the papers that your Colony is a marked success. 
I hope you will be one of the locating committee. Do you learn 
anything about the progress of the Ayres Point Colony?^ Can 



iSt. Louis- Western Colony. 



222 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



you tell me when Col. Loomis is coming? His last letter to me 
said he expected to be here Nov. 15, (last). 

Yours truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager N. L. Co. 



[p. 450] Jan. 7, [187] 1 

Col. Chas. B. Lamborn 

Secy. & Treas. N. L. Co. 

Cor. 5th & Ehn sts. St Louis, Mo. 

Dear Sir: I enclose a letter from Rev. A. C. Todd who is 
organizing a colony for us at Ayres Point, 111. I write him that 
you will give him passage and freight rates without delay and 
provide tickets as needed. I have no doubt of their coming and 
hope j^ou can conveniently give it attention immediately. 

I received a letter from Col. Pratt a couple days ago urgently 
requesting me to attend his pubhc colony meeting in Chicago on 
the 12th but I have no pass over either the K. P. or U. P. road and 
cannot see that the probable benefits will justify the expense of 
full fare for the round trip. Would have to leave here tomorrow 
evening or Monday morning. Expect the K. P. appraisement 
lists sometime next week. Am also looking for Col Loomis to 
arrive soon. Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager. 



[p. 451] Jan. 7, [187] 1. 

Rev. A. G. Todd, 
Ayers Point, 111. 

Dear Sir: Your favor of the 4th inst. at hand. I do not 
think the Chicago Colony is going onto the land you refer to, but 
to a very different place. 

I refer your letter to Secretary Lamborn, at Saint Louis, with 
request that he give you passage and freight rates as early as pos- 
sible & provide you the tickets as required. 

Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen. Manager. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



223 



[p. 456] Jan. 19, [187] 1 

Silas C. Field Esq 
Great Falls N. H. 

Dear Sir: I think the best opportunity offered you for set- 
tlement in the West is to join the Chicago Colorado Colony, 111 
Dearborn st. Chicago, 111. Its locating committee is now here. 
It is sound, safe & reliable. Yours Truly 

Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager N. L. Co. 

[p. 456] Jan. 22, [187] 1. 

Hon. Jno. P. Devereaux 
Lawrence, Kans. 

Dear Sir : We are all ready for business and yesterday mailed 
notices (copy enclosed) to all appHcants. I have been away, first 
to Chicago and then with a colony committee — hope to get through 
with them in three or four days. Will then hurry the contested 
claims on K. P. lands. Yours truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen Manager. 

[p. 459] Jan. 22, [187] 1. 

John S. Loomis, Prest. &c 
3 BowHng Green N. Y. 

My Dear Col. Your favor of 14 at hand. I returned Thurs- 
day morning from Chicago with locating committee of Chi. Col. 
Colony. Friday morning took them south & west — returned last 
night. Tomorrow (Monday) morning start north with them & 
hope to locate them this week. Am terribly busy & have but few 
hours at home. We had a good time at Chicago and I think it 
will turn out a big strike. 

Thanks for your suggestion about passes. The agents here 
can give none. I have an annual over K. P. for myself but that 
is all. Pratt and Lamborn secured me trip passes from point to 
point when east. I want to send Mrs Byers east in a few weeks 
but suppose it is useless to ask passes for her. Will go along if 
[p. 460] I have time but will have to come back almost imme- 
diately if I do so. Is there an3^thing I can do in New York? 



224 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Your suggestion to Mr Palmer about going to principals in 
respect to traveling correspondents is a good one. Mr Eadie is a 
''dead beat" and the fact of such men carrying our letters and 
hanging around our offices — sending for us when they get into 
trouble — is a positive injury in itself apart from the imposition 
upon our friends, the railway and steamer lines. 

I hope you will be able to come out before long. Let me know 
in advance of your coming so I can be at home. Have the K. P. 
lists and sent out notice to all applicants yesterday. Kind re- 
gards to Mrs LoomLs, Johnie, and the boys in the office. 

Yours truly, Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager. 



[p. 461] Jan. 22, [187] 1. 

Col. N. C. Pratt 

111 Dearborn St. Chicago. 

Dear Sir: We arrived safely in 56 hours from parting with 
you. Friday & Saturday looked about up the Platte & along the 
mountains west of Denver. Mr Emery is quite unwell. To- 
morrow we expect to go north but may wait a day for him to rest. 
The weather has been very fine but tonight we have threatenings 
of a storm. All are highly pleased. Yours truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen Manager. 



[p. 475] Jan. 26, [187] 1. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 

111 Dearborn St. Chicago. 

Dear Sir : Yours of 20th with list of names at hand & turned 
over to committee. 

We returned last night from Big Thompson, did not go further. 
They seem averse to getting far away from Denver and have 
already seen several locations that please them. In fact the diffi- 
culty seems to be to decide between the several examined. 

The committee have to day gone to Greeley to return this 
evening when I presume they will soon make up their minds. 

The weather has been pleasant until yesterday when we had 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



225 



a light, mildjsnow storm — now nearly all gone. They have en- 
joyed themselves finely and are most favorably impressed with 
the country every way. 

Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers. 

Gen. Manager N. L. Co 

[p. 498] Jan. 28, [187] 1. 

Capt. D. S. Green, 

221 Second st. Memphis, Tenn. 

Dear Sir; Am glad to hear of your good prospects and that 
you will soon be on the road. 

The locating committee of the Chicago Colorado Colony came 
out with me and have decided upon location subject to approval 
of Executive Committee. Committees from other colonies are 
here, and still others coming, which makes me anxious that you 
soon get upon the ground. 

A half interest in the News is not for sale. After my twelve 
years' struggle with all kinds of adversity, I feel now like enjoying 
some of the fruits of my labor, if I live, and the harvest seems 
nearly here. My kindest regards to Mr Wills. Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen Manager N. L. Co. 

Weather splendid & spring-like. 

[p. 93, a page inserted at end of the volume] 

Feby. 22 [1871.] 

Col. John S. Loomis, 
3 Bowling Green N. Y. 

My Dear Sir: Your esteemed favor of 15th inst. at hand. 
Have a new and efficient clerk, a little new to land business but 
he learns readily and will soon be very competent. We have had 
a great deal of work in the last few days but there is a lull now. 

I expect the Chi. Col. Com. Friday morning again and hope 
to close up that matter at once. Expect locating Com. of the 
Western Colony tomorrow. If I get through with them I will 
try to start east the last of next week. Mrs Byers is obliged to 
go then any how to take Frank to school in Michigan. She wants 



223 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

me to go along and has waited on that account until after the close 
of the month & the rush of business I expected in March. Other- 
wise she would have gone about the 16th. If you have not sent 
passes before now, please forward to me in the care of Col. C. N. 
Pratt, 111 Dearborn st. Chicago. I will not stay long in New 
York (if I go so far) and hope you can return with me. I can then 
probably accompany you to Cimarron after a few days delay here. 
We will talk over the ''Grant" question then fully. 

Yours truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen Manager 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



227 



EXCERPTS F ROM N EWSPAPERS 

DINNER GIVEN BY PRATT TO NEWSPAPER MEN^ 
By invitation of Colonel C. N. Pratt, General Agent of the 
National Land Company, several members of the press and others 
were served with a ''free lunch" this morning, at No 111 Dearborn 
Street, composed entirely of Colorado productions. 

[Colorado Products Luncheon in Chicago.] 
^The Chicago Journal, of the 14th, contains the following: 
By invitation of Colonel C. N. Pratt, General Agent of the 
National Land Company, several members of the press and others 
were served with a 'free lunch' this morning, at No. Ill Dearborn 
Street, composed entirely of Colorado productions. ... At 
the National Land Company's office, where this collation was 
enjoyed, there are also on exhibition several splendid specimens of 
Colorado vegetables, raised on some of the irrigated farms near 
Denver, which are wonderful to behold, and must be still better to 
eat. The size of them, large as they are, is fully equalled by 
their quality. 

[Colony Movement Stimulated by Success at Greeley.] 
A COLONY IN COLORADO^ 
A movement, we understand, is on foot in this city, to organize 
a new colony to start a settlement in Colorado. The success of 
the town of Greeley, on the Denver Pacific road, about halfway 
between Denver and Cheyenne, is so remarkable; the facts of the 
grazing value of the Plains for agricultural and grazing purposes, 
which have been set forth in this and other papers, have at- 
tracted so much attention that the plans for another colony, 
somewhere in the Cache la Poudre or the Platte, are already far 
advanced, and will, we learn, be soon perfected. A number of 
young men in this city, anxious for a career that holds out more 
promise than an}^ that seems open to them here, are determined 
to emulate the example of the Greeley colonists. That town in 
May last had no existence, and it now has not less than 1000 in- 



Whicago Journal, October 14, 1870, p. 4. 

"^Daily Rocky Mountain Newg, October 21, 1870, p. 4. 

^Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1870, p. 4. 



228 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



habitants, and by actual count, 232 houses, finished or in process 
of building. The cash balance in its treasury is over $9,000, 
besides about $35,000 due it for town lots and water privileges. 
The land in its immediate neighborhood is already irrigated by a 
canal nine miles in length, and another thirty miles long, will be 
completed in January, and will furnish water for 55,000 acres of 
farming lands. These are the results of a system of co-operation, 
by which the original tract was purchased and the canals dug, but 
which does not at all interfere with the independent ownership and 
occupation of town lots and the cultivation of farms. The farmer 
pays a tax for water which is thus provided him, and on his irri- 
gated lands can the first season raise the wonderful crops which 
years of experience on such lands in Colorado have shown to be 
absohitely certain. But besides agriculture, the plains are open 
to all comers for stock-raising, and the profits of this business are 
well known. Facts of this sort, fortified by figures, and the re- 
markable statistics of Colorado agriculture, have inspired the 
movement for a new colony, and they are, in a few days, to be 
presented at a public meeting. 

[Meeting Called to Organize a Colony.] 

ANNOUNCEMENTS. ^ 

The meeting called for this evening at Farwell Hall (lower 
room), to organize a colony for Colorado, will be addressed by 
General McCook, Governor of the Territory, and several other 
gentlemen familiarly acquainted with the country and its resources. 
It will be an instructive and entertaining meeting to all who may 
attend it, whether they propose to emigrate West or not. 

^Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1870, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



229 



NEW COLORADO COLONY. ^ 



Large Meeting at Farwell Hall 

Speeches by Governor Bross, General 
Cameron and Others. 

Officers of the Colony Elected. 

A meeting to organize a colony for settlement in Colorado was 
held last evening in lower Farwell Hall, where an audience num- 
bering fully five hundred ladies and gentlemen assembled. The 
meeting was called to order by S. H. Gay, Esq., of The Tribune, 
who nominated Governor Bross as chairman. The selection was 
acceptable, and the Governor, in taking the chair said they were 
there to talk about establishing another town in Colorado, and to 
learn something about that most interesting Territory, soon to 
become a State in the Union. In 1858 he was shown one of the 
first specimens of gold from Pike's Peak, and after that an immense 
emigration at once set toward Colorado. There were failures and 
losses, of course, but subsequent events had shown Colorado to 
be one of the richest mining districts in America. But there were 
other resources which rendered it especially attractive as an agri- 
cultural region. The Greeley Colony, which located one year ago 
in Colorado, now numbered a thousand people, with schools, 
churches, and everything pertaining to civihzation. It was pro- 
posed to organize a similar colony in Chicago, and one which would 
secure to its members certain valuable advantages which could not 
be enjoyed by individual settlers. In his judgment there was no 
such country on the continent for wealth as Colorado, and he 
would advise anybody wishing health, recreation or magnificent 
scenery, to go there. 

John P. Reynolds, Esq., was chosen Secretary of the meeting. 

N. C. Meeker, President of the Greeley Colony, was called 
upon to speak. He stated some interesting facts connected with 
the organization of the Greeley colony. On the 23d of December, 
a small audience gathered in New York, and soon after a committee 
was sent out, and located the colony site in the valley of the Cache 

^Chicago Tribune, November 23, 1870. 



230 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

la Poudre. In due time the colony assembled there, land was 
cultivated, and now all the members united in pronouncing the 
soil to be the most wonderfully productive of any in America. 
Fully three hundred days of the year there was uninterrupted sun- 
shine. He touched, briefly, upon other valuable features of the 
country, and closed by recommending that General Cameron 
should go on with the description. 

General Cameron, Vice President and Manager of the Greeley 
Colony, complied with the request. He said the classes who should 
form such a colony were the poor, whose life had been one of de- 
pressing failure, and who should seek new fields of enterprise; the 
invahds, who should go for the sake of regaining their health in 
the bracing atmosphere of the West; the dwellers in over-crowded 
cities, and last, but not least, the rich and prosperous business 
man, who should go to establish the manufacturing enterprises. 
If all these people joined in a colony, many of the privations of 
pioneer life were avoided, and the colony was able to enjoy nearly 
all the appurtenances of civilization. What the Greeley Colony 
had accomplished the Chicago organization could just as surely 
do, and it would pay every individual who undertook it. When 
the Greeley Colony site was purchased, the highest price paid for 
land was SI 2. per acre. Within the last month land had been sold 
for SI. 000. per acre. It was first expected that about four hundred 
families would join, but it had now reached six hundred regular 
members with a total population of over one thousand people. 
They at first provided for four hundred business and six hundred 
residence lots, but it was found that these were not sufficient to 
meet the demands. The next count of houses would show four 
hundred, and building was very active. The Greeley Colony was 
not a community, and he would not advise that the Chicago 
Colony should be one, with the exception of the purchase of land 
and the digging of canals. They had found the plan to be a per- 
fect success, resulting in peace, prosperity and the best of feeling. 
He would by all means urge Colorado as the location of the Colony, 
on the score of both health and wealth. All that was needed to 
develop the inexhaustible silver mines of Colorado was the pro- 
duction of food, the present high price of which was the means of 
keeping men away from the lesser-paying mines. Next to Texas, 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



231 



Colorado was the place where cattle could be raised the cheapest. 
It was even preferable to Texas, because there was no cold, cutting 
winds to stunt and reduce the cattle during the winter. In Colo- 
rado cattle fed upon the open plain throughout the entire winter, 
keeping constantly fat, and producing the finest of beef. Much 
of the choicest beef supplied in Chicago came from Colorado. 
A peculiarity, and a crowning glory of Colorado, was the fact that 
there was not, and never could be, a surplus of food. All the 
grain, vegetables, butter, beef, etc., which could be produced and 
spared was eagerly snatched up by the hungry miners, whose only 
cause of dissatisfaction was that they couldn't get enough. The 
Colorado farmer had no need to sigh for a war in Europe to raise 
the price of grain. He had a war of his own, and at home — a war 
with the elements, the chief object of which was to wrest from 
Pluto his mineral treasures. This would always be the cause by 
reason of the small proportion of land suitable for crop-raising. 
Irrigation was a general necessity, on account of the scarcity of 
rain. This was far from being a calamity. On the snow-clad 
peaks of the mountains was an eternal water suppl}^, which melted 
under the action of the sun, and rushed headlong toward the 
Missouri River, only requiring to be diverted into ditches running 
through the farming lands, in order to furnish the requisite degree 
of moisture for the growing cereals and vegetables. The result 
was the production of the most wonderful crops known. That 
year eighty-four bushels of wheat to the acre had been raised in 
Colorado, and oats, barley and corn in proportion. As to veg- 
etables, there were potatoes, cabbages, turnips, etc., of the most 
marvelous proportions, and of the finest qualit}^ known. One 
man in Colorado should not cultivate more than forty or fifty acres 
of land, but it had been amply demonstrated that the product per 
acre was fully three times as great as in Illinois or Indiana. The 
one great thing which Colorado lacked was the establishment of 
manufactures. The faciHties in the way of water power were 
boundless, and it only required the presence of men with capital 
to make use of it. The speaker closed by expressing the hope that 
the Chicago Colony would be successfully organized, and he pre- 
dicted for it health, wealth, and abundant prosperity and con- 
tentment. 



232 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



The Secretary read the following letter from General E. M. 
McCook, Governor of Colorado: 

^'Chicago, Nov. 22. 

Colonel C. N. Pratt: 

Dear Sir: — I regret that other engagements will prevent me from 
attending your meeting, this evening. I had promised Governor 
Baker to be present at the convention of Western Governors, 
which meets at Indianapolis, tomorrow, and, in order to fulfill my 
obligation, will be compelled to leave Chicago this evening. 

I heartily approve the objects of your meeting, and, although 
it is an exceedingly grave matter to advise men to leave their 
homes in the East and seek new ones in the West, yet the success 
which all the Colorado colonies have so far achieved, is the best 
evidence that our territory has, and will furnish attractive and 
prosperous homes to any emigrant who may come. 

Yours very truly, 

Edward M. McCook, 
Governor of Colorado." 

On motion, a committee to nominate officers of the colony was 
appointed by the Chair, consisting of Messrs. Pratt, Holly, Jen- 
nings and Welch. The committee reported, recommending the 
election of the following officers, and the report was unanimously 
concurred in: 

President — Rev. Robert Collyer. 

Vice President — Sidney Howard Gay. 

Treasurer — Ex-Lieutenant Governor William Bross. 

Secretary — Colonel C. N. Pratt, General Agent, National 

Land Co., Chicago. 
Executive Committee, — George S. Bowen, S. D. Kimbark, 
H. D. Emery, and the President, Vice-President, 
Treasurer, and Secretary, ex-officio. 

Colonel Pratt then gave notice that names would be received 
of those designing to join the colony, and that hereafter names 
would be received, and the business of the colony transacted, at 
the office of the National Land Company, No. Ill Dearborn 
street. After some time passed in receiving the names and initia- 
tion fees of $5 each, of persons desirous of becoming members, 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



233 



the meeting adjourned subject to the call of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

COLORADO^ 
The Project for Forming a Colony in This City. 

Meeting on Last Evening — Encouraging Addresses — Permanent 

Organization. 



A meeting was held on last evening at lower Farwell hall, for 
the purpose of discussing the project of forming a colony In Colo- 
rado on the plan of the successful union colony at Greeley, in that 
territory. The attendance was large, every available seat in the 
hall being occupied, and many of the auditors were ladies. 

Mr. S. H. Gay, of the Chicago Tribune, nominated ex-Gov. 
Bross as temporary chairman of the meeting. 

Remarks of Governor Bross 

On taking the chair, Mr. Bross thanked the meeting for the 
honor conferred on him. He would take the occasion to speak a 
word about Colorado, the until recently unknown country, but 
which is soon to become a state in the union. The speaker said 
that he was one among the first who believed in the mineral and 
agricultural wealth of that territory. The mineral resources were 
especially rich — the richest of any in the world. On the other 
hand, the barns of Colorado contained some of the finest wheat 
that ever was grown. The chmate was particularly healthful. 
The speaker had slept out of doors in that territory night after 
night, and he fancied that he had not fallen into a decline. 

Mr. J. P. Reynolds, formerly secretary of the lUinois State 
Agricultural society, was chosen secretary. 

Remarks of Mr. Meeker 
The chairman then introduced Mr. N. C. Meeker, president of 
Greeley colony, who spoke substantially as follows: It was about 
a year ago, when employed on an eastern newspaper, that his 
attention was called to Colorado. He had traveled much over 
the United States, but had never before seen a section of country 



^Chicago Times, November 23, 1870. 



234 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



that appeared to him to be so desirable. He came back to the 
states intending to return, and as he desired that others should 
return with him, and partake of the healthfulness of the chmate 
and the wonderful advantages of the country, a colony was pro- 
jected. On the 23d of December, 1869, a meeting was called at 
Cooper institute, and the preliminary arrangements were made for 
forming a colony. A committee of location was appointed, and the 
colony was finally located near the junction of the south forks of 
the Platte and Cache de la Poudre rivers. Finally houses were 
built, and water was obtained for irrigation. The country was 
not very inviting in appearance, the grass was yellow, and the face 
of the country looked like the Great Sahara desert. But, the 
colonists soon learned that the soil beneath the apparent barren- 
ness was fertile, and only needed to be encouraged by the imple- 
ments of husbandry to make it yield more abundantly than any 
soil in the world. The remarks were received with applause. 
Remarks of General Cameron. 

Gen. B. A. Cameron, vice president of the Greeley colony, 
said that the first question that should be asked in discussing this 
subject was, ''Do you want to emigrate?" The young man in 
moderate circumstances ought to emigrate. The city was becom- 
ing too crowded for him. The invalids ought to emigrate to the 
west, and regain their lost vigor. 

When they located the colony, they traveled for months over 
the plains of Colorado without meeting with a single person. 
Such was not now the case. The colony alone contained about 
1,500 people, and various individual settlements had been made 
besides. 

The plan of the colony was that every man, on becoming a 
member, should pay $5. If they afterward paid $150 they ob- 
tained an equal division of the lots and lands. The colony num- 
bers 630 families. There were not lots enough. In forming the 
new colony more lots ought to be laid out. Land that was pur- 
chased last spring for $12 has since been sold for Si, 000 per acre. 
It was a portion of the programme that each member of the colony 
must improve his lot or farm. Onl}^ about two-thirds have been 
improved thus far. The time expires in April next, and the houses 
are now being erected with great rapidity. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



235 



Every business man in Chicago ought to take part in this 
colony. They need not go there themselves, but place some other 
person on it. 

The speaker commended the climate, the mineral and agri- 
cultural resources, and the grazing privileges of the territory. 
Chicago was the city toward which Colorado looked for whatever 
of merchandise that they could not raise or manufacture for them- 
selves. 

But it is said that irrigation must be employed before anything 
could be raised, and irrigation was laborious. Such was really 
the fact. It was laborious, and also expensive, at first, but after 
the system had once been perfected it paid. They had raised of 
wheat 84 bushels to the acre ; of barley 90 bushels ; of oats 80 bush- 
els. An editor in Colorado planted 20 acres of potatoes, and 
raised 450 bushels per acre. Beets had been raised that weighed 
22 pounds; potatoes 4}^ pounds. And these vegetables were all 
sound and nutritious as the best of their several species. 

On 40 acres in Colorado could be raised three times as much 
as on the same area in the states. In Indiana the speaker used to 
think 80 acres were all that could be cultivated by a single person, 
but by the system of irrigation one man can cultivate three or four 
times as much. 

There are no manufacturies as yet in Colorado. They were 
too poor to build them; the water privileges were many. There 
was plenty of wool there, but they had to come to Chicago for 
clothes. They burned straw enough to supply the material for 
all the paper the colony desired. 

The speaker closed b}^ hoping that the Chicago people would 
form a colony, and was sure that if they did so they would form 
the nucleus of a city of 20,000 inhabitants in a decade. 



[Plans of the Chicago-Colorado Colony.] 
CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY^ 
The officers chosen at the public meeting held, last week, in 
Farwell Hall, to take measures for planting a colony in Colorado, 

^Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1870, p. 2. 



236 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

have completed the organization of the association and are now 
ready to receive members at the office of the Secretary, Mr. Pratt, 
at the office. Ill Dearborn Street. To become a member of the 
colony, an initiation fee of So is required, to create a fund for the 
necessary preliminary expenses of examining lands in the Territory- 
for a suitable location, and for other contingencies, and a final 
subscription of S150, which secures all the rights and pri\"ileges of 
full membership. When the location is secured, the colony chart- 
ered, and the land vested in trustees, which will, probably, be 
before the 1st of January, the land is to be divided into home- 
steads of from five to forty acres, with a central village site of 640 
acres. The village is to be di\'ided into residence and business 
lots, to be sold at fixed prices to settlers, and from the fund thus 
created the \dllage improvements, such as the grading of streets, irri- 
gating, the building of a town hall and of school houses, and found- 
ing of a public library, are provided for. The outl^dng lands, of 
from five to forty acres, are to be divided among the members as 
an equivalent for the sum of Si 50 paid by each. The distribution 
of these is to be made in the order of appUcation after due notice 
given of the time of distribution. Out of the general fund a gen- 
eral irrigating canal is to be paid for, and those who wish to in- 
crease the size of their farms, under this irrigating canal, will have 
the pri\dlege of purchasing such additions, provided the whole 
amount secured by one individual shall not exceed 140 acres, at 
a price to be fixed upon by the Executive Committee. "WTien a 
majority of the colonists are settled upon the lands, they are to 
take their affairs into their own hands, choose their own officers, 
and make their own laws. Such are the general features of this 
new enterprise, and from the warm interest it has excited, not 
only in this city but in other parts of the country, and the care 
taken in its organization to protect the rights of the colonists, and 
secure to them all the advantages belonging to the co-operative 
plan of purchasing the land, there seems to be a promise of brilliant 
success. The constitution of the colon\'. and documents relating 
to Colorado, may be had b}' application at the office 111 Dearborn 
Street. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



237 



[Pamphlet on Colokado.] 
CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY^ 
A pamphlet has just been published by the Chicago Colorado 
Company, which gives a good deal of interesting and valuable in- 
formation in regard to the Territory of Colorado.- It is for 
gratuitious distribution, and may be had at the office of the Sec- 
retary of the Colorado Colony, Mr. Pratt, 111 Dearborn Street. 
Some portions of it are taken from letters and articles originally 
published in this paper, others from the best sources of informa- 
tion in regard to the resources of the Territory, and the induce- 
ments it holds out to those who are looking for new homes in the 
West. 

[Location Suggested for Chicago Colony.] 
THE CHICAGO COLONY. ^ 
The latest account w^e have from Mr. Pratt, the Secretary of 
the Chicago Colony, is, that they have nearly 50 names of good 
men, although things have only just been put in working order. 
They intend to hold a series of meetings at important places, and 
they would like to have General Cameron speak along with Gov. 
Bross, but it is doubtful whether the General can go. He would 
do good service should he consent to go. They mean to forward 
matters so that they may be able to have their Locating Committee 
reach Colorado by the first of the year. The matter of location 
settles itself down on a few places; but there is one place not yet 
named that would be a good one. This is beyond Denver a few- 
miles. A ditch can be taken from the Platte canon, and made to 
water an immense extent of fertile country, and if sufficiently 
large, it could be used for a canal, and an immense water power 
would be had. But this improvement will require the expenditure 
of S40,000. We shall see in a few months — yes, see their people 
coming. 

[Chicago Colony Pamphlets.] 
^Of the Chicago Colony, C. N. Pratt, Secretary, 111 Dearborn 
Street writes: *'We have issued and circulated about 1000 of our 

^Chicago Tribune, December 13, 1870, p. 4. 

'A copy of this pamphlet has not been found by the editors. 

^Greeley Tribune, December 14, 1870, p. 2. 

*Gredey Tribune, December 21, 1870, p. 2. 



238 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



pamphlets and have a large mail every day from enquirers, the 
country over. The subscriptions to our lists are coming in grad- 
ually, and our prospects are promising for a respectable show of 
members by Christmas. Gov. Bross, and Mr. Collyer, are in 
New England, and will have something to say for us there." 



[Opportunities Atv^aiting Colonists in Colorado.] 

COLONIZING COLORADO! 

A movement was commenced here not long since, as our 
readers will remember, to start a colony to settle on the plains of 
Colorado. The enthusiasm and interest it has called forth has 
surprised even its projectors, who were not wanting in a sanguine 
belief in the excellence of the project, and the promise it held forth 
to many persons who were looking for some way by which to gain 
a comfortable livelihood, or to better their condition. It is not 
pretended by those who started this enterprise that it opens any 
royal road to fortune, or that those who shall enter upon it shall 
jump into sudden wealth, or acquire a comfortable settlement in 
life without hard labor. But it is unquestionably true that the 
principle of co-operation applied to the purchase, the division, and 
the settlement of lands upon the plains, and to the transportation 
of numbers, instead of single families or individuals, does away 
with many of the hardships and sacrifices incident hitherto to 
emigration and frontier life, and gives to the settler the benefit of 
large capital, and enables him to take with him many of the bless- 
ings and conveniences of a long-settled society. Of course the 
same plan can be as easily applied, and with the same promise of 
happy results, to the settlement of colonies elsewhere as well as in 
Colorado, but the fertility of the plains when the dormant elements 
of the soil are developed by the application of water, the ease of 
cultivation, the certainty of rich return in abundant crops, the 
facility of irrigation, the healthfulness of the climate, the varied 
labor in agriculture, stock-raising and mining, give peculiar at- 
tractions and advantages to that section of the country. Sober, 
industrious people who are looking for a fair start in the chances of 
life, and who are wilhng to work to make themselves comfortable 



^Chicago Tribune, December 28, 1870, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



239 



and thrifty homes, without foregoing, as is often the case in frontier 
life, most of the advantages of civilization, are looking to this pro- 
posed colonization of Colorado in companies as a hopeful answer 
to the question — ''What sliall we do for a living?" Already, we 
understand, a hundred persons have enrolled themselves as mem- 
bers of the Chicago Colorado Colony, many of whom are heads 
of families, and many more are making careful inquiries into the 
feasibihty and promise of the proposed enterprise. . . . 

ADVERTISEMENT! 
Chicago Colorado Colony 

Rev. Robt. Collyer, President 
S. H. Gay, Vice-President 
Hon. Wm. Bross, Treasurer 
C. N. Pratt, Secretary 
Organized for settlement in Colorado Territory, on the Plan of 
the Greeley Colony. Pamphlets containing the plan of organiza- 
tion and general information upon Colorado and its resources, can 
be obtained free of charge by applying personally or by letter, to 
C. N. Pratt, Sec'y. Ill Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

[Chicago Colorado Colony Formed on the Greeley Model.] 
^The New York Tribune says: "The httle seed planted in 
Colorado, in the valley of the Cache-la-Poudre, last April, is al- 
ready bearing fruit, not only in the marked success which has thus 
far attended the Greeley Colonists, but in the stimulus it has given 
to similar organizations to enter in and take possession of the un- 
improved lands of the West. The most important of those move- 
ments is the 'Chicago Colorado Colony,' formed almost precisely 
on the Greeley model, and for precisely similar objects. The roll 
of members is Kmited to one thousand, and it is hoped that suitable 
lands will be secured in January next, and that the colonists will 
pitch their tents there early in March. Starting under excellent 
auspices, and with the valuable experience gained at Greeley, the 
success of the Chicago colony seems assured. The movement has 
our hearty support, and we should hke to see it followed by similar 
migrations from all our populous centers." 

^Prairie Farmer, December 31, 1870, p. 5. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, January 4, 1871 , p. 2. 



240 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



BYERS IN CHICAGO WILL ADDRESS C. C. C.i 
Wm. N. Byers, Esq. editor of the Rocky Mountain News, is at 
present at the Tremont. He will be present at and address the 
meeting to promote the interests of the Colorado Colony, at Lower 
Farwell Hall, on Friday evening. 



COLLYER C0L0NY2 
Meeting of the Organization Last Evening. 



Interesting Addresses by W. M. Byers, Hon. Wm. Bross, and 

others. 



A meeting of the Chicago-Colorado Colony was held last even- 
ing in the old library of Farwell Hall, a goodly number of persons 
being present. Rev. Robert Collyer, the President, occupied the 
Chair. He opened the meeting with a few remarks relative to the 
excellence of the scheme undertaken by those present. The sole 
question that he was called to solve was, ''how are such settlements 
to be organized to be productive of most good, and to be freest 
from vices to which new settlements are generally subject?" He 
thought it best for all to go out together, found their hbrary and 
schools, and so forth, and thus avoid the isolation that would be 
associated with their going out alone. They were about to estab- 
lish a colony where temperance, in its sweetest sense, would be 
practised. He could, as a minister, but bid the project God-speed. 
Questions were continually coming in asking, ''Whose axe is this 
to grind?" "Who is to live off this colony?" He believed he 
could say, simply and truly, that he had never lived in a hole of 
that sort for five minutes. If he did not believe that Governor Bross, 
Mr. Gray, were men who would scorn to touch any dirty work, he 
would make a bee-line for No. 595 Chicago Avenue, and wild 
horses could not draw him back. He hoped it would be published 
abroad that he thoroughly and heartily endorsed it as a scheme 
worthy of every honest man's countenance. He called upon the 
Secretary, Mr. CM. Pratt, to read the minutes of the meetings 
up to date. 

^Chicago Tribune, January 12, 1871, p. 4. 
^Chicago Tribune, January 14, 1871. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



241 



The Secretary then read the proposed plan of organization, 
already pubHshed. The number of bona fide members received 
was 150, from seventeen different States. He had correspondence 
from every State in the Union, and from England, from parties 
anxious to come out. Very nearly 1,000 letters had followed the 
advertisements in the public press. Arrangements had been made 
to send a Locating Committee at once, who would start on Sunday. 

Gov. Bross was then introduced. He said the question was 
frequently asked why he and Rev. R. Collyer had taken the matter 
in hand. Simply to do good, he would reply. Their responsibihty 
ceased as soon as each colonist had his land, and the colony could 
take its business into its own hands. He could talk for an hour on 
the subject of Colorado. He and the Chairman could not go, but 
they could send representatives. The only reason for their not 
going was that they were born too soon. They would give them 
encouragement by a promise to visit the colony. He spoke glow- 
ingly of the geographical, atmospherical and sanitary attractions 
of Colorado, its mineral wealth, and stock-raising facilities. The 
question of irrigation he would impress upon them. Brigham 
Young had told him that around Salt Lake City he had raised 93 
bushels of wheat to the acre, the result of irrigation from the 
mountains. The splendid climatic influence on men and horses 
was also a surprising attraction. He believed a race of men would 
grow on the plains under the mountains equal to any in the world. 
He introduced Mr. W. M. Byers, the gentleman who took the first 
press into Colorado, not only an editor, but a philanthropist. 
The speaker was loudly applauded. 

Mr. Byers then, with the aid of a diagram on the black-board, 
gave a general survey of the surrounding country. He also im- 
pressed his hearers with the importance of irrigating the country. 
Though during some seasons it was not necessary, it should never 
be neglected. The atmosphere was wonderfully dry and clear. 
From the mountains could be seen an area of 400 or 500 miles in 
diameter. The leading product of the country was wheat, the 
average crop being 30 bushels per acre. More than 72 bushels 
had been raised to the acre. Barley averaged 45 bushels. Oats 
had yielded 120 bushels. Corn was not so successful, although 
near Denver 121 bushels had been raised to the acre. 



242 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Of sugar beets, the average was 104 tons, to the acre. Irriga- 
tion was the great bugaboo to prospective colonists, who were apt 
to over-estimate the labor and expense, but when means were once 
provided it was a small cost. Last year he found that irrigation 
did not average more than $2.00 per acre. As far as natural ad- 
vantages were concerned, he thought it could claim very little ad- 
vantage over the country immediately north or south of it. But 
Colorado claimed the highest mountains, which formed storehouses 
of vast bodies of snow, which thus furnished water through the 
summer, while in the other country mentioned the streams failed 
in the hot season. He claimed for Colorado better marketing, 
water, and railways than any other country. Close at hand was 
the largest coal field in the world. Artesian wells were being tried. 
The mountains contained immense timber regions. The average 
yield of potatoes was from 100 to 300 bushels. The experiments 
in fruit had been limited. Grapes, pears, peaches, strawberries, 
raspberries were very successful. One gentleman had cleared 
SI, 600 from half an acre of strawberries last season. Grasshoppers 
had damaged crops last year on an average of 5 per cent. Sheep 
were also successful. One farmer's increase from 5,000 ewes was 
6,000 lambs (Laughter). Apples were immense, too, in size and 
amount raised. Colorado fruit, with the exception of grapes, was 
superior in flavor to that raised in California. The place was free 
from Indians and other abominations. These strangers did not 
often drive away cattle — they preferred killing what they wanted, 
and stealing horses. A herd of cattle, consisting of a bull, cow, 
calf, yearling, 2-3^ear and 3-year animals, could be bought at $6.00 
per head in Texas. He would not, however, recommend colonists 
to purchase in Texas. The country lying between Colorado and 
Texas was occupied by hostile Indians. The winters are neither 
long nor severe. After a cold spell in December the winters were 
mild. A good farm team was $300.00. There were many horses 
in the country bought at from $60.00 to $125.00 — good saddle- 
horses, but not suitable to put to work. He advised taking horses 
from the East, as well as everything else. Good working-oxen 
were worth $125 per yoke. There was a great quantitj^ and variety 
of stone for building purposes. Marble was not good. The cost 
of breaking up lands was no greater than in this country. The 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



243 



uplands could all be broken up by a pair of single horses. The 
best farmers did their plowing in the fall. The water was generally 
soft, but was sometimes found hard, not impregnated with sul- 
phur. Game and fish abounded — mountain sheep and grouse, 
pheasants and buffalo, at the foot of the mountains. 

The gentlemen in the audience having completed their cate- 
chism, the speaker left the platform warmly applauded. A vote 
of thanks was tendered him for his able and full account of the 
new" country, and the meeting then adjourned. 

It is stated that the communitj^ that is to become a monument 
of Chicago enterprise, is to receive its name from the President 
of the embryo colony, and be called Collyer Colony. 

[Misrepresentations in Colony Advertising.] 
^Our citizens will be glad to know that Colorado produces an 
abundance of apples. In the Chicago Tribune^s account of Mr. 
Byers' speech in behalf of the colony being raised by the National 
Land Company, we find the following: ''Apples (in Colorado) 
were immense, too, in size and amount raised." ''Colorado fruit, 
with the exception of grapes, was superior to that raised in Cah- 
fornia." Colorado has enough advantages without stating as 
facts what must yet be demonstrated. When the Chicago Colony 
arrives in our country, the members may be foolish enough to 
think that they have been deluded into casting their lot with us 
by false assertions. 

[Arrival of Locating Committee.] 
HO FOR COLORADO !2 
The First Colony of the Year. 

The Kansas Pacific train from the east this morning brought 
among its passengers the following named gentlemen: H. D. 
Emery, Esq., editor of the Prairie Farmer; W. Holley, H. J. Hall 
of Chicago, and Judge Seth Terry of Rockford, 111. The}^ were 
duly booked at the Broadwell House. They have come to look 
the countrj^ over, and select a location for the Chicago Colony. 
General Cameron and Mr. Holmes of Greeley, met them here, 

Waily Colorado Tribune, January 18, 1871. p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, January 19, 1871, p. 1. 



244 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



and they will go up there to-morrow and see what is to be seen. 
They will visit Southern Colorado also, the object being to choose 
the best available place where water can be utilized with least ex- 
pense and greatest advantage, both for irrigation of the lands and 
for agriculture. As soon as they have finished their observations 
they w^ill forward a report to Chicago to be acted upon. The 
members of the colony desire to get on to the ground and construct 
ditches, buildings, etc., in time for Spring planting. A short sketch 
of the colony and the material it is made of, will be of interest here. 
The organization was formed at Farwell Hall, Chicago, on Novem- 
ber 17th. Its officers are as follows : Rev. Robert Collyer, Presi- 
dent; S. H. Gay, Vice President; Lieut. Governor William Bross, 
Treasurer; C. N. Pratt, Secretary; Geo. S. Bowen, S. D. Kimbark 
and H. D. Emery, Executive Committee. The colony already 
consists of 200 famihes. Seventeen States are represented, north 
and south, east and west — from Whitewater, Wisconsin, to St. 
Augustine, Florida; and from Omaha to Portland, Maine. As an 
indication of the interest felt in the enterprise, we have the fact 
that over eleven hundred applications have already been made 
for information respecting the plans of the colony, and letters con- 
tinue to be received by the Treasurer, ranging from twenty to 
forty per day, and covering all parts of the country. One person 
in New York, a lady of large income, which she devotes mainly 
to aiding others without means, has taken twenty-five member- 
ships for persons to whom she wishes to give a start in life, and she 
will use upwards of $20,000 in this way. Another lady has offered 
to endow an institution of education in the colony, with $50,000, 
to be increased if found desirable or necessary. As the colony 
membership is constantly gaining, it is probable that their advent 
to Colorado will add from 1,000 to 1,200 to our population and 
the aiders of this enterprise are prominent capitalists of Chicago 
and other cities. We may name of those most active in helping 
on the good work, Messrs. Bowen, Hunt & Winslow; Field, Leiter 
& Co.; W. A. Butters & Co.; Enos Brown & Co.; Reynolds, Brown 
& Co.; Grannis & Farwell; Van Schaack, Stevenson & Reed; 
Stanton & Co.; Hollister & Phelps; J. P. Dolton & Co.; Hall, 
Kimbark & Co.; Keith Bros.; Ira P. Bowen; Cobb Bros.; Cook, 
Coburn & Co. ; all of Chicago. And we may also mention the name 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



245 



of Mr. George Esterly, of Whitewater, Wisconsin, a leading manu- 
facturer of agricultural implements, who will secure a membership 
and probably locate a residence for summer visits. We learn that 
Gov. Bross, Rev. Robert Collyer, Geo. S. Bowen, Wm. A. Butters 
and other leading men, although they will not reside here, yet will 
build dwellings on the colony grounds for occasional visits. At the 
close of his present lecture season. Rev. Robert Collyer will visit 
the colony and other parts of Colorado. He will then make a 
three months' lecturing tour in England with reference to bringing 
out accessions of English families to the colony. Mr. P. J. Kelley, 
of New York, who represents the twenty-five memberships taken 
by a New York lady, is now here and will accompany the party 
in looking for a site. It is possible the new colon}^ may join the 
one at Greeley, as very liberal terms have been offered to bring 
about this result. Should this be effected Greeley will boom up 
as one of the big towns of the Territory, before it has reached its 
second year, and will represent an element of political, educational 
and moral strength of great influence all through the Territory. 
W^e are glad that the colony is made up of such excellent material. 
A very large amount of capital will be represented by the actual 
and resident members. They will mostly engage in agricultural 
pursuits, but all branches of industry and professions will be rep- 
resented. A full-grown, busy town, with merchants, bankers, 
manufacturers, and professional men, schools, churches, good so- 
ciety, and all the elements of strength, will show itself somevrhere 
in Colorado before the end of summer. Neither the site nor the 
name of the town is yet chosen. This is the rapid way of settHng 
up the New West. Building a town and giving it all industrial 
and social facilities is now-a-days, and out here, the work of but a 
few weeks. In conversation with some of the gentlemen here 
to-day, we were pleased to know that several members will pay 
much attention to stock-raising, wool-growing and manufactures. 
We hear of plans connected with this grand enterprise which we 
cannot now reveal, but Denver is to receive important and sub- 
stantial benefits, by large investments here. Mr. H. D. Emery, 
editor of the Prairie Farmer , who accompanies the prospectors, 
will study our country and give the results of his observation 
and experience in his valuable paper. We are glad, so early in the 



246 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



year, to chronicle this move, among the many now in progress, 
for settling up the thirty-eighth State — Colorado. 



[Akrival of Locating Committee.] 

— ^The Locating Committee of the Chicago Colony arrived in 
Denver last Thursday morning. They are named as follows: 
H. D. Emery, Editor of the Prairie Farmer, Judge Terry of Rock- 
ford, Illinois, accompanied by W. Holly and H. J. Hull. Another 
member of the committee, Mr. J. P. Kelley, of New York, has 
been in Greeley for some time but he met his associates upon their 
arrival, while General Cameron and Mr. N. Holmes, of our Colony, 
being in Denver, met them also. 

This committee has already started on the search for a suitable 
location, and when last heard from, they had gone to Boulder, with 
the intention of proceeding to Fort Collins, and thence hither down 
the Cache la Poudre. The work of deciding upon a location re- 
quires much time and consideration, and a month will probably 
pass before a conclusion can be reached. The Colony is said to 
number already over two hundred members, and the prospect for 
a still larger number is highly encouraging. 



THE CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY.^ 

Opening of Headquarter Offices in Denver. 

Mr. H. D. Emery of the Chicago Colony Locating Committee, 
left last evening for home to report on the fatness of the land. 
The remainder of the committee stay here, where they have opened 
an office. No. 23 Blake Street, over Strickler & Mahar's com- 
mission ware-house. Some members of the committee will be 
present at the office at all hours, to answer inquiries, receive their 
friends, etc. Any one interested in the success of the colony may, 
be sure of receiving a hearty welcome at the headquarters in Den- 
ver. The report of Mr. Emery will be made to the colony at a 
meeting to be held in Chicago on Monday next, when a selection 
of grounds will be made. 

^Greeley Tribune, January 25, 1871, p. 2. 
"^Denver Daily Tribune, January 28, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



247 



[Chicago Colony Office in Denver.] 
— ^The return of Mr. H. D. Emery to Chicago to report on 
what he has seen in Colorado, and the opening of an office in this 
city by the remainder of the Chicago colony locating committee, 
are items in which the public have a decided interest. The office 
is on Blake street, over the Elephant corral, which place will be 
the colony's headquarters for the present. The report of Mr. 
Emery will be presented in Chicago on Monday next. In the 
meantime a cordial welcome will be extended to the committee 
and to the coming colony. 



[Work of Locating Committee.] 
CHICAGO C0L0NY.2 
The Locating Committee of the Chicago Colony went from 
Denver up to Platte Canon, twenty-five miles, and back; thence 
to Boulder, with the intention of passing to Fort Collins and thence 
down the Cache la Poudre to Greeley, but the snow drifts were 
so deep they returned from Boulder to Denver, and then came 
down to Greeley on the train, arriving at 10 30 A. M., and returned 
to Denver at 4 30 P. M., same day. We heard, incidentally, that 
they visited the Big Bend, twenty miles South on the railroad and 
on the route to Denver. We now learn that they have opened 
an office in Denver, and that Mr. Emery has returned to Chicago 
to report to the meeting to be held in that city this week. Pre- 
viously Mr. Kelley had spent some time at Fort Collins, when he 
visited the adjacent country. When we know more we can tell 
more. 



SKETCH OF ROBERT COLLYER^ 

PRESIDENT OF THE CHICAGO COLONY. 

{From the Boston Bazar) 
He was born in England in 1823. His father a blacksmith by 
trade, dropped dead at the anvil, leaving the mother with no 
money, and five childern, of whom Robert was the oldest. Of his 
mother, who still survives, he speaks with great respect and affec- 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, Jamiary 29, 1871, p. 4. 
^Greeley Tribune, February 1, 1871. p. 2. 
'Greeley Tribune, February 1, 1871, p. 4. 



248 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



tion. Robert was sent to school where he remained until he was 
seven and a half years — the age at which with us, most children 
begin their education. Then he was put to the factory, the only 
resource for the children of the poor in those days, for it was be- 
fore the passage of the factory act. 

At the age of fourteen he left the linen factory to go as ap- 
prentice to a blacksmith at Ilidey (the olicana of the Roman's 
Britain) and we may thank his ten years' hard work at the Ilkley 
forge for the strong lungs and athletic frame, so rare in men of his 
profession, which Mr. Collyer now possesses. At that anvil, the 
only study-table he ever owned, he employed all his leisure mo- 
ments in reading the best books of the time; and there, with many 
a good horse shoe, of which he is still proud, the problem of his 
own destiny was wrought out. In 1847, influenced, no doubt, 
by one of those powerful preachers whose impression upon the 
minds of the Yorkshiremen, Mrs. Gaskell has vividly protrayed, 
Mr. Collyer, twenty-four years old, was converted to methodism. 
The following year, while still wielding his heavy hammer at 
Ilkley on the week days, in the Methodist chapels thereabouts on 
Sunday, he dealt ponderous blows at the vice of the dale's folk. 

Resolving, New Year's, 1850, to emigrate to America, he, with 
his wife and child, landed in this country May 11 of the same year, 
and a week later went to work at his trade at Shoemakertown, Pa. 
Having brought letters from England, introducing him to the Phil- 
adelphia Conference, he was granted a license as a local preacher, 
and at Shoemakertown, as before at Ilkley, while laboring dili- 
gently at his trade, and devouring eagerly all the good English 
books upon which he could lay his hands, he exhorted his brethren 
in the fields, and wherever he could get a chance. It being cus- 
tomary for local preachers to ''find themselves", Mr. Collyer re- 
ceived, for ten years' service in that capacity, one almanac, various 
household necessaries, and $10 in money. But he got what he 
values more than money, the love and good will of his hearers, 
and an experience which he considers the richest of his life. His 
conversion to Methodism, and his subsequent connection with 
that sect, he regards with affectionate gratitude. 

In February, 1859, the Chicago ministry at large being in 
need of an earnest and unsectarian worker, he was recommended 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



249 



to the place in a noble letter from Dr. Furness; and the Unitarian 
pulpit of the City being then vacant, Mr. CoUyer was invited to 
supply it the Sunday after his arrival. Mr. Coll3^er is in no sense 
a sensational preacher, but the bare announcement that he is to 
speak in any place fills the house to its utmost capacity; and aud- 
iences familiar with the oratory of a Beecher or a Chapin reckon 
it a privilege to look into the beaming face and hsten to the glowing 
words of the blacksmith preacher. Free from the formality of the 
schools, independent of dogmas and creeds, without the cold 
intellectuality so often charged upon his denomination, brimming 
over with love to man and trust in God, a man to whom religion 
is as natural an element and as necessary as the air he breathes, 
he stands before his audiences with his sturdy Enghsh frame, and, 
in simple Saxon phrase, utters such brave, true words, with such 
strength and pathos, that the hearts of his hearers are thrilled by 
his eloquence. 

[Report of Locating Committee.] 
THE CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY^ 
Mr. Emery, of the Locating Committee of the Chicago Colo- 
rado Colony, returned a day or two since, bringing with him the 
report of the Committee. They have made, we understand, a 
careful examination of the whole country from south of Denver to 
north of the Cache le Poudre, and extending out from the foot of 
the mountains to the line of the Denver Pacific Railroad. This 
stretch of country is about a hundred miles in length, and em- 
braces several tracts of valuable farming and grazing lands, easily 
irrigated, and with eligible situations for town-sites. The ex- 
ecutive Committee have accepted the report of the Locating Com- 
mittee, and have decided upon the purchase of that section which 
seems to be the most valuable and best fitted for the planting of a 
colony. Steps have already been taken to secure the lands, and, 
when these are concluded, a public announcement will be made of 
the choice of the Committee. The delay is only to guard against 
the possibihty of speculation in the lands in anticipation of the 
settlement of the colony, and that the whole tract, excepting only 
such lands as are already occupied by old settlers, may be secured 

^Chicago Tribune, February 1, 1871. p. 4. 



250 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



for the colonists. The arrangements will all, doubtless, be com- 
pleted in a few days, when measures will be taken for the colonists 
to immediately go forward and take possession. Many of them 
are anxiously waiting for the signal for a start. 



[Chicago Colony Locating Committee Invited to Visit 

Pueblo.] 

We are informed that the Locating Committee of the Chicago 
and Colorado colony are now in Denver looking up a proper site 
for their proposed settlement.. Come down here, gentlemen, and 
see the finest part of Colorado Do not be deterred by the bugaboo 
tales that you will most likely hear in Denver, but come down and 
see for yourselves. 



[Favorable Comment on Location Selected for Chicago 

Colony.] 

THE CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY^ 
The Chicago Journal of the 2d says: One member of the 
locating committee of the Chicago Colorado Colony, Mr. Emery, 
has returned home, bringing with him the report of the committee. 
They have made a careful examination of the whole country from 
south of Denver to north of the Cache-la-Poudre, and extending 
out from the foot of the mountains to the line of the Denver Pacific 
Railroad. This strip of country is about a hundred miles in length 
and embraces several tracts of valuable farming and grazing lands, 
easily irrigated, with eligible situations for town sites. The Ex- 
ecutive Committee have accepted the report of the Locating Com- 
mittee, and have decided upon the purchase of that section (five 
and a half townships) which seems to be the most valuable and 
best fitted for the planting of a colony. Steps have already been 
taken to secure the lands, and when that is made a public an- 
nouncement will be made of the choice of the committee. We 
speak from personal knowledge when we say that the location se- 
lected is one of the best that could have been found in that whole 
territory. The new town will be laid out immediately — an en- 

^Colorado Chieftain, February 2, 1871, p. 1. 
Wenter Daily Tribune, February 6, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



251 



gineer and surveyor having been sent out from this city for that 
purpose — and within the next three weeks, the erection of houses, 
stores, shops, etc., will be commenced. Other colonies, similar to 
this, are in contemplation, by prominent residents of Chicago and 
Michigan, and there is every prospect of an unusually heavy 
emigration to the ''new West" during the coming season. An 
influential citizen of England writes to Colonel C. N. Pratt, of 
this city, that sixty English families, some of them quite wealthy, 
are preparing to start for America in April next, and will locate 
together at some point on the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, 
either in Western Kansas or Eastern Colorado. The Kansas 
Pacific Railroad Company are offering unprecedented facilities for 
parties desiring to explore, settle in and develop the resources of, 
the magnificent country through which that road passes. And 
the cry is: "Westward, Ho!" 



[Appkoval of Colony Site.] 
— ^Burlington and the citizens of the north east corner of the 
county are greatly rejoiced over the selection that has been made 
by the Chicago Colony. This colony has selected Pleasant Valley 
as their future home, than which no finer or better selection could 
have been made on the eastern slope of the Rockies. All hail! 
and welcome to the new comers. 



[Many Suitable Locations for Colonies.] 
THE CHICAGO COLONY.^ 
We understand that the Chicago Colony has been located in 
Pleasant Valley, on the St. Vrain, near Boulder City, about 30 
miles from Greeley by wagon road, and 60 by railroad and some 
6 or 8 miles from the terminus of the Boulder Valley Railroad. 
Active efforts are on foot for the extension of this road, but whether 
the new colonists are expected to help build it we are not informed. 
The location is undoubtedly a good one, and it is in the neighbor- 
hood of the best cultivated region in Colorado, but whether it is 
the best location that could have been had, we shall not say, nor 
are the Locating Committee able to say, because they did not 

^Boulder County News, February 8, 1871, p. 3. 
Greeley Tribune, February 8, 1871. p. 2. 



252 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



visit what we called good locations. Their decision is in the high- 
est degree favorable for Colorado, and for colonization, because it 
shows there are more suitable locations for colonies than had been 
supposed. 

THE CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 
Location of their New Home and its Advantages. 
The locating committee of the Chicago-Colorado Colony hav- 
ing been here, examined the country, selected the site which they 
thought offered the greatest advantages, returned and reported, 
and the colony having adopted the report, and sufficient time 
having been given for the colony to secure the grounds, we may 
now make public the exact location and tell its advantages. The 
lands are described as follows: 
Twp. 2 north 68 west Twp. 3 north 68 west 
u 2 69 1 69 

a 2 " 70 " 1 " 70 

3 69 1 south 69 " 

iC 3 U U 

These lands are situated in Boulder County, and the town of 
Burlington is pretty nearly in the centre, the lands extending some 
eight miles north of that place, ten south, nine east and nine west, 
— the western limit taking in the ''hog-backs." The Little 
Thompson flows on the north, Coal Creek on the south and south- 
east, and St. Vrains, Left Hand, and Boulder Creeks through the 
lands. The town of Erie is but a short distance south-east, and 
consequently, even if the Denver and Boulder Valley railroad 
should not be extended at present, the colony will not be remote 
from railroad facilities. 

Boulder County probably contains as great, if not a greater 
variety of resources than any other county in the Territory. It 
is celebrated all through the west for its great coal fields, and the 
knowledge of their importance is rapidly being extended to the 
people of the whole country. In ten years from now "Boulder 
coal" will be as well known as "Lehigh." The Chicago Colorado 
Colony has the Boulder coal fields at its very doors. 



Denver Daily Tnbune, February 11, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



253 



The agricultural capacities of Boulder are unparalleled. The 
soil is extraordinary, while the gentle eastward slope of the surface, 
and the numerous streams flowing from the mountains, renders 
irrigation cheap and easy and profitable. Nearly every acre of 
the lands selected by the colony are susceptible of irrigation. 

Some of the mines of Boulder County are justly celebrated. 
She has rich gold ores, fabulously rich silver, iron in great abund- 
ance, and copper, lead, and others all ready to yield up their 
riches when man calls it forth. The Cariboo mines, about 30 
miles from the location of the colony, are new, but a majority of 
those who have been there and who are acquainted with the 
territorial mining resources, confidently predict that they will 
prove the best yet discovered in Colorado. 

The nearness of the coal, and iron, would naturally indicate 
that the first great iron works of the Territory would be located 
somewhere in this County, and especially when is considered the 
immense water power always at command. 

The large quantities of silver ores will, in fact does now, re- 
quire smelting works for its reduction. In fact, Boulder is destined 
to become one great industrial county, producing a great variety 
of useful and valuable articles. 

The selection of lands in this county, will give to the Chicago 
Colony a greater variety of labor in which its members can find 
employment, than any other location we know of in these parts, 
and if the Colony is not successful, it will not be the fault of the 
country, but of bad management. 



[Report that English Colonists Will Join Chicago Colony.] 
^The Chicago Colony is alive with preparations for invading 
Colorado. Col. Pratt has been lecturing in Ohio on our resources, 
etc., and all the agricultural papers have the Colony advertise- 
ment. They desire to enlist all the farmers possible. We under- 
stand that the roll of names is daily increasing. A small colony 
of about fifty, with considerable means, from Manchester, England, 
are about to join their fortunes with them. We understand that 
the members will in a few days begin to arrive, and with them 



Wenver Daily Tribune, February 14, 1871, p. 2. 



254 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Governor Bross and Rev. Dr. Collyer to see the Colony well started 
on their new grounds. Several business men will join them with 
a view of locating and supplying their mercantile wants. Mr. 
Gillett, of Illinois, is already here, and intends to stock up with 
hardware as soon as the settlement is begun. 



THE CHICAGO COLONY. ^ 



Their New Town and What they will Call it. 

During the past week the following members of the Chicago 
Colony have been on the ground completing the survey of the 
20,000 acres included in their purchase : Seth Terry, P. J. Kelley, 
C. Stokes, A. Hanson, Richard Fawcett, H. J. Hall, and Messrs. 
Ford and Woodson. Mr. Hall came down last evening with Judge 
Terry, who left for Chicago. Mr. Hall informs us that the town 
site which they have chosen, subject to the approval of the ex- 
ecutive committee in Chicago, lies one mile north of the town of 
Burlington. The people of that enterprising place have donated 
a section of land well located, and in every way desirable for the 
purposes of the colony. The trustees have been advised of this 
plan, and a telegram is expected to-daj' ratifying the gift of Bur- 
lington, and accepting that site as the colony town. The colonists 
are preparing to come on, and several famihes are waiting in Chi- 
cago. It is expected that arrangements will be made for about 
300 families to arrive on the ground within two or three weeks. 
They will come via. the Kansas Pacific road, and Denver should 
give them a hearty welcome. 

It becomes a question among the colonists what they will call 
the town. We have heard several names proposed — New Chicago, 
Collyer and Bross, the latter two designed to honor the founders 
and chief promoters of the colony. There will no doubt be other 
candidates for the title. In this case there's a good deal in a name. 
There is capital, energy, a go-ahead spirit among the members of 
the colony. They will be one of the best communities in Colorado. 
They will give an impetus to the development of the Territory. 
They will be one of the chief towns, in a year perhaps the largest, 

^Denver Daily Tribune, February 16, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



255 



in Northern Colorado except Denver. They will have schools, 
churches, library, newspaper, and all the elements of a thrifty 
town before summer. If the present site is fully determined on, 
ditches will be begun next week, buildings put up, and a full start 
given to the embryo town. Farms, gardens and trees will be put 
under cultivation at once. Stock raising will be a business at- 
tended to in large proportions by many of the citizens. An agri- 
cultural warehouse, and hardware store, will be among the first 
buildings put up. Twelve car loads of lumber are now on the way 
from Chicago, and are expected to be delivered at the terminus of 
the Boulder Valley Railroad by Monday. Mr. Kelley will go into 
brick making near the ground. Coal has been found in large 
quantities within three miles of the proposed town site. Building 
stone and fire-clay of good quality are near at hand. Everything 
now promises well for the coming colony, and we hope in a few days 
to chronicle their arrival. 



[Misstatements Corrected.] 
CARD.i 

Denver, Feb. 17, 1871. 
Editors News : Seeing an article published in last evening's 
Tribune, headed ''Chicago Colony," abounding with so many errors 
and misstatements, which in its zeal for news items it so hastily 
gleans from every adventurer coming Chicagoward, I deem it but 
just that some of them should be corrected through your valuable 
paper. In the first place. Judge Terry, instead of leaving for the 
east on the evening of the 15th, left some six days previous. In 
the second place, neither the colony nor any authorized member 
thereof has selected or recommended to the trustees of the colony 
the town site north of Burlington, nor any other town site. There 
are many other false statements made in the article, which though 
harmless of themselves are calculated to mislead and do much 
harm to the highly enterprising colony referred to. It is but just 
to say that there are but two members of that colony who are 
authorized to act for or represent said colony in the Territory at 
this time, and they are Messrs. P. J. Kelly of New York, and R. 

^ Daily Rocky Mountain News, February 18, 1871, p. 4. 



256 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Hanson of Chicago, from whom all can get any reliable informa- 
tion that relates to the colony that they may consider judicious 
to impart. colonist. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO! 
Staking out the New Colony Town. 
Among the arrivals by the Kansas Pacific train this morning, 
were George S. Bowen, Esq., Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee; and Henry D. Emery, Esq., editor of the Prairie Farmer, 
and Judge Seth Terry, of Rockford, 111., of the Locating Committee 
of the Chicago Colony. They left Chicago on Monday, and bring 
the information that about two hundred of the colonists are ready 
and waiting to come on as soon as the new town is marked out. 
The numbers who were adding their names, increases every day, 
and one of the gentlemen who arrived this morning, expresses the 
opinion that the new town will have a population of not less than 
1,000 inhabitants by the first of June. On Saturday last $4,000 
was taken in for membership by the Treasurer at Chicago. The 
Locating Committee have been in consultation at Colony head- 
quarters over Strickler and Mahar's store, Blake Street, during 
the day. They started to-night for Boulder County, in company 
with other members of the Colony. It is expected that they will 
decide early in the week whether the town site donated by Bur- 
lington will be accepted, or some other location chosen. Several 
gentlemen are waiting here designing to go into business in the town 
as soon as it is established and the colonists arrive. The opinion 
to some extent prevailing that the majority of the new settlers 
are to be from Chicago and Northern Illinois is incorrect. As 
many as twenty different States will be represented ; and we notice 
that there are already in town several members from ''way down 
East." Among those who arrived this morning are J. M. Mum- 
ford, W. F. Mumford, J. M. Munford, Jr., and George Tarbox, of 
Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Judge Seth Terry was recently from 
Connecticut, and is a cousin of General Alfred Terry of that State. 
Among those from ''over the ocean" who will unite their fortunes 
with the colony, are Mr. Bishop and family, from England, who 



^Denver Daily Tribune, February 23, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



257 



are now stopping at the Broadwell House. We hope in a few days 
to chronicle the fact that the new town is staked out and every- 
thing going ahead prosperously. 



[Colony Leaders Arrive in Denver.] 
PERSONAL.! 

Judge Terry, of Rockford, Illinois; H. T. Emery,, editor of the 
Prairie Farmer; and George C. Bowen, of Messrs. Bowen Brothers, 
Chicago, arrived in this city yesterday. They are prominent 
members of the Chicago-Colorado colony, and have gone to the 
colony location. 

[George S. Bowen in Denver.] 
^We had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of George 
S. Bowen, Esq., of Chicago, one of the well-known Bowen Brothers, 
and a member of the Dry Goods house of Bowen, Hunt & Winslow. 
Mr. Bowen has taken a warm interest in the establishment of the 
Chicago-Colorado Colony, and is here to attend to the final loca- 
tion of the colony and commencement of the new town. In ad- 
dition to the conduct of a large business, Mr. Bowen is a successful 
farmer near Chicago, and is also President of the Woolen Manu- 
facturer's Association of the West and South. He expresses him- 
self as delighted with the climate and the many agricultural 
advantages of Colorado, 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 



Final Location of the Town Site. 



Large Accessions from Burlington People. 
We take pleasure in announcing that the location of the tov/n 
site of the Chicago-Colorado Colony was decided on Tuesday. 
It is as was stated a few days since in the Tribune — about one 
mile north of the present town of Burlington, in township two, 
section three, range sixty-nine. The site is sufficiently elevated 
to command a magnificent view of the surrounding country, being 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, February 24, 1871, p. 4. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, February 27, 1871. p. 4. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, March 2, 1871, p. 4. 



258 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



on the borders of Pleasant Valley, through which runs the St. 
Vrain. It is surrounded by a settled and well developed agri- 
cultural region. The residents in the vicinity of Burlington ap- 
preciating the advantages of so large an accession to their num- 
ber, have generously donated a large quantity of land, already 
provided with irrigating ditches, so that several hundred acres of 
land can be at once cultivated. At a public meeting at Burlington 
Tuesday evening, seventy-four of the inhabitants joined the colony 
and it is expected that this number will be doubled during the 
week. The following are the names of those who joined: H. C. 
Woodworth, E. J. Coffman, W. W. Foos, J. M. Smith, A. L. Wilson, 
F. C. Beckwith, David Baumert, J. W. Turrell, D. S. Coffman, 
WilUam H. Dirk, Charles Barclay, E. F. Beckwith, A. Clawson, 
J. Hertha, R. Streeter, John H. Wells, Wm. Secor, J. L. Dwight, 
J. U. Jones, D. Taylor, H. Manners, J. C. Bailey, E. S. Low, 
Barney McNeal, Wm. Beardsley, James Andrew, R. M. Burch, 
Geo. L. Beckwith, E. H. Andrews, H. Lockhart, J. C. White, 
J. D. Coffman, Geo. Cronk, Alonzo Bassett, Geo. Rhoades, Harvey 
Palmer, W. W. Barker, R. W. Allen, James Blair, J. Larimer, 
N. Kinney, G. W. Brown, J. B. Roades, Hess Smith, Jos. Milner, 
Wm. Gary, Chas. Darnington, E. B. Newman, D. White, J. C. 
Ferine, Mary A. Allen, Marie E. Kickens, R. J. Franklin, A. Clark, 
R. Coffin, E. D. Crawford, Thos. Smith, Wilham Bryan, Theo. 
Smith, J. T. Kelly, Winton Smith, Thos. S. Peck, Wm. A. Finch, 
J. McCan, C. J. Hoover, Dr. Gooding, J. F. Platte, John A. Titus, 
C. P. Peniston, Garrett Clawson and T. H. Smith. A building of 
sufficient size to furnish ample accommodations for public meet- 
ings, a temporary stopping place for colonists, etc., is already- under 
way. Several other buildings have been commenced, and the 
hights over-looking the ancient town present a scene of unwonted 
activity. Burlington has already a post-office, two hotels, a 
good drug store, several general stores, two blacksmith shops, etc., 
etc., and last a fine school building, in which a large school is now 
taught by Mrs. Sampson, from Western New York. Her efforts 
are highly spoken of by those parents who have children under her 
care. A Methodist Society is established — Rev. Mr. Van Valken- 
burg in charge. It would be hard for a colony to start under 
fairer auspices, and while every citizen of the town welcomes the 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



259 



advent of capital and enterprise, the colony is no less gratified to 
meet so warm a reception, and will doubtless appreciate and re- 
turn the favors now shown, with interest. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 
Location of the town site — Their lands, prospects, etc. 



The locating committee of the Chicago-Colorado colony, con- 
sisting of Judge Seth Terry, Geo. S. Bowen, P. J. Kelly, and H. D, 
Emerj^, returned to this city on Wednesday evening, having on 
that day completed their labors by the location of a town site, 
and a final selection of lands for the colony. The location com- 
prises about 55,000 acres within townships two and three north, 
in range sixty-eight, and two and three north in range sixty-nine; 
23,000 acres having been purchased from the National Land com- 
pany, 30,000 acres from the government, and the balance made up 
from donations and purchases from private individuals. The se- 
lection is an admirable one in every particular. The lands lay 
on either side of the St. Vrain, of the Boulder, and also on Left 
Hand, a tributary of the St. Vrain, and in addition are watered 
on the north by the Little Thompson. They extend out from the 
base of the mountains a distance of about twenty miles. Their 
soil is varied, rich, and productive, and is well adapted for the 
raising of all kinds of grains and vegetables. They are surrounded 
by fine grass and grazing sections, the range for stock being ex- 
cellent. The scenery combines the beautiful, the grand and the 
picturesque, while the climate is favorable in every particular. 
Their situation as regards markets is also fortunate. The town is 
located near the centre of the lands, in section three, township 
two, north range sixty-nine. It is on the north bank of the St. 
Vrain, on the bluff, and adjoining on the north the present site of 
Burlington. It is in the midst of a richly cultivated country, 
commands a splendid view of the mountains, can be easily irri- 
gated and improved, and will at once become the centre of a large 
and lucrative trade. In determining upon this point the com- 
mittee have shown much good sense and judgment. Summing 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, March 3, 1871, p. 2. 



260 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



up briefly the advantages of the country selected by the com- 
mittee for the home of the coming colony they are as follows: 
A rich and productive soil; an abundance of water for purposes of 
manufactures or of irrigation; excellent natural facilities for the 
construction of irrigating canals; an extended stock range; a 
healthful and invigorating climate; and an unequaled mountain 
view. Combining thus all these various natural advantages, in 
addition to a central position as to markets, we cannot but pro- 
nounce the action of the committee admirable, and indorse the 
wisdom, discretion, and sound judgment which have guided them 
in making their choice. 

With a location made, work begins at once. There are about 
twenty colonists on the ground, saying nothing of those citizens of 
Burlington and St. Vrain valley who have become members. 
About seventy-five joined the colony on Wednesday, and prob- 
ably as many more will follow the example. The hitherto flour- 
ishing little point of Burlington will doubtless become extinct by 
joining the fortunes of the new city, whose name has not yet been 
determined upon. As much of the colony lands is already under 
irrigating ditches, the committee has ordered that 1,000 acres of 
wheat, and if possible as many more of oats be sown. There are 
three car loads of lumber on the ground, and a building 24x60 for 
purposes of accommodation has been begun. Every effort will 
be made to render comfortable the coming colonists who will now 
soon begin to arrive. As regards distances we may add that the 
new town is about eight miles from Erie, the terminus of the 
Denver and Boulder Valley road; thirty-three miles from Denver, 
and about the same distance from Evans and Greeley; fifteen 
miles from Boulder, and about forty-five from the mining regions 
of Gilpin county. The mining regions of Boulder county are 
distant from fifteen to twenty-five miles. The new colony thu« 
starts with every prospect and assurance of success. 

In giving place to these facts, and indorsing the action of the 
committee, we must extend to the colonists a warm and cordial 
welcome. They are coming to a new territory, whose future is 
promising, whose resources are varied and extensive, and whose 
inducements for the colonist are unrivalled. They are coming 
under auspices most favorable, and with advantages secured, 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



261 



which cannot fail to be appreciated. We congratulate them on 
the prospects opened to them in their new home, and welcome 
them to a share in all that constitutes a true Coloradan. Mingled 
with our greeting to the new colony are congratulations to the 
people of Colorado on the large addition of wealth, intelligence 
and industry which their coming guarantees. They bring with 
them new promises of prosperity, new pledges of social, industrial 
and educational progress. As they leave old homes to find new 
ones at the base of the Rocky Mountains, let a hearty welcome 
from the pioneers render the change more pleasant, smooth the 
rough edges of frontier life, and instill at once that pride in Colo- 
rado, its present and its future, its advancement, and its prosperity, 
which will hasten our social and material growth and render more 
certain the progress which awaits our territory. 



{Special correspondence of the Denver Tribune.) 
ALL ABOUT THE CHICAGO COLONY. ^ 



Location, Prospects, Promoters, and Resources — Information 

for All. 

Burlington, March 4, 1871. 
Eds. Tribune : — Our hitherto quiet village, sleeping peacefully un- 
der the shadows of Long's Peak and the Snowy Range, has been 
invaded, roused, excited, stirred up and agitated by the advent of 
numerous ''colony committees," who have come among us singly, 
in squads and in companies, to investigate the resources of our 
soil, and the many advantages of our location and its surroundings. 
On Wednesday last we were agreeably surprised by the informa- 
tion that the gentlemen representing the Chicago-Colorado Colony, 
had decided to locate the site of their town on the heights nearly 
a mile from Burlington, which will of course transfer the greater 
part of the business now done here to the new village. As there 
are several items of interest to the pubHc that have not appeared 
as yet in the Denver papers, I will furnish a few brief notes to 
supply the omission. Our village is one of the earliest settlements 
in the Territory, the warm rich alluvial bottoms of the St. Vrain, 

Denver Daily Tribune, March 6, 1871, p. 4. 



262 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Boulder and Left Hand, having attracted the attention of the 
mountain miners in 1860. An agricultural population second to 
none east or west in wealth and enterprise, has its centre of busi- 
ness here, and without the advent of new comers, would in a few 
years outri vailed any community in education and refinement. A 
public school building costing about $3,500, is filled with bright 
intelHgent children, furnished with the best educational appliances 
in the shape of school books, maps, charts, blackboards, a fine 
cabinet organ, etc., etc. Mrs. Lamson from Central New York, 
has taught here for several months to the great satisfaction of the 
parents and community generally. She is an earnest capable 
teacher, a fine singer and instrumental performer, and is doing a 
good work as a pioneer teacher. The Methodist Society enjoys 
the services of the Rev. Mr. Van Valkenburg, who is a popular 
and devoted preacher. Hon. J. H. Wells enjoys the whole legal 
practise of the community, and is regarded as a sound practical 
lawyer and rapidly rising man. It is currently reported that he 
has been engaged on three sides of a legal dispute to the entire satis- 
faction of all concerned. Some other on dits are also ''flying 
around", the result of which will probably be the purchase of a 
complete housekeeping outfit. We can't vouch for the truth of 
the latter rumor. Dr. J. H. Jones, Dr. Goodwin and Dr. Bryan 
minister to the health of Boulder County. Dr. Foose has a 
photographic gallery. C. H. Parmenter furnishes harness, saddle 
and other horse outfits. J. H. Rhoades has a boot and shoe shop, 
with plenty of business, and E. B. Newman and E. D. Crawford 
have each a blacksmith shop. Mrs. Allen conducts the City 
Hotel in unexceptionable style, while J. M. Smith, the host of the 
Burlington House has a large circle of friends. The St. Louis 
National Life Insurance Co. is represented by E. S. Lowe, and the 
Security Fire Insurance Co. of N. Y., by Elmer F. Beckwith, who is 
also the popular and efficient postmaster. Mr. H. C. Wood- 
worth, who is one of the Greeley pioneers, and thoroughly posted 
in the discomforts of the early days of that ambitious town, keeps 
a grocery and flour store. Beckwith & Co., and S. Manners & 
Co., each keep a general stock of goods suited to the wants of the 
people, and are doing a flourishing business. Streeter & Turrell 
have already a first-class drug store, with as complete and ex- 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



263 



tensive a stock as is to be found in the Territory; they also keep 
paints, oils, varnishes, notions, fishing tackle, and ammunition, and 
also have a well supplied news and stationery stand which is well 
patronized, as the proprietors are old residents, and well ac- 
quainted with the country and people. Mr. E. F. Beckwith has 
also a news stand. From the supphes of hterature daily sold, it 
is evident that our people are a reading community. Mr. M. F. 
Gillett, one of the new comers, has distributed his advance hand- 
bills, announcing the opening of a hardware store, which is much 
needed. Messrs. Terry & Bliss also announce that they will sup- 
ply lumber and other building materials, and purchase grain, 
hay, (fee. Richard Fawcett, an experienced surveyor, has hung 
out his shingle, and ]\Ir. Stokes is in readiness to make plans, and 
superintend building operations. Mr. P. J. Kelly, one of the orig- 
inal founders of the colony, is a practical brickmaker of large ex- 
perience, and a scientific chemist, and will proceed at once to the 
erection of brick yards and kilns at this place and Erie. Mr. 
Dickens has made arrangements for running a daily express and 
stage line to Erie to accommodate travel. It is understood that 
a large number of colonists, of all persuasions, trades and pro- 
fessions, will shortly appear before us. Man}' of our wealthy 
farmers will take residence lots in the new town, and build imme- 
diately, in order to enjo}^ the social advantages and educational 
facilities which the large accessions soon to be made will necessarily 
create. We anticipate seeing many tourists and pleasure seekers 
in our midst during the coming season, from the fact that we are 
already somewhat celebrated by the pens and pencils of visitors 
of previous years. Prof. Agassiz stated, on his visit here, that the 
finest views of the Rocky Mountains, including the Snowy Range, 
is to be seen from this immediate vicinity. The salient features of 
Long's Peak have been transferred to canvass by several painters, 
as well as less notable heights and canons. 

Trout abound in the St. Vrain and in a lake four miles north- 
west, which covers about 400 acres. The beds of three other lakes 
will be filled by ditches before the first of June. Game in the shape 
of antelope, deer, bear, etc., abound in the prairies and mountains. 

In addition to the present hotel arrangements, other projects 



264 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



are already discussed, so that visitors need feel no uneasiness that 
they will lack suitable attention and accommodations. 

The following is a corrected list of residents of Burlington who 
have become members of the colony: H. C. Woodworth, E. J. 
Coffman, W. W. Foos, J. M. Smith, A. L. Wilson, F. C. Beckwith, 
David Baumert, J. W. Turrell, D. S. Coffman, Wilham H. Dickens, 
Chas. Barclay, E. F. Beckwith, A. Clawson, J. Hertha, R. Streeter, 
John H. Wells, Wm. Secor, J. L. Dwight, Jno. N. Jones, D. Taylor, 
H. Manners, J. C. Bailey, E. S. Low, Barney McNeal, Wm. 
Beardsley, James Andrew, R. M. Burch, Geo. L. Beckwith, E. H, 
Andrews, H. Lockhart, J. C. White, J. D. Coffman, Geo. Cronk, 
Alonzo Bassett, Geo. Rhodes, Harvey Palmer, W. W. Barker, 
R. N. Allen, Jam.es Blair, J. Lormer, N. Kinney, G. W. Brown, 
J. B. Rhoades, Hess Smith, Joseph Milner, William Cary, Charles 
Parmington, E. B. Newnma, D. White, J. C. Ferine, Mary A. 
Allen, Marie E. Dickens, R. I. Franklin, R. Amer, R. Coffin, 
E. D. Crawford, Thos. Smith, Wm. Bryan, Theo. Smith, J. T. 
Kelly, Winton Smith, Thos. S. Peck, Wm. A. Finch, J. McCan, 
C. J. Hoover, Dr. H. Goodwin, J. F. Platte, John A. Titus, C. P. 
Peniston, Garrett Clawson, and James L. White. 

The new colony is peculiarly fortunate in securing not only 
the finest location in Colorado as regards grand, beautiful, pictur- 
esque scenery and favorable climate, but they have secured the 
choicest lands of our favored Territory, in the garden of Colorado. 
While all the lands they have secured can be easily and profitably 
irrigated, they have nearly two thousand acres that is now ready 
for sowing and planting. It is the intention of the Trustees to 
put this amount of land into grain at once without waiting for the 
movements of individual farmers, so that there be an abundant 
crop the first year. The stock range will support fifty thousand 
head of cattle, and the supply of water for manufacturing pur- 
poses sufficient to meet any possible demands. The markets of 
Boulder, Denver, and the mining districts will take all the vegeta- 
bles and grains that can be produced for years to come. 

The present officers are styled Trustees, representing an in- 
corporation constituted under the general law of the Territory, 
and are as follows: Judge Seth Terry, P. J. Kelly and Enoch 
Coffman. Mr. Terry is the General Superintendent and presiding 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



265 



officer of the Board. He was formerly of Hartford, Conn., but 
more recently of Rockford, 111. — is a gentleman of suave yet dig- 
nified manners — a thorough business man, and cannot fail to suc- 
ceed, even in the difficult position he has assumed. He is a man of 
substantial means, and is a builder and lumber dealer. Mr. Kelly 
is a native of Scotland; emigrated to this country at an early age, 
and has been engaged in heavy oil land and brick operations; he 
has been in the territory several months; represents a larger num- 
ber of memberships (as special Trustee) than any other single in- 
dividual, and is one of the strongest men in the organization. Mr. 
Coffman is one of the pioneers of Colorado, coming from Mt. 
Morris, 111. ; is a substantial farmer, and one of the leading men of 
the country. His appointment gives universal satisfaction. Hav- 
ing sketched some of the points of interest, I will defer other items 
to future letters, closing with the request that you will republish 
for the benefit of all concerned, your admirable article on the re- 
sources of Boulder county from the Tribune of February 11th. 

Yours, 

St. Vrains. 



[Greeley Plan of Colonization Approved.] 
RE-ACTIVE COLONIZATION.! 
The remarkable fact, as stated elsewhere, that seventy-four 
of the inhabitants of Burlington, and vicinity, have joined the 
Chicago Colony, and also, made large donations, calls for remark. 
In joining their Colony there is no surrender of individual liberty, 
no abatement of personal responsibility, nor are any social usages, 
nor relations interfered with in the least. They join it for the sole 
purpose of having a thriving town, and a thickly settled community 
built up in an organized manner, around them, that they may no 
longer be deprived of the advantages which a few men of large 
means possess, in owning both town and country property. The 
plan of organization, which originated in our Colony, and which 
the Chicago Colony have adopted, provides for taking hold of ma- 
terials already prepared in society, and upon vacant land, and in a 
favorable location, constructs, not reconstructs, a city and country 
the same as old cities and countries exist, but with the difference 

^Gredey Tribune, March 8, 1871, p. 2. 



266 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



that each member pays the same amount as any other member, 
for the purchase of the land, and each has a parcel of the same 
value as another; by which means land speculators, and capitalists 
are kept at bay, and the whole community attains a position which 
has been the dream of all races in all ages. 

The officers of this Colony long ago foresaw, that, should they 
be successful, not only would the manner of settling new countries 
be revolutionized, but that the western States, and, finally, the 
eastern States w^ould be reacted upon; by w^hich means, large 
parcels of land, already occupied, would be bought up by organized 
colonies, and subdivided into town lots and small farms, precisely 
as we have subdivided the land here, recently held by the savage. 
The almost spontaneous commingling of the Burlington people 
with the Chicago Colony, happily illustrates the acceptance which 
the plan of colonization meets; but so many great principles are 
involved in the working out of the plan, that it would seem that 
results which no one now forsees, are likely to arise. 

The requirement that ardent spirits shall neither be sold nor 
manufactured on the Colony grounds, brings together an organized 
and select body, the moral part of mankind, who hitherto have al- 
ways lived disassociated, and there can be no doubt but they will 
exercise a power with reference to moral and religious affairs much 
greater than ever before exhibited, for the reason that the civiliza- 
tion of the day has given them intelligence which, not only in- 
creases, but confirms their conviction — that is to say, a new class 
of man, stronger by reason of accumulated intellect, and the or- 
ganization come together and clasp hands. 

There are to be conflicts and discouragements, and many will 
be doubtful and faint-hearted, but the principle certainly must 
conquer, because the only life there is anywhere, is in goodness. 
Sin is death, and failures, and the extinguishment of families are 
the wages of sin. The great struggle which the human race is to 
meet — to meet here at the van, is, landed aristocracy, for it is a 
spirit opposed to every principle of liberty — to every moral and 
religious reform — opposed to schools, to churches and every other 
influence of enlightenment. Our own idea is, that the landed 
aristocracy is, within no distant future, to be met by colonization 
face to face, and foot to foot. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



267 



[Arrival of Colonists.] 
^We understand that two wagon loads of emigrants for the 
Chicago Colony, went up this morning to start in with hammer and 
saw, and give a hand at building up the town. 

[Location of Chicago Colony.] 
^The Chicago Colorado Colony has located its town site. The 
selection it has made is one mile north of Burlington. While we 
are sorry that we did not have the good fortune to secure it at 
this point, we congratulate the citizens of Burlington and vicinity 
on the success of their efforts. There is already under way several 
buildings to be ready for the reception of the Colonists upon their 
arrival. Nearly all the people of Burlington have joined the 
colony, and held out better inducements for the location of the 
town than was given elsewhere. Several hundred acres of land 
immediately adjoining the town, already under cultivation and 
ditch was donated. We do not know whether the town will re- 
ceive a new name or retain the old and well known one of Burling- 
ton. To the new town we wish abundant success. 



[Locating Committee Make Report in Chicago.] 
THE CHICAGO COLORADO COLONY^ 
Messrs. G. S. Bowen and H. D. Emery of the committee to 
locate the town-site of the Chicago Colony in Colorado, returned 
to this city two days ago, having fulfilled, as has already been 
stated, the object of their errand. At a meeting of the executive 
committee yesterday it was determined to hold a public meeting 
this evening at MetropoHtan Hall to hear a report from Messrs. 
Emery and Bowen. Mr. Byers, of the Denver News, is also in 
the city, and will attend and address the meeting. The occasion 
will be one of strong interest to all who have watched the progress 
of this enterprise, and have joined, or propose to join it, as the 
fullest details will be given of the advantages of the location se- 
lected for the colony, of the work already done, and of its future 
prospects. As the local habitation is chosen it yet remains to 
choose a name, and that we learn, may be announced this evening. 

iDenrer Daily Tribune, March 8, 1871, p. 4. 
^Boulder County Newt, March 8, 1871, p. 2. 
^Chicago Tribune, March 9, 1871, p. 4. 



268 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Wanted — A Name.] 
HOW THE COLONISTS GET ON.^ 
From some members of the Chicago Colony who came down 
last night, we gather a few facts about progress in that new settle- 
ment. The Colony building is well under way, and they are pre- 
paring next to put up Mr. Gillett's hardware store. The surveyors 
have nearly completed the staking out of streets. About twenty 
colonists are on the ground, and Burlington people are lending 
a hand. The ditches are surveyed, and work will be begun on 
them at once. Considerable lumber has been received, and more 
is on the way from Chicago. It is understood that several fam- 
ihes will arrive in a few days, and as soon as sufficient houses are 
up, more will follow. They hope to be well underway in their new 
town by the 1st of April. And now people are beginning to ask 
"what is it?" The town name is not chosen yet. Whether thej^ 
will call it New Chicago, St. Vrain, Bross, Collyer, Bowen or 
something else, does not yet transpire. On this subject the com- 
mittee are at a loss, and w^e heard one of them the other day ab- 
stractedly whisthng a solo, the burden of which seemed to be, 
"do give us a name for our colony town." 

[Byers in Chicago.] 
PERSONAL.^ 

The Chicago Journal of Wednesday last says: W. N. Byers, 
Esq., proprietor of the Rocky Mountain Daily News, arrived in 
this city this morning and is stopping at the Tremont. He will 
address the Chicago-Colorado colony meeting at Metropolitan 
Hall to-morrow evening. 

"L0NGM0NT."3 
By a dispatch received on Saturday in this city, the Trustees 
of the Chicago-Colorado Colony learn that at a meeting held at 
the Metropolitan Hall in Chicago, on Thursday, a majority of the 
Colony voted that the name of their town should be Longmont, 
in honor of and partly derived from the name of the celebrated 
peak in the immediate vicinity. That is better than some they 
might have selected. 

iDenuer Daily Tribune, March 10, 1871, p. 4. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, March 12, 1871, p. 4. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, March 13, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



269 



C. C. C. ITEMS.i 
Enoch J. Coffman, Esq., has been appointed Superintendent 
of Agricultural operations for the Chicago Colony. Mr. Coffman 
is thoroughly experienced in Colorado farming, having been among 
the first who discovered its value. He will put in two full sections 
of new land, and 684 acres of land already ploughed for spring 
crops, which will give employment to a large number of teams. 
This will be in addition to work done by individual colonists. — 
E. H. Andrews has a broom manufactory, capable of supplying all 
demands for home consumption. — J. M. Smith will answer all calls 
in the meat and vegetable line, with the best of Colorado fed beef 
and mutton. — Mr. E. S. Barnes will open a Boarding House in a 
few days to accommodate the new comers until they get settled. — 
Mr. George Butters, late of Chicago, has been appointed clerk to 
the Trustees. George came to Colorado three weeks ago, a mere 
shadow, and can eat a square meal already — the effects of mountain 
air and out-door exercise. — The Colony mules, as noble a team as 
ever hauled a wagon, will transport passengers from Erie to the 
promised land, on the arrival of each daily train. — A daily mail 
will soon be inaugurated — a great convenience to those who have 
been obliged to depend on a semi-weekly. — Burlington has a 
flourishing Lodge of Good Templars, which meets in Independence 
Hall. 



L0NGM0NT.2 
The name of the town to be located by the Chicago-Colorado 
colony has at last been determined on and announced. It is 
LONGMONT. The selection is an excellent one. It is new, euphon- 
ious, and appropriate. We surmise that it is compounded from 
the name of the great peak in full view of which the town will 
stand — 'Tong's" — and the French word ''mont," which signifies 
mountain. The derivations being as follows: Long^s Peak, Long's 
mountain, longmont. To those familiar with the site of the new 
town this name will be received with pleasure. The location is on 
a bluff, sloping gently toward the St. Vrain, one of the most beau- 
tiful of those northern streams which come flowing down from the 

Wenver Daily Tribune, March 13, 1871, p. 4. 
"^Daily Rocky Mountain News, March 14, 1871, p. 2. 



270 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



mountains to the Platte. Toward the south and east it looks over 
the broad and fertile bottoms of the St. Vrain and Left-Hand, and 
beyond over an undulating country towards the Boulder. To the 
west is the great range with its ever-varying attractions, and rising 
far above it Long's Peak, the guardian mountain of the valley, 
the loftiest summit of all that rear their crests about the head- 
waters of the St. Vrain. What name could be more appropriate 
than that which will identify the new town with the ancient moun- 
tain, which will ever look down with stern and quiet grandeur 
upon its growing life, and its restless progress. In addition to 
these advantages of scenery and of name, others are to be noticed. 
Longmont can be easily irrigated, has a rich soil for the growth of 
trees and fruits, and flowers, presents excellent facilities for manu- 
factures, and will be central as regards trade and markets. Alto- 
gether, the prospects of the newly christened town are bright, and 
with the energy, industry, and enterprise which will be instilled 
by the coming colonists, we predict for it a speedy growth and a 
permanent prosperity; and extend to it our best wishes, with the 
hope that the most cordial commercial and social relations may 
be begun, and daily strengthened, between it and Denver, the 
metropolis of Colorado. 

Elsewhere will be found the proceedings of the meeting at 
Chicago, at which addresses were made, and the report of the 
locating committee presented. 

LIVELY TIMES AT LONGMONT^ 
We hear that everything goes lively at this town. Several 
new colonists arrived this morning by the Kansas Pacific, and at 
once started up by way of Erie. The colony building will soon 
be fully completed. About fifteen men are at work on the ditch. 
All are active in setting things ahead as fast as possible. Every- 
body works hard. The principal recreation is in laughing at the 
name of their town. 

THE RIGHT WAY TO COLONIZE.^ 
This morning there arrived by the Kansas Pacific train, two 
gentlemen and three ladies, members of the Chicago Colony. 

Wenver Daily Tribune, March 17, 1871, p. 4. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, March 18, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



271 



One of the gentlemen, as soon as he can arrange for their comfort, 
will send on for his wife and eight children. The other, besides 
piloting the ladies out here, had in other respects gone the right 
way to work. A week ago he sent on three freight cars loaded 
with household goods, farming tools, seeds, trees and all the needs 
for thorough farming. He intends to plough and put in crops at 
once. He brings some fine horses and other stock. His goods 
will all be here by Monday, and he will proceed to Longmont at 
once. We are glad to see such signs of getting ahead in this 
promising colony. 

["Rural" Endorses Chicago Colony.] 
THE COLORADO COMPANY^ 
George Monless, of Wagner, Iowa, intends to try a new 
country. . . . Well, Mr. M. wishes to know if the above 
company is bogus, what are the terms, etc. He need have no 
fear of bogus in a company of which Rev. Robert Collyer is Presi- 
dent, to say nothing of its other projectors. I understand that 
the colonists are to manage the large purchase, and each to share 
in the profits. The whole plan has been published in The Tribune, 
and any further information wanted in regard to it can be had by 
addressing the secretary, C. N. Pratt, 111 Dearborn Street, 
Chicago. 

[Sale of Lots.] 
L0NGM0NT2 

The residence and business lots in the new town of the 
Chicago-Colorado Colony will be ready for sale on Saturday next, 
March 25. Unlike lots in other new towns, the privilege of pur- 
chase is limited to those who have purchased memberships in the 
Colony. 

LONGMONT. 3 

Matters and things at the new city — What is being done — Colonists 
arriving — Future prospects. 

The Chicago-Colorado colony, which has located in Boulder 
count}^ and established a new city, the name of which is Longmont, 



iLetter by "Rural" in Farm and Garden Section of Chicago Tribune, March 20, 1871, p. 4. 
"^Denver Daily Tribune, March 21, 1871, p. 4. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, March 22, 1871, p. 4. 



272 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



appears to be in a very thriving condition, if we are to judge from 
the external evidences of industry and improvement which are 
being constantly developed. The colony is composed of many 
go-ahead active workers, who are thoroughly imbued with the 
spirit of enterprise and the importance of the undertaking, and 
who are therefore exerting every possible energy to push the same 
to a successful end. It has the support of men of means and the 
encouragement of the press, and there seems to be nothing lacking 
to develop at Longmont one of the most active and enterprising 
communities in the territory. 

The eastern trains are daily bringing into Denver scores of 
colonists, and the departing trains are conveying them to the scene 
of their future home. There are now in Longmont about fifty of 
the Chicago-Coloradans, the most of whom are delighted with 
the location, and all of whom are energetically engaged in making 
improvements. 

The town site is already surveyed, and the drawing for city 
lots is to occur on Saturday next. Their business lots are 25x125 
feet in dimensions. The residence lots are only partially sui-veyed, 
but the surveyors are engaged in staking out the lots which will 
contain somewhere near five acres of land — very generous indeed, 
and which will afford a good roomy breathing place for the occu- 
pants. The business and residence lots will be sold to those hold- 
ing paid-up memberships. 

The commendable enterprise of fruit growing and tree plant- 
ing is to be entered into, and will prove successful beyond a doubt. 
On yesterday Mr. Edsall, of Illinois, arrived at Longmont with 
several car loads of horses, wagons, farm and garden implements, 
garden seeds, grain, four hundred apple, pear, and other fruit 
trees, and a large number of cuttings, such as raspberry, grape, 
etc. The farm and garden implements will be placed in use at 
once. 

A colony building 40x60 feet, and two stories high, is nearly 
completed. It is to be used for the reception of the colonists, and 
will afford them comfortable shelter until they succeed in erecting 
their individual residences. The committee, represented by Judge 
Terry, are making every possible arrangement for the reception 
of the new comers. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



273 



The irrigating ditches now constructed will supply sufficient 
water for all the land of the colony. The old ditches are being 
repaired. The crops of the coming season will be plentifully sup- 
plied with water. 

The farming portion of the colonists present are employed in 
plowing and putting in crops. Employment is immediately given 
to all arriving on the grounds. 

Lumber is daily arriving from Chicago, and it will be but a 
few days ere the sound of the hammer, saw and plane will be heard 
constructing dwellings and places of business. 

Taking all these facts into consideration we are safe in saying 
that Longmont has acquired a pretty good start and that the 
future of her prosperity is bright. The good work must be followed 
up, the doubters must be convinced as to the probable success of 
the enterprise, and then this new city will have more than a name 
— a substantial local habitation. 



[Statement by R. Hanson.] 

Boulder City, March 21, 187Li 

Ed. Boulder News. 

Sir: Being seemingly thrown in a false position by the late 
action of some of the officials of the Chicago Colorado Colony, I 
feel that justice to myself, as well as to the citizens of your town, 
require some explanations. 

About the first of last February I was solicited by their secre- 
tary, Col. C. N. Pratt, in Chicago, at his office, to come out and 
work with their committee, of whom Judge Seth Terry, of Rock- 
ford, 111., seemed to be the head or most active member, and who 
was at that time engaged in securing all the desirable government 
land they could get hold of in this county l3dng contiguous to 
lands partially purchased of the railroad company. After the 
solicitation to come to Colorado, as referred to by Col. Pratt, by 
his request went with him to ex-governor Bross' office, the treas- 
urer of said colony, and Mr. H. D. Emery being present, it was 
decided that I should come out if possible to work in the interest 
of the colony, and relieve Judge Terry who was anxious to return 



^Boulder County News, March 25, 1871, p. 2. 



274 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

home and attend to his private business. The secretary then gave 
me a letter to Judge Terry and P. J. Kelly, the latter gentleman 
now acting as one of the trustees of said colony, stating the object 
of my coming being to assist them, and also procured me railroad 
passes and tickets to Denver, with the understanding that my 
other expenses should be paid by the colony, and also that for my 
time the colony would pay me the same as they paid Mr. Emery 
and others for like services. Before Mr. Terry's departure for 
the east, some three of four days after my arrival at Denver, by 
consultation with him it was decided that inasmuch as there was 
no favorable location for a town on the selected lands of the colony 
except by going several miles from where there is now, or even a 
probabiUty of having a railroad soon, that I should visit Boulder 
city and Valmont, and see what inducements they would offer to 
have us locate our town v/ith them. That I carried out my part 
of the arrangement, and that I did not misrepresent my position 
with the colony not consistant with the foregoing statements I 
leave for the citizens of your city to judge. Assuring you that 
what I have stated are indisputable facts, notwithstanding that 
some of the officials of said colony have denied my being authorized 
to act as I did in saying to the Boulder city people that certain 
inducements might be made or offered that would cause the colony 
to locate their town here, and afterwards affirmed by their setting 
a time when the proposals would be considered. 

Truly yours, 

R. Hanson. 



[Distribution of Lots.] 
ITEMS FROM THE CHICAGO COLONY. ^ 
On Friday evening last a meeting of colonists was held at the 
school house in Burlington to discuss the plans to be pursued in 
the distribution of the town and residence lots. Mr. S. Manners 
was elected Chairman, and E. S. Lowe, Secretary. The object 
of the meeting was stated by J. H. Wells, Esq. Judge Terry was 
then called upon: he stated that he had given considerable time 
to the study of the Constitution under v/hich the colony was or- 

Wenver Daily Tribune, March 27, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



275 



ganized; the more he studied the more he was perplexed; he had 
interviewed the members of the committee who prepared the docu- 
ment, and their views differed from each other; and at different 
times did not give the same interpretation. As there was a large 
number of colonists present, and also a large number of member- 
ships represented, he thought that out of the various plans pro- 
posed, that some one could be decided on by such an intelligent an 
audience as this. He proceeded to discuss the different plans, five 
in number, that had been suggested, explaining the merits of each 
clearly and intelligently. Remarks were then made by Messrs. 
Wells, Streeter, Hetzel, E. J. Coffman, B. S. Barnes and others. 
Mr. Wells moved that the plan of drawing the names for a choice 
of lots be adopted. Mr. Streeter moved an amendment that the 
plan of meeting on the ground and endeavoring to make a choice 
without resort to lottery, be adopted. The amendment was car- 
ried unanimously. Mr. Wells withdrew his motion and on the 
suggestion of a member present, the Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees was requested to give notice of future meetings and plan 
adopted. Judge Terry then announced that a meeting would be 
held on the town site at 10 o'clock a. m. of Saturday the 25th. 
That at that hour he would be prepared to receive applications 
for business and residence lots; if two or more applications were 
made for same lot, the precedence would be established in some 
common sense manner; after to-morrow no collisions could possibly 
occur, as the books and plats would be open at all times. On 
Saturday the meeting on the town site was held according to ap- 
pointment, when thirty business and the same number of residence 
lots were sold. On next Saturday, April 1st, the first quota of 
outside lots and farms will be ready for and distributed. The 
proceedings of the first distribution and roll were satisfactory to 
all parties interested. The colony house, 24x60 and two stories 
high, is completed. Mr. B. S. Barnes and wife are superintending 
it. Good comfortable beds and superior board is furnished at 
cost prices to colonists until they can get located. A building 
twelve feet deep, of one story, with door and window, and capable 
of indefinite extension, is built as fast as families come in who want 
temporary rooms to cook and care for themselves. Having seas- 
oned lumber these rooms can be built at the rate of a score a day. 



276 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Messrs. C. F. and George Butters are roughing it in a tent christ- 
ened the "Enterprise House." — The Prairie Farmer says: "The 
Chicago-Colorado Colony have just purchased 15,000 European 
Larch trees of Robert Douglas of Waukegan, for planting out on 
the lands in this new colony. We think this tree one of the best 
for that soil and climate." 



[Conditions in Longmont.] 
CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 
During the past week we spent several days in a careful in- 
vestigation of this promising enterprise, that we might publish a 
correct statement of its present condition. The most important 
matter is the water supply; this has been provided for by the 
improvement of the Pleasant Valley ditch, which takes water 
from the St. Vrains high up in the canon of the same name; its 
length is rather more than five miles; width at top, twelve feet; 
at bottom, six feet; average depth, three and a half feet, calculated 
to carry a stream at the head of two feet in depth, which con- 
stantly decreases to the end of the ditch. The supply is certain 
and reliable at all seasons, when needed. The ditch has been un- 
dergoing improvements (from the head) about one and a half 
miles. The work is progressing rapidly, an increased force having 
been put on last week. Another ditch, three miles in length, con- 
veying one-fourth as much water as the first, to apply directly to 
the town-site, will be repaired as soon as the first is completed. 
From each of the mains, lateral ditches will be thrown out for 
general irrigating purposes. These projected side ditches will 
measure about six miles. Will be put in as fast as the proper 
points are reached, and will water at the lowest estimate eight 
thousand acres, exclusive of the supply necessary for domestic 
purposes. The St. Vrain is a bright, running stream, never faihng 
in the most extreme drouth, and is within three-fourths of a mile 
from the extreme northern town lots. Unless extreme drouth 
prevails up to the last of May, there will be no necessity for the 
use of irrigation until the crops are well out of the ground, by 
which time all the ditches needed this season will be completed. 
The most opportune fall of eight or ten inches of snow on Sunday, 

^Denver Daily Tribune, April 10, 1871, p. 1. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



277 



and the prospect of the usual supply, is a most encouraging feature 
to colonists and Colorado farmers. It was the intention of the 
Trustees to put in a large amount of grain this spring, but various 
unforseen difficulties have prevented carrying out their plans as 
fully as at first projected. The greater part of the new land set 
apart for wheat, has been too dry to plough. Fully one hundred 
and fifty acres previously under the plough, are ready to sow as 
soon as sufficient rain or snow falls; having the control of five im- 
proved seeding and drilling machines, from forty to fifty acres can 
be put in per day. Good wheat has been raised from seed sowed 
as late as the middle of May, and the best practical farmers say 
there is no need to be in haste about putting in crops. In 1865, 
sixty-two acres, actual surveyor's measurement, of land now owned 
by the colony, was sowed May 6th to tenth; had no irrigation, 
although the season was quite dry; it was threshed by the machine, 
and the threshing of two thousand four hundred and fifty-five 
bushels, the product of this sixty-two acres, paid for an average of 
thirty-eight bushels. 

In addition to the one hundred and fifty acres, fifty have 
been farmed out on shares, and one hundred and fifty more will 
probably be let in the same way. The product will be held for 
sale to colonists only, and to prevent high prices if scarcity should 
occur, eight thousand pounds of seed wheat are contracted at 
three cents; an ample supply for all desiring to sow can be pro- 
cured at the same figures. The breadth of land designed for oats 
is not sufficientl}^ exact to be given, but it is intended to put in 
about the same amount as of wheat. May 28th is about the 
latest limit for sowing. Six thousand pounds of seed are contracted 
for at two and a haK cents; the supply is ample at that price. It 
is not intended to plant corn to any extent; a few Boulder county 
farmers have planted corn in past years and done well; the middle 
of May is the limit of planting. Three acres of Early Rose pota- 
toes are already planted; this amount will be considerably in- 
creased. June 1st is the latest limit for planting. Plenty of seed 
of the ordinary varieties can be had at three, three and a half 
cents. Excellent broom corn has been raised, and a smaU manu- 
factory of brooms supplies the local demand. Very little ground 
has been seeded to grass within the colony limits; Clover has done 



278 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



well. Hungarian does well if sown before June 1st. The low 
grounds bordering on the streams produce wild grass in abund- 
ance, which makes good hay after two or three mowings; no ap- 
prehensions need be entertained of a short supply. The plan of 
a large kitchen or market garden, at first entertained, will not be 
fully carried out. The accession of several practical gardeners 
and horticulturists, relieves the necessity of providing for the 
public wants by the Trustees. A sufficient breadth of rich soil, 
with southern exposure, which has been cultivated for years, will 
be assigned to individuals and families, in plots of from one to 
two acres, and rented at nominal rates for the present season. 
Potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage, turnips, onions, beets and carrots 
have hitherto been raised in quantities sufficient to supply the 
local demand. There will be no difficulty experienced by new 
comers in procuring all the vegetables needed, at reasonable 
prices; it must be remembered that prices are by the pound and 
not by measure. 

The cost of living will not vary materially from country towns 
in the States; the general rule to add transportation from St. 
Louis or Chicago, will give the retail prices of most articles in com- 
mon use ; it must be remembered that anything raised in Colorado 
has a greater value than in the States, as labor is higher. The 
price of milch cows, working horses, mules and oxen, can best be 
given by the general rule above stated, which will apply equally as 
well to wagons and agricultural implements. 

All the ploughing required by colonists can be contracted for 
at $2.50 to $3.00 for old ground, and $3.00 to $4.00 for new ground. 

The following is a partial list of retail prices for staples: 
Bacon, 18 @ 20c; sugar cured hams, 17c; beef steak, 12 @ 14c; 
roasts, 10 @ 12c; beef by the quarter, 10c; salt pork, 20c; veg- 
etables, from 2 to 33^c, except onions, 6c; eggs 20c per doz; 
ranch butter, 40 to 45c; States, 30 to 40c; lard, 18c; Colorado 
flour, $5; corn meal, 4c; milk, 10c per quart; canned fruits and 
vegetables, Chicago prices, freight added. 

Next to the cost of living, the most important in a new town, 
is building. The following is a market report obtained from the 
principal dealer: Common boards, joist and timber under twenty 
feet, $33 per M; good States finishing lumber, dressed, 2d clear, 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



279 



$55; 3rd clear, $45; do half inch, $35; select flooring, $50; clear 
dressed siding, $40; 2d clear, $35, select, $30; select three-eighths, 
ceiling dressed and beaded, $30; best quality shingles, $7.50; sec- 
ond do, $6.00; best States lath, $8; plastering board, 9c per lb; 
sheathing paper, 9c ; to Chicago prices of sash and doors, add 
about 15 per cent, for colony prices. 

The prices paid for wages are not fully settled, and will prob- 
ably fluctuate considerably during the present year. Last week 
the following was the prevailing rate: Team and man, $5 per 
day; farm hands, $25 to $35 and board; laborers, $1.50 to $1.75 
and board; carpenters, $2.00 to $3.50 and board; helpers, $1.50 
to $2.00. Board at the village hotel, $10 per week for regular 
boarders; $2.00 per day for transient; private families, $5 to $8. 
At the colony boarding house the actual cost of provisions and 
cooking, vary from $5 to $6 per week. It may be safe to say that 
there is a demand for good experienced labor in any trade. The 
branches of business already in operation in Burlington and the 
new colony town, are two dry goods stores, grocery, hardware 
store, banker, harness shop, shoemaker, photograph artist, drug 
store, two blacksmith shops, barber, furniture store, lumber yard, 
carriage and wagon maker, blacksmith and carriage trimmer and 
painting establishment, two hotels, two insurance agents, butcher, 
firm of surveyors and architects, lawyer. In previous notice we 
failed to notice Mr. F. C. Beckwith, land and real estate agent, 
who has been long established; reference to his business was acci- 
dentally omitted. It will readily be seen that branches of business 
not named will have the same chances of success as in other older 
towns. Perhaps the most urgent need at present is for a baker, 
who would be well patronized. 

There are about ninety adults and several children already 
arrived, of the colonists. Twenty inhabitants of Burhngton have 
paid up in full for membership, and thirty-five others have made 
the initiatory payment. Up to Friday one hundred and thirty 
five building and residence lots had been selected and paid for. 
Improvements in the shape of buildings, fences, setting out shade 
and fruit trees, are going on on every side, and bid fare to make 
Longmont a notable town. 



280 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Col. C. N. Pratt in Denver.] 
^Col. C. N. Pratt, of Chicago, general agent of the National 
Land company, is now in this city on business connected with the 
Chicago Colorado colony. As one who has borne a leading part 
in the organization of this great enterprise, who has given it an 
amount of time, attention and labor surpassed by no one, and 
whose ability, energy and experience in all matters pertaining 
thereto, has contributed so much to its success, Col. Pratt is en- 
titled not only to a warm welcome at the hands of our citizens, but 
to that praise and acknowledgement which eminent services are 
certain to bring. The completion of the colony organization, the 
answers of letters and inquiries, the arrangements for transporta- 
tion of freight and passengers and baggage and the hundred other 
things necessary in an undertaking of this kind, have all been 
done under the practical eye of the general agent of the National 
land company, whose excellent fitness for his position is most fully 
demonstrated. Col. Pratt's connection with the Chicago-Colorado 
colony will ever entitle him to the thanks and gratitute of Colo- 
rado; and it may also be said that his work for our territory will 
not cease when the labors attendant upon the present scheme shall 
come to an end. The success of the present colony will certainly 
lead to the organization of more to which he will only be too glad 
to lend aid and encouragement. Col. Pratt is a gentleman of 
pleasing social address, is one of the ablest and most experienced 
railway men in the west, and possesses an energy and enthusiasm 
in the practical working of immigration by colonization, which is 
resulting in the greatest benefit to our territory. He has always 
a warm welcome to Denver. 



[Arrival of Chicago-Colorado Colonists.] 
— ^The colonists are beginning to come in quite lively. We 
are told that two or three parties have arrived direct from England, 
bringing with them the old country fashions, knee breeches, big 
shoe buckles and all. One man brought four hundred chickens to 
start a hennery, and another man is expected shortly with a thou- 
sand. A gentleman from Greeley has come up with the intention 



Waily Rocky Mountain News, April 12, 1871, p. 2. 
^Boulder County News, April 15, 1871, p. 3. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



281 



of starting a bank in Longmont. Building is rather lively and 
prospects are good. About 200 of the colonists have arrived. 



[Departure of a Disgusted Colonist.] 

^The first disgusted colonist from Longmont sold out Thurs- 
day and came to Denver yesterday. He was accompanied by a 
chum who has been playing colonist for a few days but never was. 
Both got gloriously drunk on the way over, and from their style 
then exhibited we can but congratulate the colony upon a good 
riddance. 



[Meeting of Chicago-Colorado Colonists.] 

CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY.^ 

A meeting of the resident members of the colony was held 
pursuant to call, at the school-house in Burlington, on Thursday 
evening last. E. D. Crawford was elected Chairman, and J. H. 
Wells, Secretar}^ The Chairman stated that he was not aware 
of the object of the meeting, and called on Judge Terry to address 
the meeting, which he proceeded to do at some length, advocating 
a radical change in the constitution, to provide for a different 
method of distributing the railroad and government lands. The 
plan proposed is substantially as follows: 

All who choose to do so, to pre-empt eighty acres of govern- 
ment land within the colony hmits, and in consideration of the 
membership fee, to be furnished water for irrigating purposes, and 
one town lot, which would provide for 350 members, which would 
absorb the government land, which amounts to 28,000 acres. 
Then 300 members could have assigned to them forty-acre tracts; 
to 50 members, twenty-acre lots ; to 100 members, ten-acre lots; to 
200 members, five-acre lots; to 50 members, three town lots. 

This estimate provides for 1000 members and absorbs 18,000 
acres of railroad land, leaving 5,000 acres of the latter; 700 resi- 
dence lots and 600 business lots for sale for the benefit of schools 
and other public purposes. 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 15, 1871, p. 1. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, April 15, 1871. 



21 



282 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

The estimate of expenses of location and settlement of colony, 



are as follows: 

Railroad lands $ 95,000 

Government lands — scrip purchases 7,000 

Expenses of locating 5,000 

Ditches 15,000 



Total estimate of expenses 122,000 

RESOURCES: 

1000 memberships at $155 each...„ ....$155,000 

5,000 acres land, $8 per acre 40,000 

1,300 lots 48,000 



Total estimate of resources 243,000 



leaving a balance, when the business is closed up, of $121,000, the 
joint property of the members of the colony. He thought with 
proper effort this business could be closed up within a year, and 
perhaps less time, saving the interest on the debt due the railroad 
and giving ample funds for all public improvements that could be 
desired. His remarks were received with attention, and at a later 
hour the members were requested to give the subject their atten- 
tion and present their views, whether favorable or unfavorable, at 
the same place on Tuesday evening next. 

Mr. Wm. N. Byers, of the Denver News was the next speaker. 
He congratulated the colony on their present flattering prospects, 
and spoke at some length on the facilities they enjoyed for agri- 
culture, of climate, &c., &c. Mr. Byers was warmly applauded. 

C. N. Pratt of Chicago, was called on who said he had a great 
deal to do with organizing the colony and when he arrived on the 
ground, for the first time, he found that in many respects he had 
been firing at long range, that his impressions had been obtained 
from a visit to Colorado last year, when he came with the opening 
excursion over the K. P. R. R.; he knew nothing about the loca- 
tion, but had trusted to the representations of the gentlemen who 
came out to locate the colony, who had represented the soil, 
climate and general attractions unsurpassed; he found that their 
statements had come far short of the truth. Some things had 
been printed that were not true but would be rectified in time, 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



283 



and some errors committed that he hoped would be overlooked. 
This movement was a great one for the country, and would be 
properly appreciated in the future. If he had caused wrong or 
error he was ready to make the correction at any time if applica- 
tion was properly made to him, concluding with promises of the 
establishment of several enterprises of value to the colony. 

Doctor Garbett offered the following motion, which was unan- 
imously carried: 

That we vote thanks to the trustees for the able, courteous 
and satisfactory manner in which they have thus far performed 
their arduous duties; to Judge Terry for his full and flattering 
statements of the condition of the affairs and prospects of the 
colony; to Mr. Byers for his encouraging remarks; and to Col. 
Pratt for his self-sacrificing efforts on behalf of the colony, and the 
many courtesies he has extended to its members. 

The gentleman prefaced his resolutions with the remark that 
he had only been on the ground since yesterday at noon, but 
thought the time sufficient for him to judge of the wisdom of offer- 
ing his resolutions at this time. 

Remarks were made by Messrs. Emerson, Inman, Randolph 
and Coffman. During the meeting Dr. Hutchingson, late of 
England, spoke very highly of the climate, soil and advantages of 
colonization, and also presented some questions which he thought 
important should be distinctly answered. 



LONGMONT AND ERIE.^ 



Progress of improvements — Town building, ditching and planting — 
Coal mining, brick making, etc., etc. 



The Chicago-Colorado colonists are making good progress. 
Their town, Longmont, just north of Burlington, is nearly all laid 
out and new houses are going up in various parts of it. Several 
neat residences are nearly completed and a banking office will be 
ready this week. Messrs. Emerson & Buckingham, proprietors 
of the latter, are already on the ground with greenbacks and ex- 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 16, 1871, p. 1. 



284 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



change. The first banking business was done last Wednesday. 
Their huge safe still stands in the middle of the street where it was 
unloaded from the six mule wagon that hauled it from Greeley. 
A good deal of planting has been done upon town lots and in larger 
fields purchased or leased by the colonists. Over fortj^ thousand 
fruit and forest trees have been put out, but most of them are 
small and planted in nursery rows. As colonists arrive they are 
assigned to various duties, the larger number going to work on 
the main canal, which is progressing rapidly, and will soon be so 
far advanced as to supply an abundance of water to all parts of 
the town and farmers surrounding it. The ''Colony House," a 
monster frame structure, is the temporary abode of all that ar- 
rive, and has now nearly a hundred occupants. The colony has 
also built a number of small, rough houses, for famihes where they 
can provide for themselves until their own houses are built. 
Boarders at the Colony house are charged five dollars per week — 
actual cost or a trifle over. Occupants of the tenement houses 
pay one dollar per week rent. All are reminded by posted notices 
that neither are to be considered permanent abiding places, but 
that every colonist is expected to provide for himself at the earhest 
possible moment. All are busy, though not all at work. New ar- 
rivals are of daih^ occurrence, and knots of men can be seen at all 
times walking about over the town plat, thi'ough fields that were 
already plowed when the location was made, in search of choice 
corner lots or the place that suits them best. 

In the surrounding country among the farmers there is unusual 
activity. Plows drills and harrows are at work in every field. A 
great breadth of new ground is being plowed and planted. The 
crop of St Vrain, Left Hand and lower Boulder valleys will prob- 
ably be doubled this year. Burhngton is full of people. 

At Erie, the new depot building is almost completed. It is of 
stone, and a very creditable structure. Several other new houses 
have gone up, and more are in progress. The great coal mine is 
actively worked, and the daily yields is again coming up almost to 
the figure before the strike. Fourteen loaded cars were brought 
away Friday, the product of the preceding twentj^-four hours. 
Mr. Newman is opening an excellent quarry of building stone near 
Erie. It is a sandstone, almost pure white when dry, and comes 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



285 



from the ground soft and easily cut, but soon hardens so as to 
withstand with entire safety a pressure of over four hundred pounds 
to the square inch. It will soon be offered to Denver builders. 
Messrs. Kelley & Shaw are starting a bricic yard at Erie with the 
intention of making it as extensive as the demand may require. 
They have superior clay, equal, they say, to any in the United 
States. They expect to burn with the waste coal from the mine, 
which will cost nothing, and the saving thereby will more than pay 
the cost of transporting brick to Denver. They will start their 
first kiln this week. 

The railway is staked out from Erie to Boulder city and grad- 
ing is in progress along several miles of its western end. A branch 
is talked of from Erie to Longmont. When both are built the 
Boulder Valley will be certain of a large and paying business. 



THE CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 

Changes in the Distribution of their Lands. 

Longmont, April 18, 1871. 
Eds. Tribune: — The adjourned meeting of the Chicago-Colorado 
Colony was organized by calling Mr. Atwood to the Chair, and 
John H. Wells as Secretary. 

Judge Terry stated the object of the meeting to be the con- 
sideration of the proposed changes to be made in the distribution 
of the lands of the colony. 

The proposition is to so far modify the present plan as to per- 
mit fifty members to take three lots each in the town, and three 
hundred and fifty to pre-empt or homestead eighty acres each, 
and receive a town lot additional in full satisfaction of member- 
ship. 

The object in offering these additional plans is to expedite 
business and close up the concern as soon as possible. Some dis- 
cussion of these plans then followed, whereupon Judge Terry of- 
fered the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the Trustees be allowed to grant to members 
the privilege of pre-empting or homesteading eighty acres within 

Wenver Daily Tribune, April 20, 1871, p. 2. 



286 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



the bounds of the colony lands, which lands shall be put under 
ditch at the colony's expense, within one year from May 15, 1871, 
and in addition the Trustees shall give the said members one 
residence lot, that shall be an average lot, said lot to be designated 
by the Trustees, which pre-emption or homestead and town lot, 
with the privilege of water, shall be full satisfaction for the mem- 
bership, — this privilege being extended to not more than three 
hundred and fifty members. Adopted. 

Resolved, That the trustees shall be allowed to grant members 
the privilege of taking three town lots to satisfy their membership, 
viz : one business and two residence lots, or one residence and two 
business lots ; one to be selected by the member and the other two 
by the trustees, which shall be an average of the lots, the trustees 
being judges. This privilege shall be extended to not more than 
fifty memberships, and in case any member shall thus take three 
lots in satisfaction of his or her membership, then in that case 
improvements shall be made on at least one of said lots within 
one year from the date of purchase, to the satisfaction of the 
trustees. 

Mr. Benson moved to amend so as to require improvements 
to be made within six months, on one of the three town lots. 

A general discussion ensued on the resolution. 
Upon vote, the amendment was agreed to. 
The resolution, as amended, was adopted. 
Mr. Bassett enquired when an exhibit of the financial condi- 
tion of the colony will be made. 

Judge Terry stated that an exhibit could be made at any time, 
and suggested the first of May as an appropriate time, as an elec- 
tion of officers will occur at that time. 

A question being raised as to whether we can legally proceed 
to elect officers on the first of May, without evidence that we have 
a majority of the enrolled members on the ground, Judge Terry 
moved the selection of a committee of five to investigate all ques- 
tions in relation to the election, and to make preparation, so to 
speak, for the election, the committee to report at an adjourned 
meeting one week from to-night. The motion was carried. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



287 



Messrs. Wells, Benson, Basset, Garbutt and Hetzall, were 
selected said committee. 

Meeting adjourned for one week. 

* * * 



[Names of Some of the Colonists.] 
THE CHICAGO COLONY. ^ 

Our correspondent at Longmont sends an account of the meet- 
ing of the colony a few evenings ago, but which was anticipated in 
the letter published yesterday. In addition he gives the following : 

We have now on the ground about 100 members. Among 
the late arrivals may be mentioned Dr. Hutchinson, late of Her 
Majesty's service in India, and family; Captain Williams, late of 
the British line of mail steamers, and family; J. F. Walton, Booth- 
royd Bros, all of England; Misses Delia and Rosa Terry, Rockford, 
111., accomplished young ladies and daughters of the Judge; Drs. 
Rice and Levanway, Dixon, 111; Dr. Dante and Mr. and Mrs. 
McPherson, Canada; Mr. J. J. Hall and family, Texas; Mr. Fowler 
and family, Chicago, who have put up their tent with the stars and 
stripes flying, the first flag seen on the grounds; D. Norton, Denver, 
who has a grocery store in process of erection; H. Crispin, G. E. 
Strong, Aurora, 111.; E. R. Smith, O. F. Herron, Wis.; J. Townley 
and family, twelve. Fall River, Mass., all of whom with but few ex- 
ceptions, are putting up buildings for themselves. There are now 
about seventeen buildings in process of erection, the largest and 
finest of which is that of Judge Terry. It is fast nearing comple- 
tion, under the management of Mr. S. Southworth, of Connecticut. 
The bank is also nearly done, and is a fine looking building, giving 
credit to the builder, Mr. Stokes, of Evanston, 111. In short, all the 
buildings are ornaments to the town. The wind has been blowing 
pretty strong for a day or so past, making the dust fly in all direc- 
tions. The colony house is doing a fine business, having about 
ninety to feed and look after, and it is efficiently done by Mr. and 
Mrs. B. S. Barnes, to whom a great many thanks are due. 

Vernon. 



Wenver Daily Tribune, April 21, 1871, p. 2. 



288 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Bank in Longmont.] 

— ^Messrs. Emerson and Buckingham have become members 
of the Chicago Colony, and have opened a bank in a central loca- 
tion in the new town of Longmont, and are prepared to do a gen- 
eral banking business. Their correspondents are the First 
National Bank of Denver, Second National Bank of Chicago, 
and Jay Cooke & Co., of New York, Philadelphia, and Washing- 
ton. Mr. C. Emerson is the senior partner Emerson, West & 
Buckingham, of Greeley, and President of the First National 
Bank of Van Wert Ohio. The junior partner, Mr. Buckingham, 
bears the relation of son-in-law to the senior. It is perhaps one 
of the strongest endorsements that could be given to this colony, 
that such men become connected with it at this early stage in its 
history. — Colorado Transcript. 



MAP OF COLORADO COLONY.^ 

We are in receipt from Woolworth, Moffat & Clarke, of speci- 
men copies, a map showing the location of the lands belonging to 
the Chicago-Colorado Colony. It is correct in all respects, save 
that by the omission of the proper marginal notes, the ownership 
of several coal fields belonging to other parties, appears to be in 
the colony. 



TERRITORIAL NEWS.^ 
Affairs at Longmont — Encouraging prospects 



Our correspondent, at Longmont, writes us as follows concern- 
ing the doings of the Chicago-Colorado colony, under date May 
1st: 

Colony matters are progressing prosperously in our new town. 
About two hundred people have already arrived, while many 
others, unable to be on the ground thus early, have entmsted the 
selection of their town lots and farm lands to others. No one is 
allowed a deed for lots in the town or an agreement for farm lands 
unless their membership is paid in full and the price of the lots 

^Greeley Tribune, April 26, 1871, p. 3. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, April 28, 1871, p. 4. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, May 3, 1871, p. 1. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



289 



also. Ditches capable of irrigating many thousand acres will be 
ready in time this season, and such as take lands that cannot be 
irrigated this season are allowed a few acres that are under the 
ditches for this year's improvement. Many choose lands that 
are not thus irrigated, as such are not required to make any im- 
provement on their out-lands until ditches are provided. 

The entire town site will be provided with water in a very 
few days, and a very feasible project is under consideration by 
which at a small cost water can be brought into any house that 
may be erected in the town, even to the third story, should he 
aspire so high. 

Very general satisfaction is expressed by the colonists as they 
arrive. No fears are entertained by those best qualified to judge 
but that our enterprise is to be a grand success. The character 
of our colonists thus far will compare favorably with any commun- 
ity in the states east or west. We wish to hold out no inducements 
but such as will commend themselves to every fair-minded man 
to induce numbers to join us. 

Our election of officers for the ensuing year is to be held to- 
morrow. May 2d. No difficulty seems to be found in selecting 
candidates for the various offices because of sparsity of material, 
but rather a question who, out of the many, shall be chosen. 

As time passes and our enterprise develops we shall be pleased 
to keep the readers of the News posted as to the true state of 
affairs among us. L. 

[Election of Officers.] 
THE CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 
Our correspondent at Longmont, writes, under date May 3d, 
as follows: 

Agreeable to the articles of organization, and with the consent 
and advice of our executive committee at Chicago, the members 
of our colony at Longmont held their first election of officers, 
yesterday, the 2d day of May, at which time the following gentle- 
men were chosen to serve for the ensuing year:^ President, Seth 
Terry; vice president, B. S. Barnes; secretary, F. F. Garbutt; 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, May 4, 1871, p. 1. 

^According to a letter published in the Denver Daily Tribune on May 3 this was known as the 
"straight ticket." 



290 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



treasurer, John Townly; executive committee, Joseph Mumford, 
E. J. Coffman, Hon. WilHam Bross, of Chicago, George S. Bowen, of 
Chicago, and R. Streeter; auditing committee, C. Buckingham, 
Chancy Stokes, and John H. Bartlett. 

Although many were disappointed in not being allowed to 
vote by proxy, yet the decision of the majority in this regard to 
exclude all such votes, was generally acquiesced in as perfectly 
proper and right, as strangers to all the real interests and wants of 
the colony residing two thousand miles away, and entirely unac- 
quainted with the candidates, would of course be obliged to leave 
such things to the proxy, and different ones holding from three to 
thirty such votes would completely control the election; but as it 
was, the whole matter passed off agreeably and quite satisfactorily. 
The gentlemen elected, if supported by their constituents, will 
carry the enterprise onward and upward to the full satisfaction of 
its many friends and well-wishers. . . . 

[Miscellaneous Longmont Items.] 
THE CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 
{Regular Correspondence of the Denver Tribune.) 

Longmont, May 1, 1871. 
Eds. Tribune: — The arrivals have not been so numerous the past 
week as usual. They are as follows: H. Montana, E. K. Smith, 
Thos. Lucas, wife and child, Geo. Hanson, Chas. Hedmans, J. W. 
Picot, Mrs. Melvin and children, Michael McManer, Robt. 
Stephens, Albert Benson, John Lynch, Theo. Dinsmore, D. P. 
Wilson, N. Y., D. G. Peabody, Denver, Henry Carsel, W. H. Bliss, 
Chicago, A. West, Chicago, H. A. Ransom. Some six or seven 
new buildings have been started since my last, among which is a 
jewelry store by R. S. True, of Aurora, 111. 

A petition has been sent to Washington for permission to move 
the P. 0. from its present place in Burlington to Longmont, and 
it will occupy part of the jewelry store, should permission be 
granted. 

The I. 0. G. T. Lodge elected officers on last Wednesday 
evening, as follows : W. W. Foss, W. C. T. ; Miss Mattie Manners, 



Wenter Daily Tribune, May 4, 1871, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



291 



W. V. T.; Chas. Barclay, W. S.; Miss Mary Allen, W. I. G.; 
H. J. Hall, W. M.; C. Stokes, W. C; Mrs. E. J. Coffman, W. T.; 
J. Manners, O. S. They are in a flourishing condition, and have 
about 75 members; also have a weekly paper, of which H. J. Hall 
is editor for the present quarter, and Miss Mattie Manners, as- 
sistant. 

We listened last Sunday morning to a very able discourse by 
Rev. J. Powell, of Aurora, 111., father of the celebrated Colorado 
River explorer, Maj. J. W. Powell. Mr. Powell accompanied a 
portion of the exploring party from St. Louis to Denver, where they 
were met by the Major from Cheyenne. They took their depart- 
ure on Friday morning to meet the rest of the companj^ at the head 
of Green River. Mr. Powell talks very stroiigly of making this 
his future home. It would add much to the colony, as he is a 
strong worker and a thorough Christian. 

The colonists will raise on Tuesday next, May 2, a tent, 25x85 
feet, to be used as a pubHc hall and church, until such buildings 
can be erected. It will be called Bowen Hall. 

Election is drawing near, and excitement is high. The office 
of Secretary seems to be the most sought after, and for which there 
are a number of candidates. There is a movement on foot to get 
several of our executive committee elected from men now in Chi- 
cago, and who expect to remain there. I sincerely hope the move- 
ment will be defeated. We are having delightful weather just 
now and every one is satisfied. Vernon. 

[Miscellaneous News from Longmont.] 
THE CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 
{Correspondence Denver Tribune) 

Longmont, C. T., May 8, 1871 
Eds. Tribune: — After a storm there is a calm; after excitement 
reaction; thus it has been with us in Longmont. The excitement 
of election is over, all anxious ones are relieved, and we have, after 
a slight rest, again resumed our usual routine of putting up build- 
ings, etc. Among the new ones are a bakery and furniture store — 
the former occupied by Drs. Rice & Levanway, the other by F. C. 
Garbutt, our lately elected Secretary. 

^Denver Daily Tribune, May 9, 1871, p. 2. 



292 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Last Wednesday evening, the L 0. G. T. installed the officers 
elected for the present quarter. 

Friday evening some of the Burhngtonites, with a few of the 
Longmonters, tried the experiment of getting up a ball, but were 
not as successful as our Greeley brethren. I shall not attempt to 
describe the many rich and beautiful costumes present, but suffice 
it to say, it was a very select party, being comprised in all of some 
fifteen or twenty gentlemen, and of course, in accordance with the 
maxim, dance without ladies is a poor affair indeed," they put 
on their hats and wended their way sorrowfully home, ''wiser if 
not better men." 

During the past week our number has not been largely aug- 
mented. Among the arrivals are the following: E. F. Masterton, 
Mrs. Herron and son, Wis; Geo. W. Shaw and wife, J. C. Bassett, 
Three Rivers, Mich; Mrs. G. T. Dell, Battle Creek, Mich; W^m. 
Wright, wife and six children, Chicago; T. T. Jones, Chicago; J. E. 
Remmington, A. H. Remmington, Dixon, 111.; R. P. Williams, 
Chicago; E. S. Johnson, of the firm of Harper & Housman, Denver; 
A. G. Webber, Denver; C. White, Chicago; J. R. Hunt, Indiana; 
D. Livingston, D. Forsythe, Chicago. Most of them actual mem- 
bers, and some looking around to become satisfied with 
the prospects before investing. Many that come have only an 
eye for speculation; such, we would rather have stay away, as 
speculators very seldom benefit any place. Active, energetic, en- 
terprising men from all sections of the country, will be heartily 
welcomed, the more the merrier. 

Judge Terry left Saturday for his home in Rockford, lU., sick- 
ness in his family being the motive for hurrying off so soon. He 
will be gone long enough to settle his business and get his family in 
readiness to come back with him. He thinks he will be but three 
or four weeks unless detained by the sickness of his family. His 
house is getting along rapidly and does great credit to the builder, 
and when completed will cost about $4,000. Our greatest draw- 
back now is lumber. The Judge is doing his best to get it, having 
some twelve teams constantly hauling it from the mountains and 
Erie. Building is not nor cannot go along as fast as it would, 
could lumber be furnished faster. 

One enterprising person from Valmont (Longmont and Bur- 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



293 



lington have no such) has concluded to elevate the morals of this 
vicinity, and obtain the everlasting curses of all in the community 
by starting a whisky shop and gin mill. Why will people degrade 
themselves thus, making their names a slur and a by word for 
every one? I sincerely hope something will be done to cause him 
to hide his head in shame. I should think he would take warning 
from the transactions at Greeley in just such a case, and take away 
his cursed and vile stuff for fear he might lose it. Perhaps he 
thinks the people here have not backbone enough for it, but time 
will tell. It is causing a great deal of talk among the influential 
men of both places, who hope he can be induced to give up the 
idea. Vernon. 



LONGMONT ITEMS. ^ 

The following is a perfect list of the elected officers, standing 
committees and appointments of the Chicago-Colorado Colony, 
for the fiscal year commencing May 2d, 1871 : President, Seth 
Terry; Vice President, Burton S. Barnes; Secretary, Frank C. 
Garbutt; Treasurer, John Townley; Executive Committee, J. 
Mumford, George S. Bowmen, William Bross, J. Lincoln, E. J. Coff- 
man, R. Streeter; Auditing Committee, Chauncy Stokes, J H 
Bartlett; Trustees of the Corporation, Seth Terry, E J Coffman, 
S G Fowler. Standing Committees: On Ditches, J Mumford, 
E J Coffman, R Streeter; Printing and Advertising, F C Garbutt, 
S G Fowler, B S Barnes; W^ater Power and Manufactories, R 
Streeter, E J Coffman, F C Garbutt; Finance, F C Garbutt, J 
Mumford, B S Barnes; Schools, J Lincoln, S G Fowler, F C 
Garbutt. Appointments: Counsel, J H Wells, Engineer, R Faw- 
cett. A tent suitable for pubhc meetings, 25x85, has been put in 
place, and will be used until a hall or church large enough to ac- 
commodate the people is built. It will be christianed BowTn Hall, 
in honor of Geo. S. Bowen, one of the most efficient promoters of 
the colony. The Rev. Sheldon Jackson, Supt. of Presbyterian 
Missions in the Territories, has supplied library books, papers, and 
hymn books for a union Sunday School, and on last Sunday formed 
a preliminary organization for a Presbyterian Church. In con- 
nection with this, it is proper to state, that it is expected that about 



^Denver Daily Tribune, May 13, 1871, p. 4. 



294 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



$2,000 will be raised at the meeting of the General Assembly in 
Chicago to assist in building a church at Longmont for that de- 
nomination. From the prominent relation Gov. Bross bears to the 
colony and his connection with the church, there can be no doubt 
of the success of this movement. The general office of the colony, 
heretofore located in Chicago, will be removed to Longmont, 
President Terry being commissioned to attend to the transfer 
while on his visit east. 



[Religious and Commercial Development of Longmont.] 
CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 
(Regular correspondence Denver Tribune.) 

Longmont, C. T., May 15, 1871. 

Eds. Tribune : — During the past week we have had the often 
made remark, *'It never rains in Colorado," brought forcibly to 
our minds, having had no less than four rainy days out of the seven, 
not a little shower of an hour or so and then sunshine, but a regular, 
bona fide rain storm, lasting all day. Notwithstanding the in- 
convenience of mud, etc., every one seemed pleased to see it rain. 

The Methodists and Presbyterians have selected the sites for 
their buildings — the M. E. on the corner of 4th Avenue and Pratt 
streets, and the Presbyterian on the corner of 5th Avenue and Pratt 
streets, both fine locations — one on the north and the other on the 
south side of Thompson Park. They intend to commence the 
buildings soon. Messrs. Moore & Dell have opened a lumber yard ; 
also sash, doors, etc. They are also putting up a large building, 
to be used as a hardware store. Mr. William Wright, of Chicago, 
is putting up a building, and will start a dry goods store. There 
is also in contemplation a cigar and tobacco store. Standing on an 
elevated point, overlooking the town, can be counted thirty-seven 
buildings, most of them up and occupied, others half done or just 
commenced. This has all been accomplished since the location of 
the town-site, about ten weeks ago. 

We have had our numbers increased by about forty, the past 
week. They are J. C. Pratt, Milwaukee, Wis.; T. Walton, F. G. 
Hastings, H. C. Noble, St. Louis, Mo.; G. L. Leavens, W. T. Heser, 

Wenver Daily Tribune, May 17, 1871, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



295 



Ills; H. Burnet, Wm. Sears, S. B. Parsons, Chicago; 0. F. Kellogg, 
Liverpool; A. Kellogg, Thompsonville, Conn.; S. T. Lewis, St. 
Louis, Mo. Mr. House of Chicago, a gentleman of considerable 
influence and wealth, sslvs he is perfectly satisfied with the colony 
and its prospects, but thinks something ought to be done to prevent 
so many false statements being made. He says parties in Chicago 
painted the affairs of the colony in such vivid coloring, that coming 
here and finding so much difference, he would surely have gone 
back had he not come with the intention of staying. He believes 
such false statements do more injury to the colony than can be 
well remedied. In the report of last week, the names of Mr. 
Watson and Mrs. AVhitworth, widow of the late Wm. W^hitworth 
of Thompsonville, Conn., were omitted. Mr. Watson is a miller 
of long experience and considerable wealth, and is looking around 
at the mills in this vicinity, with the intention of putting up one as 
soon as he can get water power. Mrs. Whitworth is a lady of 
refinement and wealth, and intends remaining here and help build 
up the colony. Vernon. 

FROM THE CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 

Longmont, May 16. 

Ed. News — During the past week it has been rather quiet ow- 
ing mostly to the rain, although "it never rains in Colorado." I 
have seen about as much wet weather the past week as I ever saw — 
not pleasant httle showers, but steady rain all day. That is some- 
thing though, that no one here will grumble at. To-day it has 
been very warm, so much so that it has brought out linen suits and 
created a desire for ice-cold lemonade and other cooling drinks, 
but Oh, dear! where is the ice? I think we shall be obliged to 
move nearer the mountains. 

The Executive Committee at their meeting appointed the 
following standing committees: 

On Ditches — J. Mumford, E. J. Coffman, R. Streeter. 

Printing and advertising— F. C. Garbutt, S. G. Fowler, B. S. 
Barnes. 

Water-Power and Manufactures — R. Streeter, E. J. Coffman 
and F. C. Garbutt. 



^Boulder County News, May 20, 1871, p. 3. 



296 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Schools — I. Lincoln, S. G. Fowler, F. C. Garbutt. 

Finance — F. C. Garbutt, J. Mumford, B. S. Barnes. 

The most important thing with us here, just now, is the matter 
of schools. The committee have determined to put up a building 
24x40 feet for a town hall, and to use it for school purposes until 
suitable school buildings can be erected. The aim of our little 
town of Longmont is to rank among the first, if not the first, in 
educational merits in the Territory. Our school committee are 
all able men, most of them having been teachers of long and tried 
experience. They have selected Mr. Carr, of Waukegan, Illinois, 
one of the Boys in Blue, who lost an arm in defence of our Nation's 
honor, a gentleman well educated and a teacher of long experience, 
to be the first teacher of the Colony. May he set such an example 
of what a true teacher should be, that all who may come after him 
will be glad and willing to follow in his footsteps. 

We have now on the ground about 400 people and more arriv- 
ing every day. The past week there has been about forty, among 
them may be mentioned G. F. Davis, M. H. Davis, FredH. Davis, 
Kitty Davis, and R. M. Hubbard, of Decatur, Illinois; S. P. Rugg, 
Chicago; T. Collings and 0. T. Kellogg, of Liverpool; S. T. Lewis, 
and N. C. Noble, of St. Louis; J. C. Pratt, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; 

G. S. Seavens, W. F. Helser, Thomas Walton, F. G. Hastings, 

H. Burnett, W. Sears and S. B. Parsons, of Chicago. Mr. Watson, 
of Thompson ville. Conn., a gentleman of considerable wealth, in- 
tends to start a grist mill as soon as he can get water power. Mrs. 
Whitworth, of Thompson ville. Conn., a lady of refinement and 
wealth, intends remaining here and help build up the colony. 

Messrs. Moore & Dell are putting up a large building for a 
hardware store. 

Mr. Wright is putting up a dry goods store. 

At a meeting of the young men of Longmont, a base ball club 
was organized called the "Mountain Boys," and of which H. J. 
Hall was elected President and Asa L. Blanchard Secretary and 
Treasurer. They will go into practice right off and you will soon 
hear from them. 

(Better spend the time in some useful emploj^ment — courting 
the girls, for instance. — Ed. News.) 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



297 



Our kind host and hostess of Hotel De Longmont, Mr. and 
Mrs. B. S. Barnes, have given notice that they will hold a sociable 
at their house for the Colonists, in order that they may the better 
become acquainted with each other. It is a laudable undertaking 
and I hope it will be a success. Rusticus. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY.^ 

Progress and Prospects — Promise for crops — Membership and 

Improvements. 

We publish below a practical, plainly wiitten account of the 
Chicago-Colorado Colony at Longmont. While we are at all times 
wilhng to spend money and time in writing up the progress of any 
and all portions of the territory, our connection with the organiza- 
tion and settlement of colonies is such that some incredulous per- 
sons may look upon our statements as interested and not strictly 
reliable. Learning a few days ago that a party of gentlemen rep- 
resenting wealth, extensive knowledge of the world and entire re- 
liability, were about to visit Longmont to inspect its condition, 
we requested a statement of their impressions, which has accord- 
ingly been furnished, and we now give it to the public with un- 
quahfied assurance of its correctness: 

From Denver to Burhngton, by way of Valmont and Boulder 
City, through the valleys of Rock, Coal, South Boulder, Boulder, 
Left Hand, and St. Vrain creeks, there is, after leaving the divide 
north of Denver an almost uninterrupted succession of farms and 
ranchos; new claims known by a pole foundation or a claim shanty, 
are seen literally by hundreds. Indeed, through these valleys 
there is scarcely a quarter section not improved in some way. 
On the unimproved portions grass is from six to eight inches, and 
scores and hundreds of droves of cattle, horses, and sheep are 
luxuriating in its length and abundance. Irrigating ditches are 
being improved and new ones built with wonderful rapidity, and 
are carrying the water, month by month, higher up the hillsides 
and further over the prairies, increasing the area of agricultural 
lands in Boulder County, this year, by thousands of acres. But 
nowhere is more visible and tangible improvement seen, than with- 

Waily Rocky Mountain News, May 27, 1871, p. 2. 



22 



298 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



in the limits and inmiediately north and east of the lands purchased 
by the Chicago-Colorado Colony. It should be noticed that wheat 
is looking remarkably well; oats ditto, and kitchen gardens as 
promising as can be desired. The creeks are bank full, with pros- 
pect of ample supply during the season. At the colony, the crops 
that have been put in, even by the most inexperienced are looking 
well; out of about thirty five thousand trees that have been trans- 
planted to the colony nurseries, a few score have died; the re- 
mainder are taking to the new soil and climate as kindly as could 
be desired. The following abstract of statistics was procured from 
the books of the organization : There have been located by mem- 
bers of the colony, and deeds issued, as follows: forty acre lots 
153; twenty ditto, 10; ten ditto, 10; five ditto, 65; residence lots, 
357; business lots, 274. Of eight-foot wide ditches, fourteen miles 
have been constructed; four foot ditto, nine miles; side and lateral 
ditches and channels from two feet down, twelve miles. The main 
ditch is now completed, and water is now running the entire length 
of main street, and in several other streets, shorter distances. The 
excavation of the lake in the northwestern portion of the town, 
which is intended to cover from two to four acres, is let, and is 
progressing rapidl}^ Although once the bed of a body of water, 
it is not deep enough, and an artificial excavation is to be made 
to be filled from the irrigating ditch. Up to the present time the 
field crops and gardens have flourished finely, without artificial 
irrigation. In addition to the ditches already mentioned, six miles 
of main and lateral ditches are under contract. 

There have been 315 memberships issued; there are 350 
adults on the ground; many of these are single young men, others 
heads of families, come to get a home ready. As near as can be 
ascertained, 150 famihes are already here, either occupying their 
own or hired houses or boarding until they can build. Within the 
limits of the town site, and entirely exclusive of the many farmers' 
houses and cabins built and building, there are now more than 
sixty buildings finished or nearly ready for occupancy, and a large 
number projected. It should be borne in mind that this section 
of country was among the earliest settled in Colorado, and that 
previous to the establishment of Longmont, nearly 800 persons were 
supplied with mail from the Burhngton post office. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



299 



Owing to the fact that the books, papers, and correspondence 
of the prehminary organization are still in Chicago, many interest- 
ing facts respecting the previous pursuits and nationality of the 
colonists cannot be procured except by personal canvass. The 
following statement of branches of business already in operation, 
in both Burhngton and Longmont, will no doubt, be acceptable: 
A bank, three dry goods stores, three hardware stores, one furniture 
store, three groceries, two general stores, three agricultural imple- 
ments and wagon depots, one lumber yard, three blacksmith shops, 
two shoemakers, one photograph artist, one drug store, two hotels, 
butcher, barber, lawyer, surveyor, four physicians, three insurance 
agents, bakery and confectionery, milliner, dressmaker and fancy 
dry goods, cigar and tobacco store, and three contracting carpen- 
ters. Abundant water power for manufacturing purposes will 
be afforded by the canal; it is certain that a flour mill will be 
erected this summer; parties have been looking at a site for a 
woolen mill, who say they propose building the present year. 

Of the 153 forty-acre lots, about two-thirds will be improved 
for crops this year, and about forty claims have been entered upon 
north of the colony limits between the Little and Big Thompson. 
With the ranchos and farms already established and under culti- 
vation and the accessions of colony farmers, the hst of business 
houses and mechanics is not too large. It is probable that two 
brick-yards will be in operation within thirty days. Although 
diligent inquiry was made, not a single individual w^as found who, 
being wiUing to work, could not get employment. Common labor- 
ers get $L50 to $1.75 and board; farm hands $25 to $35 and board; 
team and driver $5 per day; carpenters $3.00 to $4.00; board at 
the village hotel, $10.00 per week; transient, $2.00 per day; private 
families, $5.00 to $8.00; at the colony boarding house, $6.00 per 
week. The retail prices of staples are not much higher than in 
most western towns. Coffee A sugar, 1Q}/2C- ; C sugar, 15c. ; rancho 
butter, 30c.; lard, 20c.; eggs. 30c.; Colorado flour, 6c.; corn meal, 
6c.; Graham flour, 5J4c.; bacon, 18c.; sugar cured hams, 23c.; 
beef steak, 12 and 14c.; beef by the quarter, 10c. ; milk, 10c by the 
quart; potatoes, 33^c.; dried apples, 15c.; peaches, 22c.; prunes, 
25.; codfish, 12J/2c; mackerel, 22c. Building materials, hardware, 
and agricultural implements, Chicago prices, freight added: 



300 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



White lead, 16c.; mineral paint, 16c.; nails 25c. per keg over first 
cost and freight; common boards, $35 per M., joists and timber 
under 18 feet, $33; finishing lumber, $60 & $65; 2d clear, $50; 3d 
clear, $45; half inch, $30; select flooring, $50; clear dressed siding, 
$35; 2d clear, $30; three-eighths ceiling, $30; best quahty shingles, 
$8.00; 2d best, $6.00; lath, $8.00; plastering board, 10c. To the 
Chicago price of sash and doors add 15 per cent, for freight and 
handling. These figures show the price of living to be not more 
that 25 per cent, above Chicago prices. 

The price of membership is the same as at the outset, $155 
each, for which the colonist receives a tract of land of fort}^ twenty 
ten or five acres, according to location; or, if preferred, three town 
lots. In addition the privilege is given to purchase one business 
lot 25x125, and one residence lot 83x125, at prices varying from 
$25 to $50. 

The social, religious and educational privileges of this colony 
promise to be of a high order; the old settlers were universally a 
reading people; more papers and magazines were taken through 
the Burlington post office, than any one of its size in the territory; 
139 copies of the Weekly News were sent there last summer, and 
other publications in proportion. In addition to a fine school- 
house in Burhngton, the colony is building a new one 36x60, and 
will establish a private school about the middle of June, with an 
excellent teacher in charge, who has already gained enviable notice, 
not only as a teacher, but as a gallant union soldier. 

Building lots have been chosen by the Presbyterians and 
Methodists, who each intend to erect churches immediately. 

The officers of the colony are Seth. Terry, president; B. S. 
Barnes, vice president; John Townly, treasurer; F. C. Garbutt, 
secretary; trustees, Seth Terry, Enoch J. Coffman, S. G. Fowler; 
executive committee, E. J. Coffman, J. M. Mumford, R. Streeter, 
J. Lincoln, William Bross, George S. Bowen. 




CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



[News from Longmont.] 
CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY. ^ 



Longmont, Colorado, 
May 25th, 1871. 



Eds. Tribune: — Our new town hall is fast nearing completion 
under the management of Mr. J. J. Hall; it is 24x40, one story high 
and is to be used as a school house. The committee on schools 
have engaged the services of Mr. Carr, of Waukegan, 111., a teacher 
of long experience, one of our ''boys in blue", who lost an arm in 
defense of the ''nation's honor." The committee thus show their 
appreciation of valor. 

Two gentlemen, Bennett and Parsons, of Golden City, have 
been looking around the past few days to find the best locality near 
town to start a brick yard. They say they will surely start one, 
and have found good clay? A number of people on the grounds 
have been waiting for brick before building. One block is talked 
of 100 feet front by 80 deep, and two or three stories high. 

Messrs. Boutwell & Munsil, from near Chicago, have been 
here during the past week prospecting for a woolen mill. They 
left on Saturday with the promise that they would have one here 
in less than a year. 

Mr. Gillett has rented Dr. Bardell's building and had it fitted 
up for a cigar and tobacco store. He goes to Denver this week for 
his stock. The wheat and oats are up and looking well. Potatoes 
are receiving a severe drawback by the potato bug, but the steady 
call on Streeter & Turrell for "Paris green," (and they keep a good 
article) and the activity with which it is used, show how determined 
they are of having a crop of this favorite dish. 

Mr. F. C. Garbutt's furniture store is about finished, and a 
part of his stock on hand. We have had but few arrivals the past 
week. Among them are: H. Stanley, D. Stanley, R. J. Williams, 
J. W. Petit, St. Louis; J. M. Billings, W. H. Smith, Belvidere, 111,; 
August Robarts, Thomas Mooney and lady, Frank Chapin, St. 
Louis; H. P. Bates, H. De Witt Denny, J. Sears, F. T. Watkins, 
Frank Cass, Chicago; Daniel Woodend, Thomas Sikes and wife 
Kankakee; Mr. Bontwell, Chicago; Mr. Munsil, Henry Simmonds, 

^Denver Daily Tribune, May 27, 1871, p. 2. 



302 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Plainfield, 111. Every one that comes seems to be perfect^ satis- 
fied with the prospects ahead. 

At a meeting of the young men a base ball club was organized, 
called the ''Mountain Boys", of which J. J. Hall was elected Presi- 
dent; Asa L. Blanchard, Secretary and Treasurer. On next Wed- 
nesday^ evening our kind host and hostess of Hotel De Longmont, 
Mr. and Mrs. B. S. Barnes, intend having a sociable for the colon- 
ists, for the purpose of having them become acquainted with each 
other. Music, ice-cream, etc., will be the order of the evening. 
A good turn-out is expected, and a good time for all. 

Sunday morning Bro. Van Valkenburgh gave us a splendid 
temperance sermon. All seemed impressed with the determina- 
tion of driving the intruder from our midst. The speaker used 
some strong language and made forcible illustrations. No threats 
have been made, but everything will be done to get it peaceably 
removed, and if that fails, then we shall — have to stand it. 

Mr. Watson left Saturday for Thomsonville, Conn., to com- 
plete his arrangements for a flouring mill here. Mrs. Whitworth, 
also, took her leave for England, to spend a short time, and induce 
some of her friends there to return with her. I shall, in a little 
while, be able to give you the exact number of members on the 
ground. Vernon. 



[Various Longmont Items.] 
BOULDER COUNTY'S COLONY. ^ 
Longmont, Colorado, 
May 26, 1871. 

Eds. Tribune: — Nothing of special importance has occurred 
since my last. The arrivals have not been very brisk the past 
week. Among them were R. W". Wilson and A. Hart, of Maryland, 
the forerunners of the party of which Mr. Wilson, who was here 
some time since, was the representative. 

Experiments made here with clay have proved satisfactory, 
and the result is we shall have a brick yard right off. Then we 
can put up something more substantial than wood, in the matter 
of buildings. 

Denver Daily Tribune, May 29, 1871, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



303 



Dr. Danter, of Canada, took his departure for home, thence to 
England, for the purpose of inducing more of his friends to come 
to this country. Mr. Watson left for his home in Connecticut to 
perfect his arrangements for putting up a flouring mill. Mrs. 
Whitworth also left for England to spend a short season, and bring 
back with her many of her friends. She told the trustees of the 
M. E. Church she wanted them to put up a good building, and if 
they lacked money to call on her, as she did not like to see a poor 
church building. With such words, and a full purse to back them, 
the trustees will be surely to blame if they do not put up such a 
building as will be an ornament to the place. 

On Thursday evening M. G. Gillett made a formal opening of 
his cigar and tobacco store. He has designated it ' 'Arcade 
Rooms," and a very neat and tasty little place it is, where can be 
found in good style, everything in the smoker's line. Messrs. 
Bates & Slocum have started an ice cream saloon, with soda water, 
&c. They seem to be doing a pretty driving business, and after 
a few more trials in cream making, will meet with success. A gen- 
tleman from Greeley has put up a restaurant, but is not yet in 
running order. These, with a building for a boot and shoe store, 
comprise the new buildings. Mr. Atwood, proprietor of the gen- 
eral merchandise establishment, is deserving of considerable credit. 
He has shown an enterprising spirit by putting down the first side- 
walk. May it be the forerunner of many more as good. The 
school building will be ready for use next week. 

It is with great sorrow I am called upon to chronicle the first 
death in Longmont. This morning after a short and severe illness, 
the soul of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Wright's infant child took its de- 
parture for its heavenly rest. The citizens all sincerely sympa- 
thize with the family in their bereavement. 

We were granted a sight of the jovial face of our Denver agent, 
Mr. Holly, who calls upon us once in a while, to see how matters 
progress, and to get thoroughly posted, and then is off like a flash 
to attend to '*biz." 

Mr. A. Benson has started a singing school, and has a very 
fair class. He is highly spoken of as a teacher of vocal music. 
We have some fine talent here, and perhaps may have a ''Nilsson;" 
who knows? 



304 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Judge Terry, with his family, are expected next week. The 
colonists are all prepared to give him a hearty welcome, for we have 
all missed his kind and genial face. His place has been well filled 
by B. S. Barnes, Vice-President. On account of pressing business 
the sociable was postponed. We are in hopes of its speedy occur- 
rence. There are many matters of much importance to us as a 
colony, which will soon take place; notice of which will be given 
as soon as practicable. 

Our polite and gentlemanly private secretary, W. A. T., while 
wending his way slowly home from the hill, the other evening, 
cogitating, perhaps, on the merits of "love at first sight," met with 
such an adventure as nearly to terminate not his existence, but 
his passion for evening strolls. While plunged in his deep reverie 
he became impressed with the idea that something was following 
him. Glancing over his shoulder, what was his alarm to see in 
the dim distance a shadow something sureh^ following in his wake. 
Deeming ''discretion the better part of valor," he makes tracks 
for home as fast as his powers of locomotion would admit. Glanc- 
ing from time to time over his shoulder to see that terrible monster 
just as near as ever, with increased velocity he nears the door; all 
is dark within; with one tremendous bound he reaches it and closes 
it just in time to shut out — his shadow. 

Work on Lake Park will be commenced next week, when with 
a few shovels and picks in the hands of sturdy workmen, Longmont 
will assume a better appearance. The south branch of our ditch 
is finished and water is running through our streets. We are hav- 
ing delightful weather; a little warm during the day-time, but 
beautiful evenings. Vernon. 



[Success Assured at Longmont.] 
THE CHICAGO COLORADO-COLONY.^ 

Longmont, May 30, 187L 
Eds. Tribune: — The Chicago-Colorado Colony is now awake 
and prospering. No experiment, but a positive success. We have 
passed through the joggy part of the road, disposed of a large 
amoimt of the business and residence lots, and every one abundant- 

Wenver Daily Tribune, May 31, 1871, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY * 



305 



ly satisfied. A stock company is now forming for the erection of 
a first-class hotel, at a cost of $35,000. A brick yard is already 
located here, and has commenced the manufacture of brick for 
this purpose. We have stores of all variety that are doing a good 
business, and still there is room for thousands more. We notice 
in the Greeley Tribune that the banking establishment of Greeley 
had located a branch at Longmont. Mr. Meeker has made a 
mistake in the place, sure; no such establishment is here or pro- 
posed to come here. We have, however, an independent banking 
house under the control of Emerson & Buckingham. We suggest 
that the Tribune corrects its blunder. 

The location of the Chicago Colony is thought by all to be 
the finest in the Territory, and enterprising and sober people are 
in earnest for its successful development. We earnestly invite 
those about to locate, and emigrants to Colorado, to make us a 
visit, and every attention is promised. 

Yours truly, 

B. S. Barnes. 



OUR LONGMONT LETTER. ^ 

Longmont, C. T., June 3, 187L 

Eds. Denver Tribune: — Operations at the brick-yard have 
actually commenced, and several thousand bricks already made. 
Messrs. Bennett & Parsons are confident of making as good brick 
as can be made in the Territory. 

A stock company is being formed to run a line of stages from 
here to Greeley, and also talk of one between here and Denver. 

Judge Terry and family arrived yesterday, accompanied by 
Mr. Charles Bliss, of Rockford, the son of Mr. Perry's partner in 
the lumber trade. The Judge reports that Mrs. Thompson, of 
New York, is on the way here. She means business, and is bring- 
ing with her an organ, a town bell, books and apparatus for school, 
books for a library, etc. She says buildings for a library and ly- 
ceum must be put up right off. 

Our P. 0. building is about finished. It is being put up by 
Mr. Fawcett, our engineer, and is as fine and tasty as any I have 

^Denver Daily Tribune, June 8, 1871, p. 2. 



306 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



seen in the Territory. Mr. Fawcett has also a very fine office of 
his own. He is busy surveying, and is getting along finely. There 
are on the grounds by actual count 415 persons, and between 50 
and 60 buildings. The Locating Committee of the Milwaukee 
Colony is expected here soon. The Executive Committee of this 
colony will use their influence to have them locate with us. It 
will be a large addition to our members. Everj^thing in the colony 
is progressing nicely. A musical association with a cornet band, 
was formed last evening, and the following officers elected: Mr. 
Carr, President; J. Sinclair, Vice-President; H. J. Hall, Secretary; 
A. S. Blanchard, Treasurer. The instruments are to be silver, 
and are expected soon, when the band will begin practice under an 
experienced teacher. It is expected that a paper will be started 
in a few days. A seven-column press has been sent for, and is 
expected soon. We do not intend to be behind the times in this 
respect. It is receiving all the encouragement the proprietors 
could wish. 

On last Sunda}^ morning everybody was surprised to wake up 
and learn of the loss of our onl}^ whisky shop. Some public- 
spirited individual had, during the night, applied a match to the 
building and left, forgetting to put it out. The consequence was, 
the community is rid of the most infernal traffic man ever created. 
Although none uphold the manner in which it was done, none are 
sorry, and all cry ''good." Everything will be done to prevent its 
ever being re-started. It is the curse of the American people, and 
it should be the duty of every person to make war upon it until it 
is driven from our land. How any man can lower himself so as to 
traffic in the poisonous stuff I cannot see. I do not intend to make 
a temperance lecture, but when I see the influence it has, and the 
many, many intelligent young men cut off in their prime and sent 
to drunkards' graves, so many families made wretched and miser- 
able, I can scarcely restrain my feelings. How quickly would I 
had I the power, banish every drop of the damnable stuff from the 
world, and thus prevent an untold amount of misery and crime. 

Irrigation has been commenced, and crops are all looking fine; 
weather pleasant and every one satisfied. 

Vernon. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



307 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY LETTER. ^ 

Longmont, C. T. June 8th, 187L 

Eds. Denver Tribune: — Madame Dupree, of Melvin House 
fame, has been looking around in Longmont for a day or two past 
with the intention of investing herein. That article in the News 
has called her attention to Denver, and she leaves this morning 
to have a chat with the author of said article, cutting short her 
visit here by a few days. 

Ever}i;hing moves along here with its usual rapidity, and we 
bid fair to rival many an older town in a short time. Our bell for 
the Libert}^ Hall is at Erie, will be brought up in a day or so and 
put in place on the building, which will be readj^ for it in a short 
time. Everything is being done that can, in any way, to benefit our 
colony. Good inducements are offered all classes of manufactures, 
etc., and any one in search of a good location for a flour mill or 
factory of any kind, will do well to correspond with the Secretary, 
F. F. Garbutt, or call at the colon}' office in Longmont. The 
weather is beautiful, and crops are looking very fine. 

Vernon. 



LONGMONT LETTER. ^ 

Longmont, Col., June 10, '7L 
Eds. Denver Tribune: — Everjihing about town is jogging 
along in its usual style. Building is progressing fineh^ The dry 
goods store and boot and shoe store are about completed and the 
stock will soon be on hand. The stages will soon be running be- 
tween here and Erie and Greeley. Mr. Baumert arrived yester- 
day with two fine coaches for the routes. He brought with him 
Mrs. Thompson and Mr. C. N. Pratt. Our brick men are rushing 
things pretty hvely, having now on the ground and about ready 
for the kiln, nearly 25,000 brick. They will soon be ready to 
furnish all that will be needed. Messrs. Laws & Bro. are putting 
up a fine, large livery stable, where they intend to keep ever3i:hing 
to add to the convenience of pleasure seekers. Mr. Hesser has 
opened his restaurant and the style in which he serves up the good 

iDenrer Daily Tribune. June 10, 1871, p. 2. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, June 13, 1871, p. 2. 



308 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



things to his friends and customers, proves him to be a good man 
at the helm. If any one wants a good square meal, he will find 
Hesser can get it up for him. Mr. Billopp is putting up an ice 
cream saloon and confectionery establishment. We are sure to 
be furnished with all the delicacies any way. It is pleasant to 
have a place where one can go and cool ofi with a nice dish of ice 
cream, if they will only trust. Buildings are being put up for a 
large manufacture of carriages, buggies, etc., under the firm of 
Bellman & Co. Mr. Geo. W. Siber superintends the wood work, 
Mr. Bellman the blacksmithing, Mr. Charles Price the painting, 
and Mr. Thomas Foster, harness maker and carriage trimmer. 
With the progress we are making we shall soon be able to rival 
some of the older towns of the Territory. Having such fine natural 
facilities, we surely do not see why the town of Longmont will not 
be in a few years taking rank in the foremost ranks, not only in 
its success as a colony, but in everything that make a town pleas- 
ant and sociable. We understand a large party of gentlemen rep- 
resenting great agricultural interests in Missouri, are expected in 
the Territory to take a look and make a report of the agricultural 
resources of the same. It is to be hoped the officers of the colony 
will extend to them the right hand of fellowship and a cordial in- 
vitation to visit our town. It is just such men that help build 
up a new place. Have them come by all means. Weather has 
been fine and delightful. Vernon. 



[Opening of Library.] 
LONGMONT FESTIVAL. ^ 
A week ago Mrs. Thompson went to Longmont to carry out 
her plans for the munificent donations she contemplated for that 
young and thriving colony. Since then she had built a public 
library building 18x48 feet, with a vestibule 18x18 feet, surmounted 
by a handsome beKry and a lofty flagstaff. The nucleus of the 
library, 300 standard volumes and over 3000 thousand engravings 
and prints from the world-famous Thompson collection, w^ere un- 
packed, the excellent organ set up, the bell swung in its place, a 
twenty foot flag unfurled at the masthead, and on Wednesday 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, June 16, 1871, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



309 



evening the new structure was densely packed by a meeting of 
colonists for its inauguration. There was a happy time, with 
music and speaking, and then a magnificent banquet and more 
than enough for all. It was modestly called a strawberr^^ festival. 
For the present the main building will be used for a public hall 
and meeting house; the vestibule onh^ being appropriated to the 
library which it is hoped will at no distant day require the main 
hall as well. Of these good things — the hall and the library, are 
from the bounty of Mrs. Thompson. The organ, the bell and the 
flag, were presented by Colonel Pratt. IMrs. Thompson has taken 
twenty memberships in the colon3\ The entertainment of the 
five hundred guests Wednesday evening was entirelj^ at her ex- 
pense. Oh! that Colorado might have man}- as enterprising 
settlers. 

A hotel company was also organized at Longmont this week, 
and a large amount of stock subscribed. A three stoiy building 
with a frontage of one hundred and fift}^ feet, and to cost fifty 
thousand dollars, is planned, and will doubtless be speedily built. 

Airs. Thompson, Miss Rowell, Mr. Secombe and Col. Pratt, 
left for the east by last night's train. The}^ are enchanted with 
Colorado, and most all of them will return soon. 

JUBILEE AT LOXGMOXT.i 

Longmont, June 14th, 1871. 

At a strawberry festival given by Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson 
to the members of the Chicago-Colorado Colony, at the new library 
building, after partaking of the good things prepared for the oc- 
casion, Capt. Richard Wilhams was then called to the chair, and 
John H. Wells as Secretary. 

Col. B. L. Carr, on behalf of the committee, then offered the 
following resolutions : 

Whereas, The Locating Committee appointed to select land 
for, and conduct the business of the Chicago-Colorado Colony, did, 
bj' the exercise of their best judgment, and a hearty and sincere 
interest in the work entrusted to them, aided by the united in- 
fluence and efforts of certain liberal and public spirited people, so 
manage, as in our opinion, to ensure the future success of the 



Denver Daily Tribune, June 17, 1871, p. 2. 



310 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



colony, Now, therefore, in order to express our appreciation of 
their labors in our behalf, be it 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Colony are due to Mrs. 
Ehzabeth Thompson for the sincere and unceasing interest which 
she has taken in our success, and for the many substantial ex- 
pressions of her good will which have been showered upon us. 

To Col. C. N. Pratt for his indefatigable and successful labors 
already performed and the zeal with which he still advances our 
interests ; and to the said Locating Committee and to all the officers 
of the Colony for the faithful manner in which they have performed 
and are performing their duties. 

Resolved, That in our estimation we have secured the very best 
locality in Colorado for a Colony, and while we appreciate and hope 
to make the best of our location, we do not feel selfish or miserly 
in regard to the advantages obtained, but cordially invite all who 
will to come and share the same with us. 

On motion, the resolutions were adopted. 

Col. Pratt was then called upon to address the meeting, which 
he did, briefly, ehciting much applause. 

Col. Carr addressed the meeting on the subject of our educa- 
tional interests. 

Mr. Wright made a few remarks in response to calls for 
''Wright." 

Mr. Wells gave a brief review of Longmont, past and present, 
and Mr. Streeter predicted the future, demonstrating satisfactorily 
that Longmont is destined to be a great railroad centre, site of the 
national capital, and the pivot on which creation turns. 

The crowd then sang the ''Star Spangled Banner," and broke 
up amidst great good humor. 

Attest: John H. Wells, 

Secretary. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY LETTER. ^ 
Longmont, Colorado, 

June 17, 1871. 

Eds. Denver Tribune : — All things are moving about as usual. 
On Wednesday last our Library Hall was dedicated by a Straw- 



^Denver Daily Tribune, June 19, 1871, p. 1. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



311 



berry Festival, given by Mrs. Thompson. The room was crowded, 
and the affair was a decided success. The organ, a donation of 
Mrs. T., was brought into requisition, and the thrilhng music 
brought forth by the fingers of B. S. Barnes, created one of the 
most pleasant features of the evening. A person being here a few 
months since, and again on last Wednesday evening, would be 
surprised to see so many handsome young ladies surrounded by 
beaux, each eager for some token of appreciation. It is impossible, 
owing to the crov/d, to give a description of the many fine costumes 
that of course were there, but Miss J. K. seemed the centre of at- 
traction for most of the young men, although none lacked for ad- 
mirers, and to see the many happy faces, one would judge that all 
rivalry was left at home. Altogether it was a fine affair, and many 
thanks are due Mrs. Thompson for thus early bringing the colonists 
together in social intercourse. The library building is almost 
finished, and the books, pictures, etc., now here, will soon be ready 
for use and inspection. Mrs. Thompson, Miss Howell, Mr. C. N. 
Pratt and Mr. N. W. Secombe left for the east Thursday morning — 
Mr. Pratt to finish arrangements for the hotel. He expects to be 
back some time in Juty, and will be accompanied by the Locating 
Committee of the Milwaukee Colony. He has been appointed 
Colonial Agent at Chicago. Mrs. Thompson is thoroughly alive 
in the work of the colony, and is doing a great deal to help it along. 
She thinks she will be here in about a year to make it her future 
home. The arrivals during the past week have been about fifty, 
some of them bringing with them considerable capital, which is 
just what is needed here now. Lake park is being rapidly made 
ready for putting water into the lake. We shall then have a fine 
body of water close by. The St. Vrains is high, and rising every 
day. It bids fair to be almost a navigable stream for small craft. 

Vernon. 

FROM GREELEY TO LONGMONT.^ 
A Journey over the Route of the Proposed Railroad. 

Farming on the Big Thompson — Forty Bushels of Wheat per Acre 
— Something Concerning Irrigation — Scenes Around Longmont — 

^Greeley Tribune, June 28. 1871, p. 2. 



312 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



What the Colonists are Doing — Facts and Figures — How to Make 
a Temperance Town. 



We left Greeley at 11 o'clock. The horses were spirited and 
the vehicle moved at rapid speed toward the mountains. At the 
end of three miles, the town was plainly visible with its green gar- 
dens and young trees. The river stretched from the east and 
west; from granite canyons to the Platte. Across the river large 
herds of cattle were feeding on the grama grass. The road lay 
toward the mountains for twelve miles in a direct line, and its 
course was as straight as if ploughed with cannon balls. The 
proprietor of the stage hne, Mr. Baumert, said that he had traveled 
for many years on the plains, but never before had he seen so 
straight a road. 

Twelve miles above is Hill's, the residence of a farmer on the 
Big Thompson river. Crossing the stream which was high and 
very swift we drove through a meadow to the house. Mr. Hill 
is a good farmer and his crops are promising. He came west in 
'60, remained until '64, when he took a ranche. Now he has a 
farm of 373 acres, 150 acres under the plough. Corn, oats, wheat 
and potatoes are the principal products. 

[Two paragraphs omitted.] 

After traveling about three miles south-west of Hill's, up a 
continuous ascent, the road becomes level, and a magnificent view 
is seen on every side. To the north, south and east, the green 
valleys of the Big and Little Thompson and Platte rivers stretch 
down to the horizon, while up among the western clouds are the 
snow fields of the Rocky Mountains. Every hour the altitude 
grows higher and one cannot help a feeling of exhileration as he 
rides along. 

Toward evening a new scene is presented. The road reaches 
a high point where it overlooks a large district sloping to the 
south-east. In the distance is a bell tower surrounded by houses 
and cultivated fields. This is the town of Longmont, which the 
Chicago Colony founded last winter. Several pieces of wheat are 
just heading out and grass is abundant. Half a mile south of the 
town is the St. Vrain river, running through a beautiful green 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



313 



valley which is fully a mile wide. The old town of Burhngton is 
situated directly on the river bank. The valley extends to the 
edge of Longmont which overlooks the valley and surrounding 
country for a long distance. There are few more charming river 
views in the Territory, and the colonists are right in being proud of 
their location. The land around Longmont is peculiarly well 
adapted for irrigation, as it is of one uniform slope and very 
smooth. About 500 persons are on the ground, and a majority 
of the buildings are substantial and neatly painted. Among the 
most noticeable ones are Judge Terr^^'s, Mr. Baumert's (now occu- 
pied by Mv. Hetzell) and Emerson and Bucidngham's bank build- 
ing. The librarj^ should not be forgotten. It was a present to 
the colony by Mrs. Thompson of New York, with a fine bell from 
C. N. Pratt of Chicago. Mrs. Thompson has contributed a library 
of 300 volumes and more will be sent as they are needed. The 
principal buildings are on Main Street, which runs north and south, 
connecting the road from Greeley with the road to Denver, Boulder 
and Erie. A beautiful street called 3rd Avenue runs at right angles 
with Main Street, keeping on the brow^ of the hill which overlooks 
the valley and leads up toward the canyon of the St. Vrain. The 
business lots are 25x125 feet. Adjoining these are the residence 
lots each containing one third of an acre. Next come the five 
acre lots, and then the farming lands. The school is said to be 
very good; about fortA^ pupils are in attendance. Besides stores 
of all kinds and the banking house of Emerson and Buckingham, 
there are three blacksmith shops, a cabinet shop and furniture 
store, three church societies (Methodist, Congregational and 
Presbyterian), a civil engineer's office together with a sign painting 
establishment, butcher shop, two lumber yards and a hotel. Since 
the colony has been located last winter, ten miles of fence has been 
built, around the wheat and other crops being raised [by] the 
Colon}^ Trustees. The fence is red cedar with heavy posts, and 
round poles nailed on with spikes. It cost $1.45 per rod. The 
poles and posts w^ere cut in the mountains and delivered to the 
colony for 15 cents each. Three poles to each panel are considered 
sufficient to turn stock. The total number of acres which the 
colonists are cultivating is 1,500. There are 28 miles of irrigating 
canals. The main canal heads in the St. Vrain Canyon, in the 



314 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



mountains, 8 miles above the town. It is 7 miles long and 10x14 
feet. This supplies all the other canals. The ''South Branch'* 
canal is 6 miles long and it runs through the town. There are 
two or three other ditches called main laterals, which supply the 
smaller canals. Beside the ditches built by the colonists, there 
are ten miles of old ones which were bought of the ranchmen. A 
large canal is surveyed to run from the Canyon and water the 
lands lying 15 miles north of the river. Good water power can 
easily be obtained. An artificial lake covering about 4 acres is 
nearly completed, near the north-western part of the town. 
Twenty-two thousand acres of railroad and government land is 
controlled by the colonists, and 28,000 additional acres of govern- 
ment land has been ''filed on". 

The price of membership is $155, for which the colonist re- 
ceives a tract of land of forty, twenty, ten or five acres, according 
to location. In addition the privilege is given to purchase one 
business lot 25x125 and one residence lot 85x125, at prices varying 
from $25 to $50. 

The people seem greatly pleased with Colorado life and much 
activity everywhere prevails. Houses are going up and improve- 
ments being made in different parts of the town. Mr. Garbut, 
the courteous Secretary, has all that he can possibly do, and Judge 
Terry, the hard working President, deserves great credit for the 
faithful and conscientious manner in which he has served the 
colony. 

There is no reason why the enterprise shall not continue to 
prosper. There is plenty of water for mills and irrigation. The 
scenery is unsurpassed and ultimately mines must be opened in 
the neighborhood. It is needless to speak of the people; their 
work are living testimonies, and when one remembers that they 
burned their only liquor saloon which was opened under protest 
a few weeks ago, he certainly would not ask for greater evidence of 
present and future prosperity. 

LONGMONT AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. ^ 
Longmont the town of the Chicago-Colorado Colony has to- 
day as fair prospects of being a success as have any of the colonial 



^Boulder County News, July 1, 1871, p. 1. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



315 



towns in the west at the same age, and its people have shown them- 
selves to be energetic, intelligent and thoroughgoing, taking hold 
with a will of everything that is likely to add to prosperity and 
advancement of the organization to which they belong, they are 
just the class of people that we have needed here, for they come 
not alone to build up a town but a country also. Many of them 
have gone to work opening new farms. Where but a few years 
since no one ever thought of setthng are now to be seen respectable 
farm buildings, fences being built, the sod turned up, and every 
preparation that can be made for putting in a large crop the com- 
ing season. Those who are farming bluff lands this season have 
met with one serious drawback the scarcity of water but this diffi- 
culty will be obviated by the next season. The colony is at work 
building ditches of sufficient capacity to water all their lands be- 
tween the St. Vrains and Little Thompson creeks. They do not 
contemplate taking out any ditches on the South side of the St. 
Vrains this season, but will commence on them early in the 
Spring. The town is being built up very rapidly, at the present 
time there are about seventy houses built, and being built, and 
more will be commenced soon, among those to be built is a Brick 
Block one hundred and twenty-five feet deep and seventy-five feet 
front, the first floor to be used for stores, the second and third for 
a hotel, the probable cost of which will be about $30,000. Messrs. 
Parsons & Bennett are making the brick with which it is to be built, 
as soon as they burn their first kiln the work will be commenced. 

Mrs. Thompson of New York has made a donation to the town 
of a public library and has erected a fine building for its reception. 
She arrived in town a few days since bringing with her the first 
instalment of books and pictures, she has since returned to New 
York taking with her the best wishes of all, to which she is justly 
entitled for the liberal donation she has made towards the im- 
provement of the town. 

Messer. Emerson & Buckingham, in establishing their Bank- 
ing House here, have added very materially to the advantages of 
the place, it is what we have long felt the need of. They are 
thorough gentlemen and good business men, as such we commend 
them to the regards of the people. 

We would say to all persons who contemplate coming west to 



316 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



seek homes in a good locality and healthfull climate come here and 
you will find it; no better can be found than this situated as it is 
in the centre of the best agricultural region in the west, its close 
proximity to the mountains renders the climate mild, pure and ex- 
hihrating, making it a desirable location for those afflicted with 
consumption or bronchial complaints. The water in the streams 
which flow through the colonial lands is supplied by the melting 
snows from the mountain ranges which in its rapid current over 
its rocky bed is kept fresh and pure, and affording plenty of water 
for irrigation and mill privileges. 

As a grazing country it has no equal the grasses with which the 
prairies are covered, which appear void of nutriment are in reality 
of the richest order. Stock of all kinds get their living the yea.T 
round without any care or attention keeping in the best of con- 
dition. Beef fed on these grasses alone is not inferior to the best 
stall fed beef of the eastern states. 

For fuel, we have underlying this whole country, vast fields of 
a superior quality of coal, which at no distant day, will be a con- 
stant source of wealth, and will furnish employment for thousands 
of people. The mountains are covered with dense forests of pine, 
spruce, cedar and hemlock furnishing an unlimited supply of lum- 
ber and fuel. 

To these advantages we m.ight mention many others but it is 
unnecessary come and see for yourselves and you will find it all 
and more than has been represented. — Sentinel. 

LONGMONT CORRESPONDENCE. ^ 

Longmont, July 1, 1871. 
Ed. Denver Tribune: — Longmont has finally succeeded in 
starting a newspaper organ of its own. How long it will live is 
hard to say, but it is something that if well done, will greatly help 
the town. 

The executive committee are waking up to the matter of water 
supply for the town, having appointed a committee, consisting of 
Messrs. Sigley, Moore and Williams, to look into the matter and 
report on the feasibility of its being done. 



Werner Daily Tribune, July 3, 1871, p. 2. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



317 



The farmers round about are stirring themselves and talk of 
organizing an agricultural society, every one in a radius of six or 
seven miles being strongly in favor of it. Should they succeed, 
it is their intention to build fair grounds here and have the first 
exhibition this fall. 

Mr. Sigley is putting up a building for a harness shop, carriage 
trimming, etc. Judge Terry is putting up a nice little office for 
his lumber yard. It is two stories high; the upper part is to be the 
SentineVs quarters. Messrs. Burnett & Sears are hard at work 
building a store for groceries, and intend bringing a fine stock 
from Chicago. Mr. D. H. Howes goes to Boston next week for a 
stock of dry goods, ready made clothing, boots and shoes, hats and 
caps, etc. He is a thorough business man and knows just what to 
buy. Fourth avenue is being laid out, and w411 soon be one of the 
finest streets in town. Everything is moving about as usual. We 
have had one fine shower this week, which makes crops look better. 
Arrivals are not very numerous, owing probably to the lateness of 
the season. As soon as fall commences we expect a large influx. 

Vernon. 



OUR LONGMONT LETTER. ^ 
{From our regular correspondent.) 

Longmont, July 2, 1871. 

Editor News: From Denver, by rail to the terminus of the 
Boulder Valley Railroad, at Erie, is distant about thirty-three 
miles. A comfortable car serves to convey passengers to and fro 
between the two places. Four-horse hacks are in waiting at the 
depot, on the arrival of the daily train, so that passengers may go 
on, without delay, to Boulder City, or Burlington and Longmont. 

The train leaves the Denver depot at 9 o'clock a. m., runs 
over to Erie, usually, in about an hour and a half. The hack will 
then take passengers seven miles, to Burlington, or eight miles to 
Longmont, in time for dinner. A run up to Boulder City requires 
more time, for the distance is twelve miles, but one naturally wants 
to linger on the latter route The broad valley of the Boulder 
rivets his attention. This entire valley presents one panoramic 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, July 4, 1871, p. 1. 



318 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



scene of emerald beauty. Its fields of waving grain, its flowers and 
grasses, its beautiful groves, its luxuriant gardens, its flocks and 
herds, the ingenious system of irrigation, the good taste and re- 
finement that characterize the inhabitants, and finally what nature 
has done, and what the people are doing for themselves, renders 
this valley one of the most attractive rural scenes that bedeck the 
foot hills of the Rocky mountains. 

At Longmont I found a cluster of people bustling away with 
energy and determination. Faith and hope seemed to be upper- 
most with them, and their disposition is to thoroughly prosecute, 
to a successful issue, the work they have undertaken. For what 
they have already accomplished, more than a fair share of credit 
is justly due them. They have erected some seventy-five buildings 
of every kind. Many of them are good, substantial structures, and 
would do credit to many older places that I know of. 

Judge Terry's house, which stands on the hill, is certainly a 
model of architectural beauty and convenience. The banking 
house of Messrs. Emerson & Buckingham is well arranged, con- 
venient, and everyway suited to the present requirements. The 
colony building is a large two-story unpainted wooden structure, 
something after the style of the original ''Hotel de Comfort" at 
Greeley. The colony's headquarters are in the front end of the 
lower story, the rest is occupied by families. A snug little post- 
office building has been erected, and Mr. Beckwith, the postmaster, 
has just moved in. The office building for the Longmont Sentinel 
will soon be completed. Mr. Hall, one of the editors, informs me 
that it is their intention to be well installed in their new office and 
be issuing their paper within ten or fifteen days. The colony's 
civil engineer, Mr. Richard Fawcett, has a very pleasant office, 
and is well supplied by books and charts. His was the first build- 
ing erected by the colony, consequently it ought to stand for a 
score of years to show what two decades may accomplish here. 
There are many other buildings and business houses equally as 
creditable as those I have mentioned, such as hardware, furniture, 
grocery, dry goods and other stores. Streeter & Turrell will soon 
move their splendid stock of drugs and notions from Burlington 
to this place, where they are about to erect a large brick building 
to contain them. A brick yard is already in operation, and old 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



319 



brickmakers say that the clay is very good for brick purposes. 
The hbrary and Hbrary building here is a very creditable enterprise, 
and I trust it will ever remain a permanent monument to the name 
and memory of the worthy donor, Mrs. Thompson, of New York, 
who so generously contributed the money with which to construct 
the building, and furnished besides a library of choice books. 

The beginning is a fair criterion of this colony's future growth 
and prosperity; their success is as certain as the sun in heaven. 
Waters are already flowing through every part of the little town 
they have founded, and quite over their agricultural acres. They 
are a wide-awake, intelligent, and industrious class of people, and 
if they are united and pull together like a true band of brothers; 
if they don't all attempt to live in town and get rich off of each 
other; if they do not limit their stock-growers and tillers of the 
soil too much; but make a proper use of the advantages, of soil 
and climate, of water and coal, and the grazing that surrounds 
them, they will stand on a level with other flourishing colonies, 
that have pitched and are pitching their tents on the western 
border of the great plains. 

Burlington, one mile south of here, still holds her own, not- 
withstanding the near approach to Longmont. 

The next important Longmont enterprise is to be a hotel. If 
is to be a brick building of good size, and completed at an early 
day. As it now is, BurUngton monopolizes the hotel business for 
all this scope of country. They, however, do remarkably well, and 
deserve more credit than they get. Rev. Van Valkenburg will 
soon have completed a good hotel at Erie, which will be a satis- 
faction to all who travel by that route Erie has grown to be quite 
a little burg. They have an extensive colliery, a good stone depot, 
two or three boarding houses, one good store with postoffice in 
connexion, three saloons, etc., etc., and the people are determined 
that no desperadoes shall abide there. 

X. 



320 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



LONGMONT MATTERS. ^ 
The progress of the Chicago-Colorado Colony — Membership in- 
creasing, notwithstanding adverse criticism — The advantages of 
the country — Remarkable inducements. 

{Correspondence of the News.) 

Longmont, July 25, 1871. 

"It gives us backbone," said one of the officers of our colony, 
the other day, as opposition to certain men and measures was told 
him; and that is so. It is a sickly plant that grows under the over- 
shadowing rock. Storms and tempests are necessary to ensure 
the stability of the monarch of the forest, and so every enterprise 
(especially if it be something new) finds opposing influences raised 
against it. Men love to criticise, delight in finding fault, and 
many will go further out of their way to kick a fellow mortal than 
they will to give him a friendly lift. 

And still we live — live and prosper. Our numbers not only 
increase day by day, and improvements are being constantly made, 
but what is more, we feel that we are becoming rooted and ground- 
ed. Institutions that give permanency to our enterprise are being 
established. Churches are organized, and pastors are coming 
among us. Schools are in session, and our busy streets are en- 
livened by the merry voices of school children. Workshops, stores, 
and various places of business, give our young town the appearance 
of thrift and healthy growth. The hillsides that were, four months 
ago, sere and barren, and had never yielded aught but the sparse 
grasses of the plains and the everpresent cactus, are now covered 
with verdure, and teeming with crops of grain not surpassed in 
the country. To be sure, this change has been brought about by 
labor. Water, that indispensible article, has been led from its 
wonted course, and made to follow along the sides of the high lands 
and thence disperse its treasures over the plain. Fences have been 
erected, and other necessary work done to accomplish this great 
change. And yet little has been the labor compared to that ex- 
pended on the millions of acres now under cultivation in the states. 
The New England farmer has had to remove the rocks, grub out 
the bush, build his walls, and gets, after years of trial, a scanty 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, July 27, 1871, p. 1. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



321 



return. The farmer of the middle states has toiled hard for many 
long years to remove the immense forests and get his lands ready 
to give a return; but here, upon these plains, that at first strike 
the observer as nearly worthless, just a little water changes the 
whole face of things. To be sure, we must plow, and sow, and 
fence, and where can you dispense with these? They can each 
and all of them be done at as little expense here as in the older 
states, and as for irrigation, (that great bugbear that frightens so 
many), it costs far less than drainage in many of the eastern states, 
and by it we secure what cannot be done under any other system 
of husbandry — a certain crop. 

We have now just about five hundred persons in our colony — 
certainly a growth not to be ashamed of, to be made in four months. 
Nine-tenths of these intend to remain, mean business, and are ac- 
tively engaged in profitable pursuits. Such are satisfied. Scores 
have come here partially or wholly on account of their failing 
health, and usually they are entirely or partially restored. Such 
need no persuasion to keep them. Some have come to make money 
by investment and are doing it. A few have come here without 
aim, and of course, here as elsewhere, are useless. After carefully 
looking the ground all over and having been conversant with every 
movement of the enterprise from the first, I am prepared to say 
of it confidently, *'it is a success." 

a colonist. 

[Public and Private Enterprise at Longmont.] 
OUT IN THE COUNTRY.! 
Somebody, whose name is not of the slightest consequence, 
told us that ''the only thing that keeps Longmont up, is the ambi- 
tion of its leading men." While we don't agree there, we answer, 
that the best recommendation a town can have is that its citizens 
are ambitious for its prosperity; and from a single day spent in 
Longmont we should say that everything bore evidence of the fact 
that such are its people. Where a year ago the prairie dog barked, 
and we chased the antelope, stands a town, which for its ideas of 
what constitutes real prosperity and the happiness of its people, 
equals any of our eastern cities, with the addition of having its 



^Boulder County News, August 5, 1871, p. 2. 



322 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



theories quickened into action by that energy which sends people 
to the west to seek homes. We find them engaged in improve- 
ments which are generally supposed to be the result of a slow 
growth and urgent demand, chief among which is one to supply 
the town with water works. 

Commencing five miles above town, they propose to lay pipes, 
conducting water from the St. Vrain to the highest point of land 
in town, from which it will be distributed. The head, it is said, 
will be sufficient to convey water to the second story of any house 
in town. The estimated cost is about $2500, most of which has 
been already secured by subscription. They are just finishing a 
public well, located in a central position, which is also a gift by 
subscription. With its irrigating ditches, its wells, and its water 
works, supplied by the clear, pure water of St. Vrain, Longmont 
is likely to be the best watered town in Colorado. 

Their liberality, however, does not stop here. A Methodist 
church is to be built, at a cost of S4,000, and the subscription list 
already foots up over half of the amount. 

Private enterprise keeps pace with pubhc. Messrs. Phillips, 
Hall, Kellogg, and Trumbull are finishing a two story block 80 feet 
front and 50 deep. Two rooms upon the ground floor, 20 feet in 
width extending the depth of the house, are to be used for store 
rooms, and the balance of the building for a hotel. 

Messrs. Streeter & Turrell, H. Manners, and W. J. Atwood 
are about commencing a two story brick block 75 feet front and 
80 feet deep, the ground floor of which is to be used for stores, and 
the second story for a masonic hall and for offices. Its roof is to 
be of iron, and the intention is to make it entirely fire proof. 

Many other buildings are being constructed, and other im- 
provements were noticed which space forbids the mention they 
deserve. We must, however, notice their interest in matters of 
education. Their school, which closes this week, under the charge 
of Mr. B. L. Carr, is one which might deservedly, by many of our 
teachers, be taken as a model. They propose to open again about 
the middle of September, and, we are told, will spare neither ex- 
pense nor pains to make their school all that it should be. 

We conversed with a number of the colonists, and found but 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



323 



two who were dissatisfied with the country, and they, as remarked 
by Judge Terry, recommended it by saying "the country is good 
enough, but it ain't as good as the Hars said it was." 

A CARD.i 

Chicago Colorado Colony, 
August 9th, 187L 
The President of the Colony — Judge Seth Terry — having al- 
lowed the north branch of the Pleasant Valley Ditch, (of the above 
mentioned colony) to be filled with water previous to my accept- 
ance of it, and against my wishes as engineer of the Colony — as it 
was not complete according to specifications — I hereby inform the 
public, that in duty to the colonists and myself, I do not hold my- 
self responsible in any way for this action in the matter. 

Richard Fawcett, C. E. 

[Trouble Over Land Titles.] 
— ^We have received a letter from our special correspondent 
at Longmont, which, for want of space as we go to press, we are 
unable to publish. From it we learn that last Monday Judge 
Terry was severely, and perhaps fatally injured, by being struck 
upon the head and shoulder with the windlass lever of the colony 
well. The difficulty among the colonists regarding land titles is 
about to be settled. Judge Terry, president of the colony, and 
Mr. Barns, vice-president, have resigned. 

[Good Crops in Northern Colorado.] 
LETTER FROM BURLINGTON.^ 
{From our traveling correspondent.) 

BurUngton, August 20, 1871. 
Editor News: In Boulder and Larimer counties the harvest 
is yielding beyond our most sanguine expectations. Small grain 
is mostly cut, but two-thirds of it stands in the shock. I have had 
pointed out to me several wheat fields that will yield, in the esti- 
mation of good judges, from forty to fifty bushels per acre. Oats 
in many places are very heavy; and near Boulder City there are 

^Boulder County News, August 19, 1871, p. 3. 
Moulder County Newg, August 19, 1871, p. 3. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, August 22, 1871, p. 1. 



324 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



some fields of corn that will yield sixty bushels per acre. I con- 
versed yesterday with a gentleman from Big Thompson, who in- 
forms me the crops on that stream will far exceed any previous 
harvest. The potato yield will be very large. Along the Cache- 
la-Poudre crops are much better than the general average of pre- 
vious years. Boulder, Left Hand, St. Vrain, Big Thompson and 
Cache-la-Poudre valleys, will well nigh supply the entire territory 
with wheat, oats, and potatoes. There will be more and better 
corn than any one season ever produced before in northern Colo- 
rado. The gardens are looking well, and are heavily laden with 
their peculiar kind. The hay crop will be about like the past 
seasons. I find on all the streams where there has been no lack 
of water, and a proper system of irrigation has been applied, crops 
are heavy, and vegetation looks up in luxurious magnificence. 
The northern counties are par excellent the agricultural counties 
of Colorado. And I think I am not mistaken when I say they are 
getting more good horses and cattle out this way than in any other 
part of Colorado. Some of the southern counties will out-number 
them, but the average grade will not compare. I shall not be able 
to give the hay and grain statistics until harvest is over, and the 
threshing well-nigh completed. 

Politics are below par, and the harvest, which is of paramount 
importance at present, has absorbed almost all other interests. 
At Longmont improvements continue, and affairs are moving on, 
not at a rapid rate, but at such a rate as characterizes a wholesome 
degree of prosperity. The new hotel will be ready for guests in 
about fifteen days. It is 50x80, two stories, with kitchen 20x30. 
It is built chiefly of Chicago lumber, and is to be finished and fur- 
nished in good style. When completed it will certainly be a val- 
uable acquisition to the place. 

Burlington keeps pace at about her usual gait. I don't see 
but that her trade, prestige and power, is as great as before the 
proximity of her rival neighbor. The interests of the two places 
are identical and there ought to be no discord. If there are a few 
uncongenial spirits, the genial ones might let fall a few drops of 
leaven, and perhaps it would leaven the whole lump. At the 
Burlington house I am cosily located. The host and hostess are 
very kind, and I am well fed and lodged. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



325 



The days are intenseh^ hot, and so oppressive is the atmosphere, 
and the dust, musquitoes, and house-fles are so pusillanimously 
fond of me, that I can't help but pine for the snowy range. We are 
on the last half of August, and for the thermometer to climb up 
to a hundred on the shady side, and stand there for three or four 
hours during the middle of the day, for a week or two at a time, 
with one's eyes full of sand, and a milhon musquitoes sapping his 
life-blood, and forty thousand house-flies tormenting the rest of 
the life out of him, might be fun for a Hottentot, but as for me, 
with the mountains not far off, it comes a little too near filling the 
orthodox description of the condition of Dives after his demise. 

At Erie Mr. Vanvalkenburg has completed a fine hotel, where 
guests will receive good accommodations. The town is otherwise 
undergoing quite an improvement, and peace, harmom^ and pros- 
perity prevails. Lawlessness has fled from the place, and the 
people rejoice in good order. H. 



NORTHERN COLORADO AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. ^ 
We learn from the Longmont Press that the stockholders in 
this society recently met at Burlington and resolved to have a 
Fair this fall. For the benefit of those who are not posted in re- 
gard to this new institution, the Press gives the following in- 
formation : 

''At a meeting of the people held in July last, a committee 
consisting of John H. Wells, H. C. Woodworth, Seth Terry, M. S. 
Molier, and Alfred Cushman, was appointed to perfect an organiza- 
tion of an Agricultural Society, to be located near Longmont. 
That committee organized under the name of the Northern Colorado 
Agricultural Society. A certificate of incorporation was filed and 
officers chosen. By-laws were adopted, an additional Board of 
Directors, consisting of Joseph Mason, A. Loomis, W. R. Blore, 
Thos. F. Godding, Chas. Baldwin, and A. D. Gifford, was elected. 
Between three and four thousand dollars have already been sub- 
scribed to the stock and much more promised. The Society has 
secured 80 acres of land, one mile and a half southwest from 
Burlington." 



^Boulder County News, September 8, 1871, p. 2. 



326 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Newspaper in Longmont.] 

— ^The first number of the Colorado Press, once the Longmont 
Sentinel, was issued last week. Mr. Low has retired from the 
''chair", and the name of Elmer F. Beckwith appears at the head 
as proprietor. Success and long life to the Press. 



LONGMONT ITEMS.^ 

From the Longmont Press. 

The Rev. Mr. Millington is erecting the first brick building in 
Longmont. 

The prospect is good for the early construction of a grist mill. 

Rev. P. Peterson has opened a millinery store. 

Brick of nice quality are made at the brick yard. They are 
said to be the best in the Territory. 

Mr. Stokes is erecting a $5,000 dwelHng house on Fourth 
Avenue. 

J. R. RannelFs has opened a meat and vegetable market. 

The Good Templar's Lodge, is in a flourishing condition. 

The contract for the construction of the ditch, which is to 
bring pure water from the St. Vrain into town, has been let to 
J. M. Mumford. The head of this ditch is four miles above 
Longmont. 

The bridge between Longmont and Burhngton is to have a 
new floor. 

The Methodists have taken steps towards the building of a 
church. 

The Excelsior ditch is to be twenty miles in length, 12 feet 
wide on the bottom, two feet deep at the sides and three feet in 
the middle. Messrs. Mead, Aetzel, E. J. Coffman, Fred Beckwith, 
and Capt. WilHams, made pledges to construct a mile each; D. 
Baumert and D. S. Coffman pledged three miles each, and J. M. 
Mumford pledged himself for nine miles. 



^Boulder County Newt, September 8, 1871, p. 3. 
^Botdder County News, September 8, 1871, p. 3. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



327 



[Colony Ditch.] 
^The Colorado Press of Longmont says the colony ditch will 
be twenty miles long, eighteen feet wide at top and twelve at 
bottom, and will have an average depth of three feet. Its cost 
will hardly fall short of $25,000, and it is designed to irrigate ten 
thousand acres. 



HOW RAISING POTATOES PAYS.^ 
Says the Longmont Press: The Big Thompson country is 
proverbially a great country for potatoes. Mr. Frank Guard 
planted 30 acres to the crop last spring, and has raised therefrom 
8,000 bushels. They are mostly of the White Kidney variety, and 
many of them for size beat any of the astonishing things we have 
heard of Colorado potatoes before. Our informant states that he 
saw ten potatoes which weighed 60 pounds. Think of it, ten 
potatoes making a bushel! Mr. Guard thinks the cost of raising 
the crop amounted to about $2,000. He expects to sell the pota- 
toes at an average of $1 per bushel, or the entire crop for $8,000, 
a clear profit of $6,000 from 30 acres, or $200 per acre. Our colon- 
ists who think a farm of less than 160 acres will not do for them, 
will make a note of Mr. Guard's success on less than a quarter of 
that amount, and we think will come to the conclusion that 20 or 
40 acres in Colorado are better than four times that amount in 
the States. 



ONE YEAR OLD, AND PROSPEROUS.^ 
The Chicago, Colorado colony has passed the first mile post 
on its road to successful establishment, and is now rejoicing over 
its healthy growth and its bright prospects. The anniversary of 
the organization of this colony occurred on Wednesday of the 
present week, Nouember 22, and upon this subject the Longmont 
Press jubilates as follows: 

One year ago to-day, the Chicago, Colorado colony was or- 
ganized in Farwell hall, Chicago. Starting out as a Chicago en- 
terprise, the most extravagant expectations were indulged in re- 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, November 2, 1871, p. 1. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, November 3, 1871, p. 2. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, November 24, 1871, p. 1. 



328 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



gard to the growth and prosperity of our colony. The marvelous 
success that attended every project under the auspices of Chicago 
surely augured a glorious future for Longmont. It is not strange 
with such high raised hopes, that some should grumble that they 
are not all realized in a nine-month. But when we consider what 
has been done in the short space of three quarters of a year we 
may well wonder at our surprising growth. The presence of one 
hundred buildings, of which nearly all are commodious and of 
tasteful architecture, where there were but two in March, and 
five hundred people who have come to stay and make homes here 
are facts to which our people can point with satisfaction, as the 
history we have made in less than one year. 

While the present and prospective interests of the town are 
so bright, the improvement and settlement of the colony farming 
lands have not been neglected. The colony has now about twenty 
miles of irrigating ditches, and has in process of construction 
twenty miles more. Nearly every colonist is the owner of a tract 
of land varying from five to forty acres, and in most cases it is 
the intention to put the land into crops in the spring. The indi- 
cations are that at least one hundred families, friends of those now 
here, will join the colony next season. We predict that the colony 
will double its present inhabitants in 1872. 

LONGMONT. 1 
The Press indulges in congratulations to the Longmonters over 
the success which has attended their first year's experimenting in 
Colorado. It says: "The presence of one hundred buildings, of 
which nearly all are commodious and of tasteful architecture, where 
there were but two in March, and five hundred people who have 
come to stay and make homes here, are facts to which our people 
can point to with satisfaction. The colony has now about 20 miles 
of irrigating ditches, and has in process of construction 20 miles 
more. Nearly every colonist is the owner of a tract of land varying 
from five to forty acres, and in most cases it is the intention to put 
the land into crops in the spring. Occasionally some colonist gets 
homesick and returns to the East, but such cases are rare. On the 
contrary most of them are ardent believers in Colorado, and are 



Wenver Daily Tribune, November 24, 1871, p. 4. 



CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY 



329 



expecting friends to join them from the East in the spring. The 
indications are that at least one hundred famihes, friends of those 
now here, will join the colony early next season." 



[St. Vrain Farmer's Club.] 
— ^The ''St. Vrain Farmer's Club," was organized at Long- 
mont, Jan. 8th, by the election of Mr. George F. Davis as Presi- 
dent, Mr. D. S. Coffman, Secretary, and Mr. C. G. Bestley, 
Treasurer. Any person of good moral character may become a 
member by the payment of one dollar, and an annual fee of one 
dollar. The object of the society, is to improve the members in 
agriculture and kindred pursuits. 



[Satire on Colony Advertising.] 
2A member of our colony, now in the East, settling up his 
business, that he may join us, inspired with the thought of our 
beautiful and fertile Territory, thus ''gushes forth" into melody: 
"I hear thee speak of a better land, 

Thou callest its children a hunky band, 

Is it where the glorious orb of day 

Rises on scenes that are Summer, for aye? 

Where fruits are e're ripe and grass is e're green? 

Where gay tinted flowers forever are seen? 

Where Summer is ever and Winter is not? 

Now tell me, my honey, is that air the spot? 
Not much, Mary Ann. 
"Is it where the cabbages grow so fast, 

That they burst with a noise like the thunder's blast? 

Is it where through the rich, deep, mellow soil 

The beets grow down as if boring for oil? 

Is it where the turnips are hard to beat, 

And cattle grow fat on nothing to eat? 

Is it where each irrigating sluice. 

Is fed by watermelon juice? 

Is it where the taters of monstrous size 

iBoulder County News, January 19, 1782, p. 3. 

2Poem by J. B. Thompson published in the Longmont Press. From J. B. Thompson's Scrap Book. 



330 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Sport like Argus their hundred eyes? 
Is it where the beautiful speckled trout 
Jump into the pan with their insides out? 
Where they fish themselves, nor wait to be hooked, 
But come to the table ready cooked? 
"Is it where everything grows to such monstrous size, 
That the biggest stories appear like lies? 
Tell me, in short, I would like to know, 
Is this wondrous land called COLORADO? 
You're right old boy, it is." 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



DOCUMENTS 



^Certificate of Organization Whereas. In pursuance of the 

of provisions of Chapter Eighteen of 

St Louis Western Colony the Revised Statutes of Colorado 
Filed and the amendments thereto, ap- 

for record at 6 oclock P. M. proved February 11th 1870, We 
March 15th 1871 the undersigned Andrew C. Todd, 

W. J. Kram Recorder James H. Pinkerton, John M. 

McCutcheon, Calvin F. Hartman, 
Robert McKelvey and Cotton C. Bradbury, desire to associate 
ourselves for the purpose of forming an Incorporate Company 
having for its object the aiding, encouraging and inducing immi- 
gration to the Territory of Colorado and for the purpose of pur- 
chasing, acquiring, holding, possessing, selling, conveying and dis- 
posing of lands town lots and other property whether real, personal 
or mixed, and for the purpose of constructing Wagon Roads and 
Bridges, digging and maintaining Ditches, building Academies 
and School Houses and maintaining a system of public instruction 
and encouraging Agriculture and other industrial pursuits. There- 
fore. 

We Do Hereby Certify 
First That the corporate name of the said Company shall be the 
St Louis Western Colony. That the said Company is formed for 
the following purposes., to wit: 

1st For the purpose of buying, acquiring and conveying Real 
Estate. 

2nd For the purpose of constructing Wagon Roads and Bridges. 
3rd. For the purpose of constructing and maintaining Ditches. 
4th For the purpose of establishing and maintaining Academies 
and Schools for the education of Youth. 

5th For the purpose of founding and maintaining a free Library, 
reading room and lyceum. 

6th. For the purpose of aiding, encouraging and inducing immi- 
gration to the Territory of Colorado. 

iWeld County Deed Records, II, pp. 233-235. 

333 



334 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



7th For the purpose of providing maintaining and keeping in 
repair a place or places for the burial of the dead. 
Second. The amount of the Capital Stock of said Company shall 
be Twenty Thousand ($20,000) Dollars to be divided into shares 
[pg 234] of Five Dollars each. 

Third The Term of the exist an ce of said Company shall be for 
Twenty years. 

Fourth The affairs of said Corporation shall be managed by six 
Trustees and the following named persons shall be such Trustees 
for the first year and until their successors shall be elected, to-wit : 
Andrew C. Todd, James H. Pinkerton, John M. McCutcheon, 
Calvin F. Hartman, Robert R. McKelvey, and Colton C. Brad- 
bury. 

Fifth The principal business of said Company shall be carried on 
in the Town of Evans Weld County Territory of Colorado, with 
the right to carry on a part of its business outside of said Territory. 
Sixth The Trustees of said Company shall have power to make 
such prudential by-laws as they may deem proper for the manage- 
ment and disposition of the stock and business affairs of said Com- 
pany, for prescribing the duties of officers, agents, artificers and 
persons that may be employed and for the appointment of all 
Officers and Agents for carrying on all business within the objects 
and purposes of said Company. 

Seventh The said Company proposes to take the Water for their 
said Ditches from the Big Thompson, South Platte River and 
Cachelapoudre River as follows, to-wit: 1st from the North side 
of Big Thompson commencing at a point at or near the South East 
corner of Section Thirty one Township 5 north of Range 66 West, 
to be carried thence at a grade not to exceed five feet fall to the mile, 
easterly to a point on the South Platte River below Evans in the 
County of Weld and Territory of Colorado. 3rd From the South 
side of the South Platte River at or near the mouth of Big Thomp- 
son, to be carried thence at a grade not to exceed five feet fall to 
the mile, to a point on South Platte River below Evans. 4th from 
the south side of the Cachelapoudre at a point at or near the west 
line of Section 36 Township 6 North of Range 67 West, to be car- 
ried thence at a grade not to exceed five feet fall to the mile, to the 
South Platte River. And 5th From the North side of Big 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



335 



Thompson at a point near its mouth to be carried thence at a 
grade not to exceed five feet fall to the mile northerly on the most 
convenient and practicable line to the Platte River or Cachela- 
poudre, with such branches, races, acqueducts, flumes and em- 
bankments as shall be necessary or convenient for the construction 
[pg 235] maintenance and use of said ditches 
Eighth The water in said Ditches to be used and applied for irri- 
gation manufacturing and other purposes. 

In Witness Whereof. We have hereunto set our hands and 
seals at Evans in the Territory of Colorado this 15th day of March 
in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and seventy 
one 

Signed Sealed and Delivered Andrew C. Todd 

in Presence of W J Kram James H. Pinkerton 

John M. McCutcheon 
Calvin F. Hartman 
Rober R McKelvey 
Colton C. Bradbury 

^Article of Agreement This Agreement made and en- 

From tered into, on the fifteenth day of 

Denver Land Ass March in the 3^ear of our Lord one 

To A. C. Todd Et al thousand eight hundred and sev- 
Filed enty one, by and between the 

for record at 11 oclock ''Denver Land Association" party 

A. M. Mar 17th 1871 of the first part, and A. C. Todd 

W J. Kram and C. F. Hartman, acting on be- 

Recorder half of themselves, and those as- 
ciated with them under the name 
and style of the ''St Louis Western Colony" party of the second part, 
[pg 399] Witnesseth that for and in consideration of the covenants 
and agreements hereinafter stated to be performed and kept by 
the parties hereto, and of the sum of one dollar in hand paid by the 
said party of the first part to the said party of the second part ; the 
receipt whereof is hereby confessed and acknowledged, the "Denver 
Land Association" agree to donate and convey to the said party of 
the second part, an undivided two thirds interest in all unsold lots 
belonging to the said party of the first part, situated in the Town 

iWeld County Mortgage Record, No. I, pp. 398-400. 



336 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



of Evans, County of Weld and Territory of Colorado, in considera- 
tion for which the said party of the second part agree to sell the 
whole of said lots and to pay to the said party of the first part, for 
their remaining one third interest, one third of all the moneys 
thereafter received from the sale of said lots: said lots to be ap- 
praised by a joint committee of equal numbers to be selected by 
the parties hereto. And such appraisement to be made at least 
once a year or oftener, if deemed necessaiy, said lots to be sold at 
appraisement value. 

It is further agreed by and between the parties hereto, that 
the said party of the second part is to purchase of the said party 
of the first part, sixteen hundred acres of land as described in a 
proposition as heretofore submitted to the said party of the second 
part, by Walter S. Cheesman Esqr on behalf of and for the said 
party of the first part, adjoining the said Town of Evans, and pay 
for the same the sum of twelve thousand dollars, one thousand dol- 
lars of which sum is to be paid down in cash, and the remainder in 
ninety days from the date of said purchase, and it is expressh^ un- 
derstood that in case the said party of the second part shall make 
default in the pa3'ment of said balance at the maturity thereof: 
that the one thousand dollars to be paid in cash as aforesaid shall 
be forfeited to the said party of the first part, as a penalty for the 
non fulfillment of the agreement in the payment of said balance 
at the maturity thereof as aforesaid. 

It is further agreed by and between the said parties hereto, 
that the said party of the second part is to locate one hundred 
heads of families, in and around the said Town of Evans, County 
of Weld and Territory of Colorado, within one year from the date 
of location, and to construct a Ditch for irrigating said Town of 
Evans, and adjoining lands, said ditches to be constructed at the 
expense of the said party of the second part, and the said Town of 
Evans to have the use of the water from said ditch free from all 
expense or charge. 

It is further agreed and understood that the said party of the 
second part are to expend the proceeds derived from the sale of 
their two thirds interest in the said lots [pg 400] in Evans, in the 
improvement of said Town of Evans and for its benefit. 

It is understood that the said party of the second part are not 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



337 



compelled to furnish water from their said ditch to parties holding 
lots in said town of Evans prior to this date. And it is further 
agreed that the said party of the first part shall reserve to the use 
of the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company the right 
to such parts of the town site of Evans as may be necessary for 
Railway purposes. 

It is further understood and agreed, that the said party of the 
first part, upon the sale of any of the lots aforesaid, by the said 
party of the second part, will make a good and sufficient deed of 
conveyance to the purchasers thereof for their remaining one third 
interest in said lots. Provided that neither of the parties hereto 
shall have the power to sell their interest in said lots, or any of 
them separately. 

It is further understood that the sixteen hundred acres of 
land mentioned as aforesaid, are as follows, to wit: West half of 
section (30) thirty, section (19) nineteen. Town five (5) north 
(65) sixty five West. Section (25) twenty five. Town five (5) 
North Range (66) sixty six West. 

Witness our hands and seals this the day and 
year above written. 

Andrew C Todd Seal 
C. F. Hartman Seal 
Denver Land Association Seal 
by David H. Moffat Jr Trustee Seal 



This article of agreement, made 
and entered into the 15th day of 
March A. D. 1871 by and between 
Evans and Carr of the first part 
and A. C. Todd and C. F. Hart- 
man acting for themselves and 
their associated with them under 
the name and style of the ''Saint 
Louis Western Colony" of the 
second part. 

Witnesseth. That the said Ev- 
ans and Carr for and in consideration of the covenants hereinafter 



^Article of Agreement 
Between 
Evans and Carr 
and 

St Louis West Colony 
Filed 

for record at 11 oclock A. 
M. Mar 17th 1871 
W. J. Kram 

Recorder 



iWeld County Mortgage Record, No. I, pp. 400-401, 



338 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



mentioned, have agreed and by these presents do agree to with- 
draw from market and hold subject to be purchased, for a period 
of Ninety days, from date hereof, by the said A. C. Todd and 
C. F. Hartman and their associates aforesaid, at the rate of four 
dollars and seventy eight cents per acre, to be made in five annual 
cash payments upon the terms and conditions hereinafter men- 
tioned, the following described Real Estate situate in the Territory 
of Colorado, to wit : All the lands East of the Platte River belonging 
to [pg 401] Evans and Carr and embraced in Township four (4) 
North of Range sixty five (65) West. Township five (5) North of 
Range sixty six (66) West. Township five (5) north of Range 
sixty five (65) West. Township four north of Range sixty seven 
(67) West. The terms and conditions of purchase are to be the 
same as the terms and conditions fixed by the Denver Pacific 
Railway and Telegraph Company in its contracts for the sale of 
its lands. Except as hereinafter modified as to cash payment 
otherwise a copy of which in blank is hereto attached marked ''A." 

The said party of the second part in consideration of the with- 
drawal of the said lands as aforesaid agree to select and purchase 
on the tracts aforesaid, of said lands at least ten thousand acres, 
within ninety days from date hereof, and further agree to pay of 
the first part, the sum of One thousand dollars on delivery hereof 
to be applied in case of purchase as aforesaid, on the first payment 
for said lands, and in case that the said party of the second part 
shall fail to purchase as herein stipulated, then the said one thou- 
sand dollars is to be forfeited to the said party of the first part. 

Witness our hands and seals this 15th day of March A. D. 1871 

Evans & Carr 
by Walter S. Cheeseman Agt 

Andrew C. Todd 

C. F. Hartman 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



339 



PRIVATE C ORRESP ONDENCE 

WILLIAM N. BYERS CORRESPONDENCE^ 
[p. 337] Oct. 21, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 
Chicago, 111. 

Dear Sir : Near Ayres Point in southern Illinois there are 
about 100 families of Covenanters who desire to form a colony to 
locate in Colorado. Two of their number spent most of the sum- 
mer here. Rev. A. C. Todd, Ayres Point, is the representative 
man of the concern. I talked with him considerably and occasion- 
ally send him publications. 

Today Gov. Evans surprised me by introducing Mr Pinkerton 
of Greeley with a proposition for him to go down and work up that 
colony and locate them, we to divide our commissions with him. I 
refused at once saying that I considered the business coming to 
us certainly anyhow and that we have no earnings to spare un- 
necessarily. If you can conveniently do so I wish you would visit 
that place, find Mr Todd and work the matter up. You can do 
more in a day than Pinkerton can in a week. Be ready to talk 
transportation to them. Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager 

[p. 339] Oct. 23, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 

111 Dearborn St. Chicago, 111. 

Dear Sir: Referring to my letter of 21st inst. I desire to add: 
I have since had a long talk with Mr Pinkerton and I conclude 
he may be of much advantage to us. He has lived here for over 
eleven years and his experience would therefore be of great ad- 
vantage in the organization of, and management of a new colony. 
He did not seem much to expect that we would willingly divide our 
commissions but thought he ought to have some compensation. 
The idea of a division of our earnings seems to have been put for- 
ward by Gov. Evans. 

iThe following letters from the letter copy books of William N. Byers, Colorado agent of the National 
Land Company, were placed at our disposal by Mr. Frank S. Byers. All the letters in this group except the 
last one are found in the book "March, 1870— January, 1871." The letter of August 3, 1872, is found in the 
book beginning February 2, 1872, and ending April 8, 1875. 



340 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



I told Mr Pinkerton that we could provide for his transporta- 
tion and compensate him for such services as he may perform for 
us under our direction. With this understanding he agrees to go 
on in two or three [p. 340] weeks and devote his time to the work. 
He was brought up near Ayres Point and is acquainted with all 
the people; is also a member of their church. He says they can 
certainly bring 100 families, and that he can put a working force 
on the ground in time to raise a crop next year. I feel satisfied 
that if he will give his personal efforts to it, and his recompense 
finally depends upon its success, that he can secure a better 
practical success than is the Greeley Colony. The people are all 
farmers. I stipulate also with Mr P. that he shall consult you, 
and that if at any time during his stay there you desire his services 
at Chicago or elsewhere you are to command them. If you could 
meet at Ayres Point it would be very well. I will see that he is 
provided with proper credentials and recommendations. I write 
Col. Lamborn today for passes for him to St. Louis — 

Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager 

[p. 341] Oct. 23, [187] 0. 

Col. Chas. B. Lamborn 

5th & Elm Sts, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dear Sir: I have had some interviews and correspondence 
with the projectors of a colony of 100 or more families to be made 
up and near Ayres Point, IlHnois. There is a man here, Hon. J. H. 
Pinkerton, formerly a citizen of that place, who was suggested to 
me by Gov. Evans as a good man to organize and lead it. Yes- 
terday I had a long talk with him, and the result was an agreement 
upon his part that if we will provide for his transportation and 
compensate him for such services as he may perform under our 
directions, he will in two or three weeks go east and give his in- 
fluence and personal efforts to the matter. He has lived here, 
engaged in farming, for over eleven years; has been in the legis- 
[p. 342] lature, and is a man whose appearance and manner begets 
confidence. He will carry the best of endorsements. He assures 
me that he can get his pioneer force on the ground in time to make 
a crop next year. Mr. P. is at present one of the Trustees of the 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



341 



Greeley Colony and I have no doubt will be highly endorsed by the 
officers of that organization. Please send me a pass to carry him 
to St. Louis where he must stop to arrange all details with you. 
I give full particulars to Col. Pratt and advise Col. Loomis of 
the plan. I tell Col. P. that I think he may find him useful in 
working up other colonies, and I have an agreement with Mr 
Pinkerton that he must help us in such cases when required. 

Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager. 

[Letter to Col. John S. Loomis. N. Y. Oct. 23d. to same effect, 
[p. 343] adding no new items]. 



[p. 357] Nov. 3, [187] 0. 

Mr J. H. Pinkerton 
Greeley, Col. 

Dear Sir: Col. Pratt, our General Agent, desires to knov/ 
if you can meet him at St. Louis on the 10th inst. Says if you 
can he will go with you to Ayer's Point. 

I have not yet received your pass but expect it daily. I sup- 
pose Col. P. can go with you to A. P. at almost any time. Please 
answer at once. Yours Truly; Wm. N. Bj^ers, 

Gen. Manager. 

[p. 362] Nov. 7, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 
Gen. Agt. N. L. Co. 
St Louis, Mo. 

Dear Sir: Immediately upon receipt of your letter of 29th 
ult., I dropped a fine to Mr Pinkerton asking if he could meet you 
in St. Louis on the 10th. He was away from home and I received 
no reply until last night. In it he says that he cannot leave home 
before the 16th inst., but will go to Chicago and see you before 
visiting Ayer's Point. He will depend upon having a full under- 
standing with you before making any further progress in the colony 
enterprise. 

I had hoped to leave for St Louis today but am very busy and 
would have to return at once, so w^ll wait until later and then try 



342 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



to spend some time with you. Give me probable date of your 
Chicago meeting. Would like to be there. 

Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager. 

[pp. 363-364. Letter to Col. C, B. Lamborn, St. Louis, Mo. Loomis 
and Pratt have ''approved the Pinkerton project"] 



[p. 368] Nov. 8, [187] 0. 

Col. Chas. B. Lamborn 
Secy & Treas. Nat'l L. Co. 
5th & Elm sts. St. Louis Mo. 

Dear Sir: Your favor of 2nd inst. with passes for J. H. 
Pinkerton as therein described is at hand. 

I have given Mr Pinkerton to understand that he need not 
expect even commissions from us. I agreed only to furnish him 
transportation, and if he performs any labor for us that we would 
have to employ some one else to perform otherwise, then to pay 
him what in the other case it would have cost us. I thought he 
might be of use in forwarding colonists or their goods. 

Mr Pinkerton looks for his compensation to such profits as 
he can make off his colonists for services performed them, and to 
speculations upon town lots. The Denver Land Asso- [p. 369] 
ciation design buying the town site and laying off the colony town. 
They then propose to give to the colonists one half the lots and 
give Mr Pinkerton the agency to sell the other half. From this, 
mainly, he expects to make his money. The first proposition to 
me upon the subject was b}^ Gov. Evans in the presence of Pink- 
erton and it was that we divide our commissions with Pinkerton 
upon such lands as he might sell the colony — no figures for the 
division named. I flatly refused, saying that I considered the 
sale virtually secured, and that if the Ayers Point colony did 
not take the land some one else would. The next day I met P. 
and asked him to come to the office where we talked a long while 
and I was surprised to find him very tractable & reasonable. He 
said he did not expect us to be wiUing to divide commissions but he 
wanted to make as good arrangements as he could. Please con- 
sider in all negotiations with him that so far as my assurances to 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



343 



him go, we are not bound to pay him anything but may pay what- 
ever we consider his services worth. 

Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers 

Gen. Manager. 

[p. 372] Nov. 12 [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 

111 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Dear Sir: I am this day in receipt of a letter from Rev. A. C. 
Todd, Ayres Point, 111., saying: 'If that land is still available — 
i. 6., unsold, price &c suiting — you may understand that I will take 
& set immediately to work to organize the colony". This refers to 
about 13,000 acres K. P. land between Platte and Bear creek, 8 
to 20 miles south west of Denver. I write him fully today. If 
you can conveniently do so I think it would be well for you to run 
down to see him. 

Pinkerton was here yesterday. He can't go east for some 
time & may be we need not send him at all. Please answer soon. 

Yours Trul}^ 

Wm N. Byers. 

[p. 373] Nov. 12, [187] 0. 

Rev. A. C. Todd 
Ayers' Point, 111. 

Dear Sir: The appraisement of the K. P. lands was com- 
pleted this week and the report of the appraisers was sent east last 
night for the approval of the Land Commission of that road and 
of the Trustees under the mortgage. Our copy of the lists will 
probably be received earlj^ in December. I have today looked 
over the memorandums of the appraisers and talked with Mr 
Phelps — a practical and careful engineer and surveyor — who made 
the examination of the land. 

I find that we have in the limits of which we talked about 
13,000 acres of land. It is appraised at from $3 to S6 per acre and 
will average about $4. I think I am safe in promising it at that 
price. The government land interspersed [p. 374] will probably 
aggregate 10,000 acres, which, as you are aware, can be secured un- 
der the pre-emption law at S2.50 per acre, or by homestead for five 



344 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



years settlement and nominal fees. Your colonists will doubtless 
be entitled to the benefit of both bounty laws. This body of land 
contains coal, iron, lime, gypsum and the finest quality of building 
stone in great variety. The western portion has more or less 
timber and is adjacent to heavy forests. The Platte on the south 
and east, and Bear Creek on the north furnish the best of water 
power and unlimited in extent. A railway will soon extend all 
along its south eastern border. Mr Phelps agrees with me that 
the larger share of the land can be irrigated from the Platte and 
Bear Creek. The portion [p. 375] that cannot be reached by water 
is the very best of grazing land. The nearest of these lands are 
within eight miles of Denver. 

At the appraised price I consider it a better bargain than we 
gave the Union Colon3^ Terms of sale the usual rule, 1/5 down 
and 1/5 each in two, three, four and five years with interest on the 
deferred payment at the rate of six per cent, per annum. Several 
parties are talking about these lands and a number of colonies are 
projected, therefore I would Uke you to reply at once either de- 
cisively or as to what you think will be the result. About trans- 
portation please address Col. Pratt — address at head of this sheet. 
I write him today. Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager. 

[p. 386] Nov. 16, [187] 0. 

Col. Chas. B. Lamborn 
5th & Elm Sts, St. Louis 

Dear Sir: Mr Pinkerton wants to go east next week. I ask 
him today to await the arrival of Col. Loomis. Am hoping that 
with Col. Pratt's efforts and my own correspondence with the 
Ayres Point people, that it will be unnecessary to send him. I 
have advised Col. P. fully and will try to hold Pinkerton until I 
get his and your reply. My only objection to his going is this; 
the proposed Colony have already a preference for a certain locality 
whilst Pinkerton has set his heart upon taking them to another. 
I fear divided counsels will breed dissention. Would really rather 
have them follow Pinkerton's choice. When will Loomis come? 

Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



345 



[p. 387] Nov. 16, [187] 0. 

Col. C. N. Pratt 
Chicago, 111. 

Dear Sir: I am just in receipt of letter from Mr Pinkerton 
saying that he will be ready to go to Ayres Point next week. If 
anything has transpired to render it unnecessary for him to go 
please write or telegraph me. I write him today saying that I a 
little prefer that he await the arrival of Col. Loomis. 

Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 
Gen. Manager. 



[p. 387] Nov. 16, [187] 0. 

Hon. J. H. Pinkerton 
Greeley, Col. 

Dear Sir: Col. Loomis wrote me on the 7th that he inighi 
delay to attend the convention of Governors at Indianapohs on 
the 24th inst. I presume he has decided to do so. In that case 
he will come on here immediately after — probably arrive about the 
28th. If you can as well as not I would a little prefer that 3^ou 
await his arrival. Answer. Yours Truly, Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager. 



[p. 389] Nov 16 [187] 0 

Col. Chas B. Lamborn 
Secy & Treas Nat'l L. Co. 
5th & Elm sts, St Louis 

Dear Sir: This will introduce to you Col J. H. Pinkerton, 
about whom and his mission I have before written you. He will 
aid us in every way and I am confident will be of the greatest 
assistance in organizing the Ayres Point & perhaps other colonies. 
Please consult him fully and freely. 

Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers 

Gen. Manager 



346 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[p. 390] Nov. 17, [187] 0. 

CoL C. N. Pratt 

Gen. Ag't. N. L. Co. 

Ill Dearborn St. Chicago. 

Dear Sir : Your favor of 13th came last night. Mr Pinkerton 
came up on last evening's train bound to go directly on. I gave 
him a letter to Col. Lamborn, passes to St Louis and he left on the 
9 p. m. train. He will probably be calling upon you about as soon 
as this. 

Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers. 

Gen. Manager 

[p. 451] Jan. 7, [187] 1. 

Rev. A. G. Todd, 
Ayres Point, 111. 

Dear Sir; Your favor of 4th inst. at hand. I do not think the 
Chicago Colony is going onto the land you refer to, but to a verv 
different place. 

I refer your letter to Secretary Lamborn, at Saint Louis, with 
request that he give you passage and freight rates as early as 
possible & provide you the tickets as required. 

Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers, 

Gen. Manager. 

[p. 56] Aug. 3, [1872] 

Col. Chas. B. Lamborn, 
Gen. Mgr. N. Land Co. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Sir; In reply to your letter of 31st ult. I have to report: 

That in the summer of 1870, Rev. A. C. Todd spent some time 
in this part of the country and that I then made his acquaintance. 
I think it was in August he told me that he had some notion of 
getting up a colony and we had considerable talk about it. He had 
fixed his mind upon the tract of land south west of Denver bounded 
by Bear creek, Platte river and the mountains, and it is this that 
was referred to in Mr. Todd's letter of Nov. 7, 1870, and mine of 
Nov. 12, 1870 and Jan. 7, 1871. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



347 



On or about Oct. 21, 1870, Hon. John Evans brought Mr. 
J. H. Pinkerton to me and introduced the subject of the Ay res 
Point colony. He asked if we could not employ Mr P. in working 
it up. I replied that I considered the colony secured to us already, 
if it should be organized, and that no work was necessary except 
such as we (the National Land Company) was then doing and 
prepared to do. Subsequent interviews resulted in the procure- 
ment of passes for Mr. Pinkerton and his going east to work with 
or for the colony [p. 57] as I supposed. These steps are shown in 
the correspondence herewith enclosed. 

Soon after Messrs Pinkerton and Todd arrived in the spring 
of 1871, I discovered that some influence was at work to divert 
the location of the colony from the tract of land above referred 
to, and to the neighborhood of, or at, Evans — 48 miles north of 
Denver on the D. P. Railway. I suspected then and have now no 
doubt, that it was a contingent interest in land, or otherwise, to 
accrue to Pinkerton in case of his success in making the diversion. 
His efforts were successful as the records of the land department 
of the railway company show. 

Meantime the directors of the Denver Pacific Railway Com- 
pany had withdrawn or reserved from market, and thereby taken 
out of the hands of the N. L. Co. as agent, the lands subsequently 
sold to Todd, Pinkerton et al, under the name of "St. Louis- 
Western Colony", upon the claim that the contractors w^ho built 
the road — known as "Evans, Carr & Co.," or "Evans & Carr", 
were entitled to select one hundred thousand (100,000) acres of 
land from the D. P. Railway grant. These lands, and others, had 
been from time to time so withdrawn and [p. 58] thereby the 
National Land Company was prevented from closing the sale. All 
the preliminary work was done by it (the N. L. Co.) and it was 
recognized as the active agent by Gov. Evans in his introduction 
of Mr. Pinkerton and accompanying conversation; by Mr Pinker- 
ton in his correspondence, acceptance of passes etc., and by the 
colony itself in its constitution published about Feby. 1, 1871. 

In addition to the enclosed papers reference is made to the 
letters of Chs. B. Lamborn Nov. 2, 1870, Apr. 5, June 17 & 
Aug. 5, 1871, of which you have letter press copies. I don't know 



348 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



when I will see Todd or Pinkerton. Think the latter will be loth 
to swear to any statement. Yours Truly, 

Wm. N. Byers. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this Third day of August, A. D. 
1872 Charles E. Parker 

Notary Public 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



349 



EXCERPTS FROM NEWSPAPERS 



I. PRE-COLONIAL EVANS 



THE DENVER PACIFIC ^ 

Work at track-laying on the Denver Pacific was resumed 
yesterday morning and it is not likely to be interrupted again until 
the northern half of the line is completed. 

Capt. W. H. Pierce, who has been down to the Platte crossing 
at the embryo town of Evans, has been back and returns there this 
morning. Water is obtained there at a depth of thirty-five feet. 
In connection with the name of this town we may state that each 
President of the Company has, by a vote of the Directory, had a 
station named for him. Hughes, Johnson, Evans and Pierce are 
destined to become as well known among Colorado towns as the 
original owners of the names have been among Colorado people. 



EVANS2 

The new town of Evans, about half a mile beyond the Denver 
Pacific Platte crossing, is looming into importance. Capt. W. H. 
Pierce is there as agent for the company, has laid out the town and 
is selling lots. Quite a number were sold at the companj^'s office 
in Denver yesterday, but no more will be sold here. These lots 
are of four different sizes, and will bring from $50 to S200 each. 
The site of the town is forty-eight miles from Denver, and is an 
excellent one. The whole quarter section and much more besides, 
can be supplied with water by building a ditch only four miles 
long. There is no doubt but a permanent town of considerable 
importance will grow here, and this winter it will be a lively place. 
The depot building, 24 by 25 feet, is under way, and we understand 
other buildings will be erected by the company soon. This is the 
first station this side of Cheyenne decided upon except water sta- 
tions, though it is likely that another may be made for the con- 
venience of the people at and around Laporte. The road ought 
to reach Evans in thirty days, though it may not for a week or two 

Waily Colorado Tribune, September 28, 1869, p. 1. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, October 13, 1869, p. 1. 



350 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



longer. The reason why track is not laid faster is on account of 
the scarcity of men. If that could be remedied, and it probably 
will be, it would come on much more rapidly. 



LOTS IN EVANS. 1 

THERE WILL BE A SALE OF LOTS IN THE tOWU of EvanS, the 

county seat of Weld County, Colorado, on the 10th day of No- 
vember next, at which the unsold lots in said town will be offered 
at auction. 

Before said pubhc sale any lots in said town will be sold to 
such parties as desire to build upon them immediately, at the prices 
marked thereon, for cash, building on said lots to be commenced 
before said sale. Any party erecting a good building on his lot 
will be entitled to the adjoining it at the appraised price. All 
other sales will be deferred until said public sale. 

By reference to the map of the adjoining country it will be 
seen that this must be an important station on the Denver Pacific 
Railway, at which the trade of the Big Thompson and Cache-a-la- 
Poudre settlements for twenty-five or thirty miles from the west 
will find their most convenient access to the railroad, and as the 
valley Platte below this point settles up this will be its point of 
trade for a distance from the east of from seventy-five to one 
hundred miles. And when it is remembered that Evans is already 
the count}^ seat of one of the best counties in Colorado, and in the 
center of one of the best farming and grazing districts in the terri- 
tory, the importance of the place will be plain. 

The site of the town is a pleasant plateau on the banks of the 
Platte river, easily irrigated by a ditch from the Big Thompson of 
four or five miles in length, which would make any amount of 
water-power that might be required in the town. 

It can also be abundantly supplied with good weU water at any 
point on the plat b}^ digging from twelve to twent}' feet deep. 

The track of the Denver Pacific railway is being laid rapidly, 
and it is expected to reach Evans about the time of said sale. The 
extension of the railroad will doubtless give a great impetus to the 
settlement of this section of the country, while the settlements 

Waily Colorado Tribune, October 20, 1869. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



351 



already made are sufficient to support a town of several thousand 
inhabitants. 

The lots can be selected for improvement by application to 
Capt. W. H. Pierce, on the ground, who is the only party author- 
ized to sell the same. David A. Moffet, Jr. 

Trustee. 

EVANS. 1 

This new town, the future *'hub" of the universe, is located 
about half a mile from the west bank of the Platte, on the line of 
the Denver Pacific railway, forty-eight miles from Denver. The 
site of the town is on the second bench, and slopes gently to the 
river. The engineer says that the mouth of the Big Thompson 
is sufficiently high to throw water through an irrigating ditch 
fifty feet above the level of the town. Four miles north is the 
Cache-a-la-Poudre stream. The town is laid out on both sides 
of the track. The streets are made to run exactly north and south 
and east and west. The lots vary in size, but the blocks are 
uniform, except a few, that are flat-iron shaped, in the ''bite" 
next to the track. On paper the town has a very pleasant appear- 
ance, and we doubt not that the plan as laid out will be carried out. 
Two hundred and forty acres on the east side of the track, and 
eighty acres on the west side have been laid out into blocks and 
lots, and more is about ready to be staked. Already the lots 
fronting the tracks have been taken and are being improved. 
When we left there on Monday there were standing in the town, 
exclusive of Mr. Sam Ashcraft's ranch improvements, five com- 
pleted buildings, and as many more under construction and ap- 
proaching completion. The depot building is now being built, 
and will probably be finished by Saturday next. Capt. Sopris is 
putting up two frame buildings 16x24 each — one of which he has 
leased at $100 per month to Cheney of Golden City, and the other 
he will occupy himself as a business house. Mr. Sam Ashcraft is 
erecting a frame 16x24 to lease. On the next two lots he will 
commence the erection of a hotel building as soon as the lumber can 
be procured from Denver. He contemplates the erection of other 
warehouses, of which we made no note. Birks Cornforth is there 

Waily Colorado Tribune, October 20, 1869, p. 1. 



352 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



doing business in a big tent until such time as he can get the lumber 
for a building. His "sign" is the first one up. Alex. Boyd has 
purchased a couple lots and will erect a business house thereon 
immediately. The Denver Ale Company have purchased a num- 
ber of lots and will improve them immediately. Mr. Thompson, 
the velocipedist, has a building nearly completed which he will 
occupy for a boarding house. Another Denver man has secured 
three lots, fronting the open square around the depot, on which he 
will erect a hotel. The frame is being made at Denver and will 
be shipped in a few days. The Smith Brothers are hauling the 
lumber for a number of buildings which they intend to erect on 
their addition, now a part of the town. Messrs. Billy Merchant 
and E. Greenfield have secured locations on the west side of the 
track — the first for a billiard saloon and the last named for a 
butcher shop. Murrin & Drake of Cheyenne have been down and 
purchased lots on which they will erect a building to be used as 
a wholesale liquor store. Malory of Black Hawk is making adobe 
brick for a business house on the west side. Others we saw and 
heard of but did not charge our memory or make any notes. 
Good water is found b}^ sinking eighteen or twenty feet. 

The grand consideration is, "will the town prove a permanent 
business point, and where can it draw support from after the end 
of the track shall have reached Denver?" Evans is the county 
seat of Weld County, one of the largest and best agricultural and 
pastoral counties in the Territory. It is rapidly settling up and 
must in time have a large population. Evans being the most 
central point as well as the most accessible, will naturally draw the 
entire trade of the county. The people along Cache-a-la-Poudre, 
Big and Little Thompson and a portion of St. Vrain Creeks will 
find this the nearest and most accessible railroad point and will 
doubtless find their selHng and purchasing market there. Evans 
is the only accessible trading point for the settlers as far as one 
hundred miles below on the Platte. Considering these proposi- 
tions we cannot see how Evans can be other than a good business 
point. The road down the east side of the Platte from Denver 
to Evans is the best natural road in the West — no hills and no 
sand, except one sandy hill of perhaps fifty yards. The east side 
is altogether the most favorable for a road, as well as the shortest 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



353 



from Evans to Denver, Golden and the mountains. This item of 
distance we have from the engineer who has measured it. The 
railroad bridge across the Platte will be planked by the company, 
so as to allow teams to cross to the east side at an early day, with- 
out having to ford the river. 



[Evans — A Rival of Denver.] 
^Good Joke on Denver. — While at Evans a few days ago we had 
the extreme feUcity of meeting the redoubtable Drake of the 
Cheyenne Argus, and exchanging lies with him about our respec- 
tive places of abode. Drake rather beat us on the good square 
l3dng and we acknowledged the corn and threw up the sponge 
then and there. Not so with the aggravating Drake. He went 
home and perpetrated a half column all about his trip, in the local 
columns of the Argus. From it we extract a paragraph or two. 
He says, 'The town site was surveyed about a week ago, and lots 
put in market, and last Saturday, when we were there, no eligible 
lots could be bought of the company, who have an agent there — 
Capt. Pierce — who has already sold about three hundred lots.'^ 
* * * ''Lot excitement runs high, and a thousand dollars is 
asked and frequently given for corner lots. That Evans is to be 
the rival of Denver and Cheyenne, there can be no doubt. Lo- 
cated in the heart of one of the finest agricultural countries in the 
west, with a good prospect of its being the junction of the K. P. 
R. R., and a direct line of road from St. Louis to Cheyenne and the 
Pacific, it cannot fail to become an important point. Evans is 
about fifty-five miles from Cheyenne, and a little farther from 
Denver, but as the latter place amounts to but little, it makes no 
difference how far it is from there." For good downright square 
lying we'll put Drake against the world. 



[Hack — Denver to Evans.] 
^Hack to Evans. — We will run a tri-weekly 4-horse hack between 
Denver and Evans, commencing on Saturday morning, Oct. 23, 
and running thereafter on Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
Office at Cornforth's. Uri Bennett & Co. 



^Daily Colorado Tribune, October 21, 1869, p. 4. 
'Daily Colorado Tribune, October 23, 1869, p. 4. 



354 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Roads in Northern Colorado.] 
^The Register is right for once in its supposition that it is next 
to impossible to get away from Evans except by way of Denver. 
It is true that the only practicable road from Evans to Golden 
City, Black Hawk, Central City, etc., is up the east side of the 
Platte through Denver. If you don't believe it just try any other 
road that you happen to know of. 



[Denver-Evans Stage.] 
^Hughes & Co. commence running their stages between Den- 
ver and Evans on Monday, Oct. 25, and will thereafter run tri- 
weekly, leaving Denver on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; 
until the railroad is opened to Evans, when the service will be in- 
creased to daily, or oftener if necessary. On the completion of 
the road the Cheyenne coaches will be withdrawn and placed on 
this route, enabling them to run as many as a dozen coaches per 
day each way if the travel demands it. The mail will also be 
changed from the Cheyenne route to this route. They have put 
the fare to Evans at 15, which is cheap enough in all conscience, 
and take you through by dayhght. 



EVANS AND DENVER. ^ 
There is in the minds of some people here a feeling of disap- 
pointment at the probable stoppage of the Denver Pacific Railway 
at the town of Evans for the winter. Indeed this feeling may be 
very general, though we are confident a majority are satisfied that 
the company has done the best it could. We all know that a stern 
chase is a long one, at least we all remember of reading something 
to that effect, and we are confident that it has proved true in this 
case. When we began in the fall of 1867, two years ago almost 
to a dot, to agitate the railroad question, though realizing that 
there was work to be done, we scarcely anticipated so long or hard 
a task. We first anticipated that a year's time was sufficient to 
build the whole road. We found it was not, and then we asked 
one-half of the road only, content to put off the remainder for 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, October 23, 1869, p 4. 
^Daily Colorado Tnbune, October 24, 1869, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, October 27, 1869, p. 1. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



355 



another year. But we found that even that we could not obtain, 
and we saw the second winter pass without any rail laid. We were 
then confident that the early spring would see track-laying com- 
menced and pushed on to rapid completion, but through the finan- 
cial difficulties of the Union Pacific their agreement was broken 
and the latter part of the year has arrived, and track-laying is only 
just fairl}^ under way, and will cease for the winter where we were 
wilUng it should be one year ago. This long delay and oft post- 
poned realization of hopes has led some to lose faith in the good 
intentions of the controllers of the road. They think these gen- 
tlemen could have brought the track to Denver as well as to Evans, 
and that they are actuated solely b3^ the desire to increase their 
income by the sale of Evans lots. We are satisfied that these per- 
sons do injustice to those controlling the road. The two years 
that they have been working at the job, trying first one thing then 
another, the monej^ spent, the tenacity which would not accept 
failure when it was clearly apparent, is itself proof against the 
charge, in our mind at least. The}^ have put in nearly all the 
money paid, and have at least as great interests here as any other 
like number of men, and it stands to reason that they would prefer 
to see their private property in Denver in such a position to be 
realized from, rather than the making of a few thousand dollars 
extra for a company, in which they can be only partially interested. 
We know as well as any one can know who has not participated 
in the deliberations of the D. P. R. Directors, that they have done 
the very best they could. If any mistakes have been made they 
were made honestly and in the interests of the people whom they 
were serving. 

We do not feel like speaking harshly of any man who may be 
included in the dissatisfied ones, for we know how prone we all are 
to expect more than we can receive, but we only desire to urge 
them to possess their souls in patience and they will find all things 
right. The delay is for a few months at farthest, and will virtually 
do this city no harm this winter. We will get as much eastern 
travel this season as though it was completed to our doors, and if 
it hurts the trade of any merchant in Denver we shall be mistaken. 
Of course we would like the road to terminate with us as soon as 
possible, but if we cannot have all we ask we will content ourselves 



356 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



with what we can get until a better day arrives. As we cannot 
have the terminus this winter ourselves, we are glad to see it 
brought half a hundred and more miles nearer to us than it has 
been for the last two years and a half. We shall at least have the 
good of it flowing into our own Territory, and that is something 
we have not had the pleasure of heretofore. 



[Telegraph Office and Store Open in Evans.] 
^Mr. Sopris sent the following dispatch from Evans to Major 
Stiles yesterday: ''The telegraph office and Hughes & Co.'s office 
are now in full blast and ready for business. The Mayor of Evans 
sends greetings to the Mayor of Denver. Buildings are going up 
rapidly, and business is lively and increasing. The depot is en- 
closed. Here's how to Denver and Evans, sisters of the plains, 
and their families, may they live long and prosper." A previous 
dispatch, the first one over the wires from that station, was from 
the operator to Governor Evans. 



[Building in Evans.] 
^Evans — A dispatch from Evans last night says: "There are 
26 houses here; a telegraph and stage office, one blacksmith shop, 
one shoe shop, a depot most done, one large hotel now going up, 
over 100 men here and constantly arriving from all points by 
stages and private conveyances. Everybody busy and nice 
weather." 



[Antelope Near Evans.] 
^A dispatch late last evening from Evans, says: Gen. Pierce, 
in company with Mr. Barker, while prospecting for coal to-day 
about ten miles north of Evans, came upon a herd of antelope 
numbering over a thousand, which were leisurely grazing along 
the track, but upon their approach started off to the east. The 
whole prairies in that vicinity are at present alive with antelope. 
Lots in some localities have during to-day advanced 100 per cent. 
Offers at that rate are refused to-night. 

Waily Colorado Tribune, October 27, 1869, p. 4. 
'^Daily Colorado Tribune, October 29, 1869, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, October 29, 1869, p. 4. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



357 



[Boom Time in Evans.] 
special dispatch to the Tribune from Evans last evening 
was as follows: ''Building is going on lively and the population 
rapidly increasing. The stage came down to-day in l}/2 hours, 
with a full load of passengers. There is a daily arrival of mer- 
chants from Cheyenne, and business lots are in great demand. 
Half of Cheyenne will undoubtedly remove to Evans within the 
next ten days. Gov. Evans arrived here from the East to-day 
and will leave for Denver to-morrow morning. The track will be 
here in 15 days. A passenger from Denver reports thirty loaded 
lumber teams passed en-route here to-day." 

[Building Materials in Demand in Evans.] 
^A special from Evans last evening w^as as follows: ''A large 
number of teams loaded with lumber arrived and unloaded to-day, 
and building is progressing finely. The Engineer Corps are sub- 
dividing another addition to the town. Lots are in great demand 
and business houses are pressing back several blocks. Three small 
hotels are open and doing a thriving business. There is a great 
scarcity of lime for building purposes. It is worth $1 25 per 
bushel. Some of the plank for covering the railroad bridge have 
arrived, and in a few days the bridge will be made passable for 
teams. The town is very orderly — the weather dehghtful and 
warm." 



[Evans in a Flourishing Condition.] 
^Evans. — Since our visit to the new railroad town of two weeks 
ago, the enterprising go-ahead citizens of that burg have been driv- 
ing improvements with a rush. We have just returned from a 
second visit to the hub. When we left there on Thursday morning, 
there were at least fifty buildings completed, or nearly so, and a 
great many more just commencing. The improvements thus far 
are made principally by Denver men, but there are a good sprink- 
ling of mountain men there and a 'right smart' of Cheyeiniers. 
Building has been retarded by a scarcity of certain kinds of lumber 
and material, but a good supply is on the way now, and next week 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, November 2, 1869, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, November 3, 1869, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, November 6, 1869, p. 4. 



358 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



things will be pushed. A load of Hme would sell readily for one dollar 
a bushel, and a few thousand brick for chimney flues would bring 
a correspondingly good price. The plank for covering the railroad 
bridge has commenced to arrive. Within a week or two the bridge 
will be floored over and made passable for teams — it will be fun. 
The depot building, originally intended for both passenger and 
freight purposes, is nearly completed. The plan has been changed 
somewhat — this building will be finished off for passengers only — 
and a large freight depot will be erected a few rods north. Capt. 
W. H. Pierce is land agent for the railroad company, and is kept 
busy from morning till night showing and selling lots, answering 
inquiries, laying out additions, etc. Mr. Ed. P. House is the tele- 
graph operator and stage agent. They comprise the officials act- 
ively employed at present. They give general satisfaction. The 
great want now appears to be to find the man with a few thousand 
spare dollars who will erect a big hotel for the accommodation of 
travelers. It should be near the depot. There are three or four 
hotels under way, but neither of them are thought to be large 
enough or favorably located for the accommodation of the travel 
this winter. 

[Lots in Evans.] 
[Advertisement of October 19, 1869, repeated.] 
POSTPONEMENT.! 
The sale of lots advertised above is postponed until November 
25th. No lots will be sold until that day, except to those who de- 
sire to build upon them immediately. The lots not marked 
''reserved" on the plat, will be sold at the original appraisal, 
upon the above conditions. At the above sale one half only of 
the lots and out lots in the town will be offered for sale. 

David H. Moffat, Jr., 
Trustee. 

[Vigilance Committee in Evans.] 
^Mr. Sam. Mitchell came up from Evans yesterday. He re- 
ports building going on with a rush, and the population increasing 
daily. He understood that the best citizens of the town had joined 

Waily Colorado Tribune, November 6, 1869. p. 1. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, November 10, 1869, p. 4. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



359 



together as a sort of Vigilance Committee, to look after such roughs 
as should drop down from Cheyenne and other points on the Union 
Pacific railway, and give them gentle and urgent hints that their 
presence could be dispensed with The Companion of Carr, the 
murderer, was notified to leave town and he did so. 

[Governor Evans Explains Delay in Bringing Railroad into 

Denver.] 

^In his speech before the Board of Trade Monday evening 
Governor Evans made a few remarks which our report did not give. 
One in reference to the stopping of the railroad at Evans this 
winter, was to show that the officers of the road would bring it 
forward if they had the means. To prove this it was only neces- 
sary to state that fifteen miles further would bring the track to the 
new coal banks down the Platte, and would reduce the operating 
expenses of the road this winter one-half. Besides this there is 
no doubt but the carrying traffic of the road would be increased 
to a very great extent — hard to estimate now. The coal which the 
U. P. R. would use, and the city of Omaha and the towns all along 
the eastern half of the U. P. R., would give the D. P. R. a mag- 
nificent trade to start with, and show it to be one of the best paying 
new roads ever built. This would be the best way to sell more 
bonds and would be the best vray to get our road continued this 
way. His argument was to show that the interests of the Com- 
pany were so much greater in coming this side of Evans, that it 
was folly to talk differently, and his argument was good. 

[Peoples' Court in Evaxs.] 
^At Evans, on Sunday evening, a man named Scott, of Chey- 
enne, was accidently shot by Sam. Lord. The parties were drunk, 
and no ill will existed between them. The ball hit Scott in the 
thigh, passing through and inflicting a severe flesh wound. Scott 
was in a comfortable condition yesterday and was sent to Cheyenne 
where he will be well cared for. Lord was arrested by an excited 
crowd and a people's court organized, but the trial was adjourned. 
Subsequently he was released and sent outside the town with or- 
ders to sta}' out, and doubtless he will do so. 

Waily Colorado Tribune. November 11, 1869, p. 1. 
^Daily Colorado Tribune, November 16, 1869, p. 4. 



360 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

EVANS. 1 

The track-layers will reach the town of Evans on Friday or 
Saturday next, if no unforseen event interferes. They had but six 
miles to lay yesterday morning. The town itself consists of about 
a hundred buildings and twice that number of people. There is 
not much business being done there yet, most every one being 
employed in getting ready to trade when the cars arrive. The 
bridge over the Platte was not finished on Sunday night, owing to 
there being a scarcity of plank — 160 feet being required. Fuel is 
not over-abundant in town. Coal sells at somewhere from fifteen 
to twenty dollars per ton, but it will rapidly become cheap. Most, 
if not all, of that taken to town, is obtained at Cook's bank, fifteen 
miles away. It costs five dollars per ton at the bank. Sales in 
real estate in Evans are not many just at present. Lots are not 
held very high everything considered, but they are hkely to go up 
shortly. The coaches run through in eight hours, making only 
three changes on the way. The stock is fine and if the weather 
is good, it is a pleasure to ride behind them. There will doubtless 
be more travel between Denver and Evans this winter than there 
has ever before been between any two places in the Territory at 
the same season of the year. 



[Railroad News from Evans.] 
^The first number of the Evans Express and Weld County 
Reporter has arrived, marked ''please ex.!" Ex. we ex.! The 
E. & W. C. R. is an evening paper, pubHshed by the Express 
Printing Company, S. S. Woodbury, agent. Besides local and 
telegraphic news, it will give a complete record of the arrival of 
freight for Evans, comprising a list of all articles, and to whom 
shipped. This item alone makes this paper of inestimable value 
to the merchants here. We clip the following from the Express: — 
The end of the track is now about four miles from town where it 
has been for several days. The road-bed is finished and the ties 
are all in their place ready to receive the rails. A most provoking 
mistake occurred, which is the cause of the delay in the completion 
of the track to Evans. Four miles of our iron was forwarded 

Waily Colorado Tribune, November 23, 1869, p. 1. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, November 30, 1869, p. 4. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



361 



through mistake to Brigham Young's railroad. This compels 
the D. P. railway to await the arrival of the same quantity from 
the Cambria Iron works, at Johnstown, Pa., ordered immediately 
on the discovery of the mistake, and should arrive here within the 
next three days certain. This only is needed to complete the 
track to town. — Engine 29, one of the three engines belonging to 
the D. P. Railway, has been named the "Gen. D. H. Moffat, Jr.," 
in honor of the worthy Treasurer of the Company. We under- 
stand that 31 is to be named the ''W. S. Cheesman," in honor of 
the Director. — Dr. H. B. Tuttle, late of Denver, has become an 
Evansite in sure enough earnest. He has hung out his shingle as 
a physician and surgeon, and also is erecting a fire proof store on 
Sixth street, for the reception of a big stock of drugs now on the 
way from the East. — Saturday afternoon a race came off between 
Grant Ashcraft's pony and C. Baldwin's pony, a single dash of 
300 yards for $50. The race was fairly conducted, and a decision 
given in favor of Baldwin's pony, who won by eight feet. 



RAILROAD CELEBRATION AT EVANS. ^ 
Illuminations, Speeches, a Presentation and Enthusiasm. 

Honors to Governor Evans and others. 



(Special Dispatch to the Tribune.) 

Evans, Dec. 13th, 1869. 
There is a grand celebration here to-night. Bristow's hotel 
is illuminated and Denver Street is alive with enthusiasm. The 
railroad was completed here to-day about noon. The engine that 
has done most of the work on the road, the "General D. H. Moffat" 
came in to-day triumphant, gaily decorated with flags and ribbons 
and received the encomiums of the masses. General Pierce, Pres- 
ident; Gen. Moffat, Treasurer; Col. Bates, Vice-President; Col. 
Eicholtz, Superintendent of Construction; Captain Tip Pierce, 
Agent, and "Corporal" House, operator, formed themselves into 
a committee of reception, and did the honors of the occasion with 
becoming grace and dignity. On the arrival of Capt. D. B. Clay- 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, December 14, 1869, p. 1. 



362 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



ton, the constructor of the railway, with his party, they were wel- 
comed in a very neat and eloquent speech by the President of the 
road, who thanked him and his men in behalf of the company, 
for their untiring zeal and faithful performance of duty, whereby 
this great enterprise has been brought to a successful issue. Gen- 
eral Pierce here presented Captain Clayton with a magnificent 
gold watch and chain, costing $650 — the gift of his men, as a testi- 
monial of their regard and gratitude for his kindness towards them. 
Captain Clayton was taken completely by surprise, his nature 
modestly rendering the circumstances somewhat embarrassing, but 
he soon rallied and replied in a few appropriate remarks of grateful 
acknowledgement of the compliment, &c. He was followed by 
Col. L. Murrin, who eulogized the officers of the railroad, especially 
the indefatigability of Gov. Evans, whom he designated as "The 
War Horse of the Plains, and the Hero of the Platte." He spoke 
at length of the grand enterprise just completed, and expressed 
hopes for a bright future for Evans and the Denver Pacific railway. 
This evening Capt. Clayton is giving a banquet at Reed & Baker's 
restaurant in honor of the completion of the road to Evans. From 
the preparations being made it will be a grand affair. 



TO THE MERCANTILE PUBLIC. ^ 
We have removed our large and commodious warehouse to 
Evans, and are now prepared to receive and forward freight from 
* that place. One of the firm will remain at Cheyenne until the 
business is closed up there. We request our patrons to order all 
their freight consigned to Evans, as it will have quicker dispatch 
in being forwarded from thence. Mr. Wilson Huxley will run a 
fast freight line from Evans to Denver and the mountains, in con- 
nection with our house. B. M. Heermans & Co. 



DENVER PACIFIC RAILWAY.^ 
We direct attention to the advertisement of Colonel Fisher, 
General Superintendent of the Denver Pacific Railway. The 
contractors for the building of the road. Gov. Evans, Mr. Carr, 
and their associates, yesterday transferred the completed road 

^Daily Colorado Tribune, December 16, 1869, p. 4. 
Waily Colorado Tribune, December 17, 1869, p. 1. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



363 



into the hands of the Company, who will operate it henceforth. 
We are gratified that the prospects are that the road, under Col. 
Fisher's management, will pay, and on that depends the sale of 
the Company's bonds; and on that the further construction of 
the road. We know that the officers of the Company are using 
their best endeavors to push the work on to Denver, and especially 
fifteen miles further to the coal banks. If they could get there 
this winter we believe their carrying traffic would be doubled, as 
a ready market for all the coal thej^ could transport would be found 
at Cheyenne and along the U. P. R. We expect to be able to in- 
form our readers in a short time of active operations looking to an 
extension of the line, but until its power to pay its way and pro- 
vide for the interest on its bonds, we anticipate little progress can 
be made. This being the important consideration now, we are 
very glad that it starts out well, and that the prospect is bright. 



IL THE ST. LOUIS-WESTERN COLONY. 

[Organization of the Colony.] 
^From Mr. J. H. Pinkerton, late a Trustee of the Greeley 
Colony, we get the particulars of a new colony now being organized 
in Southern Illinois. We take the following from a printed cir- 
cular : 

At a meeting in the R. P. Church in Oakdale, Illinois, Novem- 
ber 29th, for the purpose of taking into consideration the project 
of organizing a colony to locate in the Territory of Colorado, Rev. 
A. C. Todd was called to the Chair, and Thos. M. Nichol chosen 
Secretary. 

The deliberations were commenced with prayer by Mr. Todd, 
after which he gave a short sketch of the plan and advantages of a 
colony, with his impression in regard to Colorado, founded upon 
the experience of several months spent in that Territory during 
the past summer. 

Mr. James H. Pinkerton, who has been a resident of Colorado 
for eleven years, was present, and being called upon, gave some 
valuable information on the peculiarities of the climate, soil, and 
other general features of the country, and their adaptation to the 



^Daily Colorado Triune, December 15, 1870, p. 2. 



364 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



various branches of human industry. He also spoke of the great 
advantages of colony organization over individual immigration. 

A sufficient number of persons to justify organization, signi- 
fying their intention to emigrate and their willingness to organize 
and go as a colony, Messrs. James H. Pinkerton, Jno. M. Mc- 
Cutcheon and James Beall, were appointed a committee to draft 
a form of Constitution for the organization of a colony. 

This committee performed its duties and a Constitution was 
adopted, the name ''Western Colony" being selected for the organ- 
ization. The following named persons were then selected Trustees 
of the colony for the first year: Rev. A. C. Todd, Oakdale; James 
H. Pinkerton, Colorado; John M. McCutcheon, Sparta; Robert 
McKelvey, Sparta; C. F. Hartman, Nashville; J. L. Brush, Colo- 
rado. Rev. A. C. Todd was appointed temporary Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

Mr. Pinkerton describes other meetings subsequently held, 
when the whole population seemed to turn out, the church being 
crowded, and where they put him upon the stand and kept him 
answering questions for an hour and a half. The locating com- 
mittee will be here in January to look at the country, and they are 
confident of getting at least a hundred men to join the colony from 
the towns in the immediate vicinity of where the meetings were 
held, while they have good reason for beUeving that a large num- 
ber will join from Iowa. 



[Western Colony Advertising in St. Louis Papers.] 
^The Western Colony, organized at Oakdale, 111., some weeks 
since, to settle on Colorado railroad lands, is advertising exten- 
sively in the St. Louis papers. The Colony expects to bring from 
500 to 800 people to this Territory in 1871. 



[Hon. J. M. McCutcheon Reported Head of Western Colony.] 
^The Southern Illinois Colony now forming with headquarters 
at St. Louis, is receiving numerous accessions, and will be ready 
to send a locating committee into this Territory in a few days. 

^Denver Daily Tribune, February 8, 1871, p. 4. 
Denver Daily Tribune, February 18, 1871, p. 2. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



365 



The first steps in its formation were taken at Oakdale, 111., Nov. 
29th, and Hon. J. M. McCutchen, of Sparta, formerly a member 
of the Illinois Legislature, and a wealthy and enterprising gentle- 
man, is at the head of the movement. 



COLORADO COLONIES.! 
The people of the colonies formed, or about to be formed in the 
east appear to think that Colorado is the ''promised land." Read 
the following accounts; . . . 

ANOTHER COLORADO COLONY. 

An organization is being formed which draws its members 
from Southern Illinois, St. Louis and vicinity, for Colorado. The 
object, as stated in the constitution, is to form a settlement in the 
Territory of Colorado. The location will be somewhere in the 
vicinity of the mines and among the railroad lands, and will be 
determined before the 1st of April. One hundred members have 
already been obtained, and a large number are disposed to look 
favorably on the undertaking. The Rev. A. C. Todd, of Ayres 
Point, Illinois, is president of the colony, and has recently returned 
from a thorough examination of the country where he proposes 
to settle. A soil of inexhaustible fertility, salubrious climate, a 
home market, an abundance of timber, minerals, coal, and pure 
water are some of the inducements held out. The leaders of the 
colony are now staying at the Southern, where they have been 
visited by a large number of young men of the city who are strongly 
disposed to identify themselves with the movement. Hon. James 
H. Pinkerton, of Greeley, Colorado, is vice president of the colony, 
and Hon. J. M. McCutcheon, is treasurer. 



[Locating Committee of St. Louis- Western Colony.] 
2Rev. A. C. Todd, J. H. Pinkerton, J. L. Brush, C. F. Hart- 
man, Hon. John M. McCutcheon, and C. C. Bradbury, trustees 
and locating committee of the St. Louis Western Colony called 
last evening. They have made an extended tour of northern 
Colorado, looking for a location, and all but Pinkerton and Brush 
went last evening via Kansas Pacific railway to make a report. 

^Boulder County News, March 15, 1871, p. 2. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, March 17, 1871, p. 4. 



0 



366 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

EVANS TAKEN— BIG TIMES IN THE BURG.^ 

The St. Louis Western Colony have finally located at Evans, 
and have gained by purchase and donation, complete control of 
the town site, together with 40,000 acres of what are known as the 
Evans and Carr lands, adjoining. The colony committee have 
been here for several weeks, and have kept their movements quiet. 
At their request we have withheld their location till now. They 
have shrewdly kept dark, avoiding land speculators who were 
cautiously ready for a grab, and are now fully in possession of their 
property, having made a good bargain, and gained facilities for 
settlement, in a splendid location. The organization is as follows: 
Rev. A. C. Todd, St. Louis, President; J. H. Pinkerton, of Evans, 
Vice-President; C. F. Hartman, Rishview, 111., Secretary; Hon. 
J. M. McCutcheon, Sparta, 111., Treasurer; who, with the following, 
constitute the Board of Trustees: H. C. Cole, St. Louis, brother 
of Mayor Cole of that city; Dr. Cottan C. Bradbury, Boston; 
Messrs. Todd, Hartman and McCutcheon went to St. Louis Tues- 
day night, and will at once open an office in that city. The colony 
now numbers 400, together with about 75 citizens of Evans, who 
have joined in. They expect to have nearly double that number 
by the middle of April. Arrangements have been made for half 
fares and freights, and the colonists will begin to arrive in a few 
days. The men at the head of this movement are prominent and 
influential in the localities from which they came; and they will 
bring with them a material for population and thrift which Colo- 
rado may well be proud to get. 



COLONIZATION.^ 



St. Louis Western Colony — Its final Location — Lands selected — 
Evans to be repopulated. 



The Territorj^ of Colorado has been very fortunate within the 
past year, in that numerous colonists have made selection of it for 
their future home. The easy mode of reaching this section of the 
country, now that the railroads are a certainty here, puts it within 

Wenver Daily Tribune, March 18, 1871, p. 1. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, March 19, 1871, p. 4. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



367 



the reach of all, and this combined with the salubrity of climate, 
the generous advantages in the way of land, the richness of soil, 
the beauties of the mountain scenery, and the comparative new- 
ness of the country as compared with the older settled portion of 
the east, has made Colorado the chosen point above other western 
territories where the emigrant can settle and build up a civilization 
with rapidity. The past winter has brought many colonizing com- 
mittees into Colorado, and none of them have returned to their 
eastern homes in the least disappointed or discouraged. On the 
contrary all have selected locations for their future homes, and 
even now hundreds of colonists are turned Coloradoward with the 
firm purpose of succeeding in an enterprise which requires energy 
and perseverance, limited capital and encouragement to prove suc- 
cessful. What has been done by one can be done by many more, 
and we see evidences about us that the matter is to be fully tested. 

For several days past Messrs. A. C. Todd, J. H. Pinkerton, 
S. L. Brush, C. F. Hartman, John M. McCutcheon, and C. C. 
Bradbury, trustees and locating committee of the St. Louis 
Western colony have been engaged in selecting lands for the loca- 
tion of the above colony. Mr. Todd is president, Mr. Pinkerton 
vice-president, Mr. Hartman secretary, and Mr. McCutcheon 
treasurer. The colony was organized in Illinois and St. Louis, and 
at present comprises two hundred members, the greater portion 
of whom are heads of families. The locating committee have se- 
lected the spot known as Big Bend on the Platte river opposite to 
Evans. Two-thirds of the town site of Evans was granted to the 
colony by the Denver land association, and the colony have the 
selling of the remainder. This land embraces townships four and 
five of range sixty five west, township four of range sixty-six west, 
townships three, four and seven of range sixty-seven west. The 
town-site and adjoining lands belonging to the colonists embrace 
about seven sections. The land is finely adapted to agriculture 
and stock herding, and is plentifully supplied with w^ater. 

The members of the colony will commence arriving imme- 
diately, and there has already been provided at Evans shelter for 
five hundred people. 

Besides the above mentioned colony, Mr. Bradbury also rep- 
resents what is known as the Boston colony which was recently 



368 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



organized in Massachusetts. This colony has united with the St. 
Louis Western colony, and the name of the town will remain as 
at present — Evans. 

This consolidated colony have ninety days in which to select 
their lands, which will in the main comprise the sections above 
mentioned. The lands face south, and can be easily irrigated. A 
bridge is to be built across the Platte at Evans, the money for 
constructing the same being already raised. Water for the town- 
site and adjoining lands will be taken, on the north side of the 
Platte, from the Big Thompson, and for the south side from the 
Platte. 

Messrs. Todd, Hartman, McCutcheon and Bradbury have re- 
turned east to perfect their arrangements and carry out their com- 
mendable colonization plans. 



OUR NEW NEIGHBORS.! 
Evans, as most of us know, is four miles south of Greeley. 
When we came hither we bought and jerked over some thirty 
houses, while others were brought over by the owners and peddled 
out. Since then things have been tolerably subdued, but last 
week the Western Colony located in the place bought five or six 
thousand acres of land, and on Monday the last fountain of supply 
of the old man Adam, a grog shop was reported as dried up. We 
understand that the Colony is composed of nice folks, a part being 
from Boston and vicinity though the larger portion is from near 
St. Louis. They are said to number about 200 families, the lead- 
ing element being of the Covenanter persuasion to which we ex- 
tend the right hand of fellowship. 



THE ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY.^ 

The Location, Progress and Promise. 

Evans and Its Future — Weld County Statistics. 
In the Tribune of the 18th inst., we had the pleasure of an- 
nouncing that the St. Louis Western Colony, whose committee 
had been for some time in the Territory, "spying out the land," 

^Gredey Tribune, March 22, 187L 

Wenver Daily Tribune, March 27, 1871, p. 2. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



369 



were located at last, having acquired by purchase and donation 
complete control of the town of Evans, embracing about 4,000 
lots, together with some 60,000 acres of land adjacent. We think 
the gentlemen who have had this matter in charge have both in 
their choice of selection and in the plans for the welfare of the 
colony, acted wisely. There is no point in Colorado better in 
natural advantages and surroundings, or surer to ''come up" by 
reason of them, in population and business, than Evans. Situated 
midway between Denver and Cheyenne, it seems to be the natural 
centre and distributor for the fine and prosperous farming region 
and splendid grazing lands surrounding it. Here are the fertile 
valleys of the Platte, Big Thompson and Cache-la-Poudre, with 
their fine farms and thrifty farmers. Here are the best stock 
ranges in the Territory, with thousands of herds of cattle grazing 
the year round and fattening without shelter or feeding. It is the 
opinion of those most conversant with the resources of these val- 
leys, that they will before many years be as thickly settled as choice 
parts of Illinois, and will furnish crops sufficient for the whole 
Territory. Already the products are large. It is estimated that the 
results of agriculture in the parts of the South Platte, Cache-la- 
Poudre and Big Thompson, lying wholly in Weld County, last 
year, were as follows: 

Wheat, 22,000 bushels; corn, 8,500 bush.; oats and barley, 
75,000 bush.; potatoes, 42,000 bush. Nearly all the hay sold in 
Denver this winter came from the South Platte and Big Thompson, 
and was shipped at Evans station. One dealer alone in Denver 
has received from this source, since November last, 100 car-loads, 
300 tons, valued at S7,000. About the same quantity also v/as 
shipped to Golden and the mountains. The shipping of live and 
dressed beef to Chicago and St. Louis markets, and of dairy prod- 
ucts, must in time become a very important item. From the farm- 
ing statistics of Weld County, it is found that the average yield 
of wheat, even on soil which has been cropped several years, and 
by an imperfect system, is twenty-five bushels to the acre, while 
by careful culture, from sixty to eighty bushels per acre have re- 
peatedly been produced, and of barley the average is 40 bushels 
to the acre. There is a ranch on the Big Thompson that has pro- 
duced 450 bushels of potatoes to the acre, and 300 bushels of beets. 



370 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Gardening is profitable. One farmer realized last season, $1,000 
from asparagus at 50 cents a pound, and could not supply orders 
from Laramie and Cheyenne. He got 25 cents a pound for to- 
matoes, and $1.50 a dozen for large plants. 

Weld county extends 152 miles east and west, and 72 miles 
north and south. Wyoming is along its northern border; on the 
south is Arapahoe; on the west Larimer and Boulder counties; 
on the east Kansas. It has about 100 miles of railroad in opera- 
tion. The streams coursing through the country cover from 400 
to 500 miles. The principal towns are Evans, Greeley and La- 
porte. The new town of Erie lies just in the western edge of the 
county. The post-offices are Evans, Greeley, Erie, Fleming's 
Ranch, Fort Lupton, Julesburg, Saint Vrain and Weld. The 
distance of Evans from principal points in the Territory, is as 
follows: Denver, 48 miles; Central, 80; Cariboo, 103; Pueblo, 168; 
Burlington, 28; Boulder, 39. 

While the farming opportunities in Weld county are abundant 
and superior than other sources of wealth, important coal deposits 
exist. The great Briggs mine lies in the western part of the county, 
now yielding 150 tons of coal per day. Openings have been made 
at several other points. It is likely that Evans can be supplied 
with coal within five or six miles of town, and the price next winter 
will probably be less than the present price of coal in St. Louis. 
Unlimited supplies of timber, lime, gypsum and building stone 
exist. Manufactures are likely to spring up. 

An able writer viewing the promise of Weld County and its 
opportunities, gives the. following enthusiastic estimate: 'This 
large and rich county of Weld, presents opportunities for growth 
and advancement not to be found in any other county or locality 
in the United States, nor in the whole world. In a few short years 
the money capital required to carry on the various industries and 
pursuits of this town and county will amount to not less than 
$50,000,000, and if smelting and refining works shall be added — 
as is in the highest degree probable — to far more; and the man of 
action and of real ability will be wise if he hasten to inform himself 
of these things, and to place himself in a position to reap a reason- 
able share of the golden harvest." 

Railroad enterprises are likely to place Weld County next to 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



371 



Arapahoe in freighting facilities, and ready markets. The road 
projected from Julesburg, on the Union Pacific, will follow down 
the Platte to Evans, there crossing the Denver Pacific, and prob- 
ably pushing on to the gold and silver districts. This will add 
some 200 miles to the railroad system of the county, and will give 
to Evans, its capital, access to the mountains of Colorado as well 
as a direct route to the east. As to the project, it is believed that 
within two years from this date narrow gauge railroad up the 
Cache-la-Poudre, and another up the Thompson, while there may 
be still another along the base of the mountains. This will afford 
splendid opportunities for opening up the whole region. The 
three counties of Weld, Larimer and Boulder, for a territory three 
hundred miles long, and eighty miles wide, which in agricultural 
and mineral wealth is richer than France, Germany, Spain or 
Italy, and having an area nearly equal to that of England, is capa- 
ble of as wonderful development. 

The splendid auspices under which the St. Louis Western 
Colony begins, may be gathered from the following statement 
taken from its official circular: 

''The old settlers in and for a considerable distance around 
Evans, appreciating the advantages of the location, have gener- 
ously donated large quantities of land, and have joined the colony, 
thus uniting their energies with us to make the town of Evans a 
complete success. 

The outlying lands were chosen by the Denver Pacific Land 
Association, when the whole country was before them, as the nat- 
ural point for a town, and they were held out of market for a 
considerable time back for such an organization as the St. Louis 
Western Colony. The lands are easily susceptible of irrigation, 
from both the Platte and Big Thompson, being near the confluence 
of these two rivers, and comprising the finest body of agricultural 
lands in the Territory. 

The well-water at Evans is obtained at a distance of from 
eight to twenty feet from the surface, and is the only place in the 
Territory where all the water is soft. In the town of Evans there 
are already some fifty houses, together with a good passenger and 
freight depot and telegraph office. 



372 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



We have already a membership of about four hundred, with 
room for some six hundred more. We will be ready to receive 
colonists on the ground by about the first of April. Of the ar- 
rangement for reduced passage and freight, members wilj be noti- 
fied by letter." 

Evans is already starting up under the new order of things. 
A new bridge is being built across the Platte at that place. New 
buildings are projected. The residents of the place seeing good 
times ahead, are taking hold, and with the coming colony, prepare 
to give "a, long pull, a strong pull, and a pull altogether." We 
expect by midsummer to see found a population of from 600 to 800 
up there, all driving ahead and thrifty. Reports from St. Louis, 
where the trustees have opened an office since their return, show 
that new members are joining every day, and great and increasing 
interest is apparent. Hon. J. H. Pinkerton is on the ground at 
Evans, busy in arranging the details of the enterprise. The van- 
guard from Southern Illinois will soon be on the ground, bringing 
with them a printing press, and we hear of several other important 
projects under way. 

The Board of Trustees with their present addresses, is as follows : 
Rev. A. C. Todd, 515 Chestnut street, St. Louis, Mo.; Hon. J. H. 
Pinkerton, Evans, Col.; Hon. J. M. McCutcheon, Sparta, Ills.; 
C. F. Hartman, Richview, Ills.; Dr. C. C. Bradbury, 121 Wash- 
ington street, Boston, Mass.; J. L. Brush (Sheriff of Weld county) 
Greele3% Col. 

We are glad to note the excellent promise of this new colony. 
The men at the head of the movement are prominent and influen- 
tial in the localities from which they came; and they will bring 
with them a material for population and thrift which Colorado 
may well be proud to get. 

THE ST. LOUIS COLONY AT EVANS. ^ 
We learn from Hon. J. H. Pinkerton, who was down on Sat- 
urday, that the colonists are now arriving by every train. The 
first family on the ground was that of John McClerken, of Ayres 
Point, 111. Among others who have arrived are two brothers of 
Hon. J. M. McCutcheon, the Treasurer of the colony; also Rev. 



Wenver Daily Tribune, April 11, 1871, p. 4. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



373 



Mr. Stewart, a brother-in-law, who arrived last week, all from 
Sparta, 111. Mr. Ewing, another gentleman from the same place, 
came out to look, and has now gone back to move out his famil3^ 
He has two or three of the best stallions in Southern Illinois, which 
he will bring along. A son of Rev. A. C. Todd, the President of 
the colony, is at Evans. Three famihes from Mississippi were ex- 
pected yesterday. The old Deitz property, main building 25x40 
feet, was bought for colony headquarters. The saloon back of it 
is being fitted up for a printing office, and a letter from C. F. 
Hartman, of Richview, Illinois, states that he w^ll be on hand with 
his press and material at once. The first ditch is now being taken 
out, three and a half miles above Evans. It will cost about $600 
per mile. A lumber yard has been started, and two others will 
soon follow. Some of the colonists are alread}^ building, and have 
begun gardening and planting on the lands across the river, where 
irrigation Vv'ill not be required. The piles for the new bridge across 
the Platte are all driven, and by the first of next month wagons 
will cross. The town lots will be appraised this week. Now^ that 
things are fully under way, we have no doubt that Evans will 
grow rapidly. There is every indication that mid-summer will 
find a flourishing community up there. 



COLONY MATTERS. 1 



Some particulars of the St. Louis Western colony — Its prospects — 
The New Memphis (Plum creek) scheme — The Georgia settlers. 



The St. Louis colony, of which we have heretofore made men- 
tion, is attracting some attention from the people of the territory, 
and will probably become one of the leading associations of the 
kind. It is under very good management, and has received great 
encouragement both from our people at home and from those of 
the east who are seeking homes in this new and delightful country. 
From a circular of the colony we condense several facts which msiy 
be of interest to the general reader. All persons of good moral 
character, desirous of immigrating to the west, can become mem- 
bers by paying to the treasurer $155 for purchasing land and mak- 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 19, 1871, p. 1. 



374 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



ing public improvements and for necessary expenses. Lots are 
to be sold, and the proceeds devoted to improving and adorning 
the town, building school houses, including a free Hbrary and read- 
ing room, for which purpose five per cent, of the gross proceeds 
are to be reserved. The land belonging to the colony outside the 
town limits shall be divided into flats increasing in size as they 
recede from the centre, from two and a-haK acres to forty acres. 
Members of the colony have the privilege of buying railroad lands 
at the reduced rates obtained by the colony. They also have the 
privilege of pre-emption and homestead on the alternative sec- 
tions as prescribed by the United States laws. 

The colony is located at Evans, at the point of the intersection 
of the proposed railroad from Pine Bluffs to the mining regions. 
The country about Evans is beautiful rolling prairie, with a south- 
eastern exposure. The old settlers in and for a considerable dis- 
tance around Evans, appreciating the advantages of the location, 
have generously donated large quantities of land, and have joined 
the colony, thus uniting their energies to make the town of Evans 
a complete success. 

What was known in the Boston colony was absorbed by the 
St. Louis Western colony, and has united its interests with the 
latter. The town site includes about four thousand lots, and the 
outside lands run up to some fifty thousand acres, lying in a com- 
pact body on both sides the Platte and the railroad. It is of the 
best quahty for agricultural purposes, and can be easity irrigated. 
The lands can be obtained by members as provided for in the basis 
of co-operation. 

There are already about four hundred members, with room for 
some six hundred more. The colony is receiving its members and 
there are quite a number on the ground at present. The presi- 
dent, Rev. A. C. Todd, is located at 515 Chestnut street, St. 
Louis. . . . 



[Ditch at Evans.] 
^There was an accession of twenty members to the South- 
western colony, at Evans, last Saturday. The officers will in a 



Waily Rocky Mountain News, April 25, 1871, p. 1. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



375 



day or two let the contract for the building of a ditch to supply- 
Evans and vicinity with water power. The water will be brought 
from the Platte some six miles above the town. 



EVANS AND THE ST. LOUIS COLONY. ^ 
We learn from inquiries at the depot, that parties are arriving 
every day to join the St. Louis Western Colony at Evans, and 
large amounts of colony goods, several car-loads of stock, agri- 
cultural implements, and stores have been received at this station 
from the East and forwarded during the past few days. Two 
car-loads of horses and cattle are expected to-day. On Saturday 
twenty families arrived, two of them from Burlington, Iowa, the 
rest from the neighborhood of St. Louis. Most of the colonists 
thus far (there about 150 on the ground) are farmers, bringing 
their families and effects with them, ready to go to work at once. 
Some are bringing provisions enough to last until the crops are 
gathered this fall. A large surface has already been planted. 
All are pleased with the location. In town, buildings are going 
up. The two lumber yards are being supplied from Sherman, 
and a good article retails at $30 per thousand feet. On Saturday 
a contract will be let to build a ditch, taking the water from the 
Platte miles above Evans. This will afford water for irriga- 
tion and mill power. Mr. Hartman has purchased a printing press 
and material, which will be on the way this week. The town lots 
have been appraised, ranging from $25 to $100. News from Bos- 
ton is to the effect that some 200 members have been enrolled there. 
They have already began to arrive on the ground. The policy of 
the officers is to send on a few every day or two, rather than large 
numbers at a time, so that all may be accommodated personally, 
and properly cared for, and all needed aid provided. 

[A Reproof from Greeley.] 
— ^The Western Colony, at Evans, 4 miles south of Greeley, 
on the Platte, is now receiving from 10 to 25 members daily. A 
bridge is under way across the Platte, and an irrigating canal has 
been commenced. As they are only just beginning, not much can 
now be said of their movements, but we would remark we do not 

Wenver Daily Tribune. April 25, 1871, p. 4. 
^Greeley Tribune, April 26, 1871, p. 3. 



376 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



understand why a religious people, as we understand the majority 
to be, should be willing to locate where a liquor saloon is in full 
blast, and a brewery is brewing ruin. 



A BIG LIFT FOR EVANS. ^ 
A party of twenty-four arrived this morning, en route to 
Evans, among whom were Rev. A. C. Todd, President of the col- 
ony, and his family; C. F. Hartman, Esq., Secretary, and family; 
W. E. Broad and wife, Albert Russell, Boston. About twenty 
others from the vicinity of Boston and Lynn, Massachusetts, will 
follow on to-morrow, joined by an additional force from St. Louis; 
and still another large party are en route to arrive Monday morn- 
ing. Hon. J. M. McCutcheon remains in charge of the office and 
direction of colony matters at St. Louis, and Mr. Bradbury is in 
charge of the colony office in Boston. The promise is now good 
for a much larger settlement at Evans than was at first anticipated 
by the promoters of the colony. Considerable supplies, household 
goods, agricultural implements, machinery, stock, lumber, etc, is 
arriving by every train. 

[Arrival of St. Louis-Western Colonists.] 
^The Rev. A. C. Todd, president of the St. Louis Western 
colony, C. F. Hartman, secretary, and W. S. Brown, and families, 
and a large party to join the colony, arrived in Denver yesterday 
morning. About twenty more are expected to arrive soon. They 
come from the vicinity of Boston and Lj^nn, Massachusetts. An- 
other large force is on the way. The colony is located at Evans, 
and is prospering very finely. 

OUR NEIGHBORS— THE WESTERN COLONY. ^ 
We paid a visit to the new colony at Evans, the other day and 
found things progressing reasonably well. A bridge across the Platte 
is nearly done, work is progressing on the irrigating canal, back of 
the town, and we counted some half a dozen houses going up. 
Inside lots, 25x150 feet are held at $100 and corner lots at $150, 
Rev. Mr. Todd the President had just returned from the East. 



^Denver Daily Tribune, May 12, 1871, p. 4. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, May 13, 1871, p. 1. 
^Greeley Tribune, May 24, 1871, p. 2. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



377 



looking well; and Hon. J. H, Pinkerton Vice President, was on 
hand ready for business. There is no reason why they should not 
succeed, and we certainly hope they will build up a nice town and 
put a large breadth of land under the plow Being only four miles 
distant we ought to be good neighbors. But we have no idea 
they can succeed while they have three liquor shops and a gambling 
saloon running. It is true that these establishments were in oper- 
ation before the}^ came, and no violence should be done, but they 
should be disposed of in some quiet and satisfactory way, and then 
when another one pushes in, give it Hail Columbia. Most of the 
people whom we saw seemed intelligent, industrious and highly 
pleased with the place. 

THE COLONIES.! 
Among the arrivals, this morning, were about fifteen persons 
for Evans. Mr. W. A. Garvin and family, late of Westville, 111., 
who were on the train, go to Evans to establish a first-class hotel. 
We learn that everything goes on well down there. From Mr. 
D. S. Green, President of the Southwestern Colony, who is in town, 
we learn that their camp down the Platte, is growing, and addi- 
tions are coming in. Longmont is getting ahead, and is a flourish- 
ing town for a few weeks old settlement. There are indications 
that the new colony south of Evans, on the Denver Pacific, will 
fill in rapidly. Greeley, the father of all the colonies, is receiving 
as large additions as any of them, an indication that although now 
well grown it is to become a much larger place. 

HOW THEY GET ON AT EVANS.^ 
From parties who were down yesterday we learn some facts 
in regard to the progress of the St. Louis Western Colony at that 
place. On Friday evening colonists, citizens and ranchmen cele- 
brated the completion of the new Platte River Bridge by dance, 
supper and songs. There are some fifteen new buildings under 
way. The arrival of colonists the past two weeks have been up- 
wards of fifty. Among the projects under way are the printing 
office, the press already having arrived, and the type daily expect- 
ed. Mr. Garvin, formerly of Nashville, 111., has bought the Bar- 

Wenver Daily Tribune, May 25, 1871, p. 4. 
Denver Daily Tribune, May 31, 1871, p. 4, 



378 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

tels House, and is refitting it preparatory to opening a first-class 
hotel. Mr. Samuel Ewing, late of Sparta, 111., has brought on 
horses and buggies, and will set up a good liveiy stable. The new 
brick-yard will be supplying the demand in two or three weeks. 
A merchant from Cheyenne is about to open a complete store. 
The people are well contented; are busy setting things to rights, 
and for a bit of enjoyment have planned a basket pic-nic and camp 
out in the mountains on the 4th of July. Hon. J. M. McCutcheon, 
Treasurer, is expected about the 10th of June, and will remain a 
month or two. 



TERRITORIAL NEWS.^ 
The colony at Evans, five miles from Greeley, is receiving new 
members almost every day. An irrigating canal is in process of 
completion, and a good hotel is to be built. The Tennessee colony, 
seventy-five miles below Denver on the Platte, is also receiving 
new members; a canal is under way, and a considerable breadth of 
land is to be put into crops this year, which in a manner is to be 
on general account. . . . 



m FROM EVANS.2 

Revival of the town and its prospects — The St. Louis western 

colony. 

(From our regular correspondent.) 

Evans, June 2d, 1871. 
Eds. News: — It was no idle curiosity, or speculative selfish- 
ness, that prompted me to step off the cars and spend a day at this 
place. Evans now isn't the Evans it was when I was here in De- 
cember last. It was then somewhat dilapidated, or, in western 
parlance, ''well nigh defunct." A change has recently come over 
the spirit of their dreams, and a new order of things has become 
established here. Our people in the east, like the birds of migra- 
tion that alternate through many degrees of latitude during the 
spring and autumn seasons, are swarming to the west, singly and 
in flocks, at all seasons, but not to return. A flock of the latter 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, June 1, 1871, p. 1. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, June 4, 1871, p. 1. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



379 



class of these full fledged embodied and once migratory spirits, 
have recently lit down here, and have already laid broad and deep 
foundations for permanent and lasting homes. 

The ditch here, which is about five miles in length, will soon 
be completed. It is above and around the town on one side, and 
the Platte river is around it on the other, thus inclosing the town 
and a peninsula of about two thousand acres of beautiful land, and 
furnishing an abundance of water with which to irrigate the same, 
and for all necessary purposes. Some twenty-five or thirty houses 
are completed and rapidly tending to completion, which together 
with what buildings still remain of the original town give it the 
appearance of quite a flourishing place. 

The ''St. Louis Western colony" is located at Evans, Rev. 
A. C. Todd, of St. Louis, president; Hon. J. H. Pinkerton, of 
Colorado, vice president; C. F. Hartman, of Illinois, secretary; 
Hon. J. M. McCutcheon, of Illinois, treasurer; Dr. C. C. Bradbury, 
of Boston, Massachusetts, and J. L. Brush, sheriff of Weld county, 
Greeley, Colorado, are members of the board of trustees. I deem 
this a choice location for many reasons. The Platte river sur- 
rounds it on two sides — on the south and on the east. It is on the 
Denver Pacific railroad, 47J^ miles from Denver, and 434 niiles 
from the Union colony at Greeley. It is an open prairie country, 
yet the soil is good, and pure soft water can be obtained at a depth 
of from ten to twenty feet. Much of their lumber comes from 
the mountains along the Union Pacific railroad, and is sold to the 
colonists at $30 per thousand in the rough. One hundred and fifty- 
five dollars is sufficient to purchase a certificate of membership, 
granting equal rights and privileges. A large portion of the mem- 
bers are yet east making a crop this season, and will come on im- 
mediately after harvest. A considerable number of the original 
settlers here and around, have joined the colony, donating lands 
and adding their influence and experience to encourage the others. 
I am informed there are already from three to four hundred mem- 
bers present and to come, yet I would think this an inviting field for 
twice that many more. I saw a brick kiln well under way, and judg- 
ing from the appearance of the clay, a good article of brick will be 
the result. The company have about 60,000 acres of land in a body, 
and can enlarge it to a 100,000 if necessary. There are already 



380 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



three flourishing stores here. B. Cornforth's old stand-by and 
pioneer, is well stocked with general merchandise, and doing a 
lively trade. H. Boettcher's hardware store is just opened with a 
good stock, and John J. Stearns also with a well selected assort- 
ment of furniture. My old soldier friend, G. H. Hardin, is doing 
a first class hotel business at the Hardin House, opposite the depot. 
Mr. Lewis is also hotelling here, and I am informed doing ver}^ 
well. H. N. Shannon is on hand with his livery to give those who 
desire a comfortable ride, and show them the country around. 
The county will soon have completed a good building, which is to 
be occupied by the county clerk, and contain the county records. 
Mr. Todd, president of the colony, has begun the erection of a 
fine brick residence, which is to be thirty-five feet square, two 
stories besides basement, of Gothic architecture and Mansard 
roof. Their printing press is on hand, but no type has yet made 
its appearance, and I believe some firm in Chicago is blamed for 
its delay. C. F. Hartman, who is to manage the enterprise, is 
quite at ease on that score, however, he being kept busy and 
thoroughly stirred up with daily shakes of a foreign article of ague, 
contracted among the bogs of southern IlHnois some time since. 
He is so habituated to the exhilirating exercise, and has practised 
it so long, it has really become second nature to him, and even in 
this climate he finds he is unable to give it up without a struggle. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Smith I am just in from a ride 
at a 2 :40 gait, behind Colorado Chief. For a seven-year old horse 
of ten hundred pounds weight, for strength, speed and endurance, 
I am free to confess I have not seen his equal in the western coun- 
try. I was also shown, at Smith Brothers' stables, a horse of great 
beauty, recently imported from Ireland, and owned by Mr. Ewing. 
He is reputed to be a thoroughbred EngHsh racer. He is, to say 
the least, a magnificent creature. H. 

TIMES AT EVANS. 1 
The past two months has altered the appearance of the place 
very much. The population by a careful canvass is now 500, 
against less than 100 in March. Yesterday there were 21 addi- 
tions, and a party of 20 are en route from Boston. Families are 



^Denver Daily Tribune, June 16, 1871, p. 4. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



381 



now coming by every train. Building is brisk, and everything 
goes on well. Mr. McCutcheon, Treasurer of the Colony, arrived 
yesterday, accompanied by his mother. He will remain to put 
up a house. The newspaper, Evans Journal, will be out next 
week, one side being already up. A car-load of lumber and one of 
household goods and stock, was forwarded from here this morning. 
Crops in the neighborhood are doing well. Garvin's hotel has 
opened, and board is down to $7 per week. Round trip tickets 
from Evans to Denver and return, are but $5.75. 



EVANS. 1 

We have a few facts from this lively town. When the St. 
Louis Western Colony chose that place as its location, in March, 
there were but 46 inhabitants, now the roll is between five and six 
hundred. Last evening the ditches were completed, letting water 
through the streets of the town. Dr. C. C. Bradbury, of Boston, 
with a large party, are expected to arrive this week. During the 
past week the station receipts from Denver were some 52,000 
pounds of freight, more than double the receipts at Greeley from 
this way. 



EVANS. 

The Evans Journal says: The lime-house of Schneider & 
McCutcheon, near the railroad track, ''burst asunder" from top 
to bottom, on Thursday night, owing to the slacking of the lime. — 
Mr. Jas. A. Todd will probably complete the survey of the small 
tracts of the colony land to-night. If so, the distribution will 
take place next Tuesday. — The County Commissioners had a 
meeting at Evans on Monday, Wednesday and Thursday. On 
the last day a petition was presented for the removal of the county- 
seat from Evans to Greeley, or rather, that an election be held on 
the question this fall. The Commissioners decided against the 
request of the petitioners, because apparently a majority of the 
voters are not in favor of holding an election this fall on that sub- 
ject. 

Wenver Daily Tribune, June 27, 1871, p. 4. 
Denver Daily Tribune, July 11, 1871, p. 4. 



382 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



^The following are from the Evans Journal: The potato crop 
up the Thompson will be very large. Potatoes are quoted at two 
cents a pound, but they will soon be down to 13^2) and probably 
lower yet. — The drawing for the Colony lands northwest and west 
of Evans, five and ten acre tracts, is ordered for August 12th. 



A DAY IN EVANS.2 

Items Caught on a Fhdng Visit — The Brightening Prospects of a 
well-located town. 

The permission for a day's absence was received from the 
editor-in-chief with no slight pleasure. Change alwaj^s brings 
rest, especially when it is from the warm and busy streets of our 
city to the more quiet avenues of one of the towns which dot the 
line of the Denver Pacific, and which are fast becoming villages 
and centres of no mean local importance. Thursday's train was 
well filled, and bore its comphment of returning pleasure-seekers, 
with a fair proportion of local travelers. It glided over the smooth 
and well-balasted track at an even and steady rate, the ride, as 
we have often remarked, being one of the finest and most attractive 
in the world. Sam Fisher, our well-known conductor, was not 
less urbane and attentive than ever, and is, we may add, without 
a superior as an experienced and efficient conductor. At Hughes 
the Boulder Valley road leaves us to the left, while Johnson being 
passed, Evans soon appears in view, and passing over the broad 
Platte, we came to a halt at the depot, where we step from the cars 
to spend a day at the capital of Weld county. Its returning life 
and evidence of growth can be seen from the cars, and becomes 
more apparent on a closer inspection. The construction of an 
excellent wagon bridge across the river is an improvement of the 
greatest importance to the town, and of the greatest convenience 
to the surrounding country. It will afford an opportunity for a 
large amount of trade to reach the town, from which it was before 
cut off. A ditch from the Big Thompson, some four or five miles 
long, supplies the town site with water, and affords every possible 
facility for all kinds of irrigation. Unfortunately, it was not com- 

Wenver Daily Tribune, July 31, 1871, p. 4. 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, August 5, 1871, p. 1. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



383 



pleted in time this spring to be of much benefit, but another season 
will bear the fruits of its flowing and fertilizing water. While on 
ditches, we may add that a survey has been begun for a long and 
large canal on the south fork of the river. It will begin between 
fifteen and eighteen miles above the town, and will be so conducted 
as to cover about 13,000 acres of the St. Louis-Western Colony 
lands, besides a large amount of railway and government land. 
It will be constructed during the fall and winter, and ready for 
use next spring. The enterprise is one which should receive great 
encouragement. There is considerable building going on, while 
trade is said to be good. A safe and convenient county clerk's 
office has been finished, and our friend. Cap. Kram, is not a little 
proud of his quarters. The interests of the Denver Pacific are 
attended to by Mr. Ed. House, w^ho is one of the fathers of the 
town. The office of the Evans Journal extends a cordial welcome. 
The editor, Mr. Hartman, is evidently an experienced journahst, 
and is making his weekly one of the best local papers in Colorado. 
Success to the Journal, and thanks to its editor for his courteous 
attention. The assembling of the county convention had drawn 
together representatives from all parts of the county, whose pro- 
ceedings are not yet at hand, and concerning which we need only 
now remark, that the Republicans of Weld county are a remarkably 
fine looking bod}' of men. The St. Louis Western Colony will 
receive large additions, this fall, from southern Ilhnois and from 
New England. The colony is bringing, and will continue to 
bring, a large and valuable immigration to Colorado. Lender its 
influence Evans is recovering from the reaction which it suffered 
after the Denver Pacific terminus moved on to Denver, and now 
bids fair to become one of the most flourishing and prosperous 
towns in Colorado. Centrally located, in the midst of one of the 
finest and most productive sections of northern Colorado; sur- 
rounded by a number of valleys which, in a few j^ears, will overflow 
wi^h people; occup3dng a position on the river and railway con- 
venient to the business centre of the territory; and commanding 
other numerous advantages, it cannot fail now to enjoy a vigorous 
and healthy growth, to achieve a leading social and commercial 
position, and be numbered, as we hope it will, among the first of 
Colorado's cities. 



384 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



EVANS. 1 

We learn from the last number of the Journal that things are 
flourishing, old citizens and colonists joining earnestly and hope- 
fulljMn building up the town. We clip the following items : The 
First Covenanter Congregation was organized on the 2nd, by a 
committee of the Presbytery of Illinois, consisting of Rev. A. C. 
Todd, Rev. J. McCracken and Elder Jas. Beal. Twenty-seven 
regular members were received. Three Elders, Rev. J. Farris, 
J. Beal and J. Beattie, were elected and installed. One deacon, 
S. Farris, was elected. — C. F. Hartman, Secretary of the St. Louis 
Western Colony, gives notice that 100 five and ten acre eligible 
lots will be open for selection August 19, at 1 o'clock p. m. — It 
appears that a movement is on foot to organize a Fair for the three 
counties of Boulder, Weld and Larimer, to be held at some central 
point this Fall. — Mr. D. L. Wise has been appointed Deputy 
Postmaster. — Mr. Godfrey brought some specimens of splendid 
oats to town, a few days ago. He says he has a bunch of oats in 
his field numbering over a hundred stalks, all sprung from one 
seed. — On Tuesday last D. Witter, Esq., of Denver, sold a tract 
of land, (nearly 1,000 acres) 9 miles down the Platte from Evans, 
for the sum of $9,500 — about $10 an acre. Mr. Ovid Plumb, of 
Greeley, was the purchaser. 

[Improvements and Politics at Evans.] 
FROM WELD COUNTY.^ 
(From our special correspondence.) 

Evans, August 24, 1871. 
Editor News : . . . Quite an improvement is going on at 
Evans. Some ten or a dozen new buildings have recently been 
completed and that many more are in course of completion. 
President Todd's fine house is well under way. A new hotel is in 
operation on the hill southwest of the depot. Its location is a 
high, dry, airy and commanding one. The county clerk's office 
is completed and its present incumbent — Captain Cram — is snugly 
domiciled in as pleasant an office as there is in the territorj^ The 
colony members are all pushing ahead with energy and determina- 

^Denver Daily Tribune, August 7, 1871, p. 4. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, August 25, 1871, p. 1. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



385 



tion, and so long as that disposition characterizes this people, 
failure will never come. The Evans Journal is alive to the interests 
of the colony and the wants of the people ; and its proprietors have 
unbounded faith in the future growth and prosperity of the entire 
enterprise in which they have enlisted to do battle. Wherever I 
travel I find stock of every kind looking remarkably fat and 
healthy. And if at our approaching territorial fair, we don't as- 
tonish somebody with as fine a display of horses and cattle as they 
have ever seen in the west, then I am done with prophecy. 

I am sorry to learn that the political condition of this district 
is sadly muddled. Several posters have come under my observa- 
tion headed ''People's convention," *'To be held at Evans, August 
28, 1871," etc. Among others who have signed the call I notice 
the names of several prominent Republicans of Larimer and Weld 
counties. Now if I understand the nature of the scheme it is 
simply a plot to break up the Republican party in these two coun- 
ties. It will amount to a fusion party with a fusion ticket, and 
end in fuse. It originated in personal pique, and local spite and 
jealousy. A few dead political ducks hope to resurrect themselves 
in the operation, and cheat the d — 1 out of his just dues. It won't 
do gentlemen, it won't do! Better go back to your first love — 
remember the old adage — ''the stone that keeps rolling will gather 
no moss, etc.." No good honest Republican will be caught with 
such a rotten bait, and the dishonest ones that are in the pool, 
will simply receive their final death blow. But Pharaoh like, let 
them go down into the filthy political cess-pool and die there. 
I append some statistics of Weld county, compiled from the assess- 
or's book for 1871 : 

Weld county assessment for 1871 is as follows: 47,057 acres 
of land and improvements, $507,781; 4000 town lots, $199,863; 
1,428 horses, $88,282; 138 mules, $12,240; 5,134 cows, $141,680; 
2,378 oxen, $61,313; 8,590 calves, $105,489; 3,014 sheep, $6,490; 
399 swine, $2,653; 8 goats, $12; 37 musical instruments, $1,647; 
426 clocks, watches, gold and silver plate, etc., $4,700. All other 
property, $508,211. Total, $1,640,352. 



386 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



WELD COUNTY COLONIES, i 

Evans, August 25, 1871. 

We shall never ''see ourselves as others see us," and the sigh 
of the modern Miss Spangles, ''O, that I could stand by the road- 
side and see myself pass by," will hardly be verified. We seldom 
meet a Colorado colonist in his new Arcadia, but he asks, ''Well, 
what do you think of us?" and just now they have so many scrib- 
blers among them the question is sterreotyped. When it comes 
to the matter of newspaper writers the old query of historical or 
political fact, "Have we a Bourbon amongst us?" has of late days 
been transformed into the more serious quandary, "Have we a 
bummer amongst us?" Just as naturally as the bee follows the 
best flower do bummers follow the best signs of progress, and the 
former is never more thoroughly satisfied by a single prick in the 
bush that the blossom won't make honey, than is the latter con- 
fident upon the enormity of having a board bill to settle, that the 
town is a miserable failure. We think it a httle singular as well 
as sad that respectable eastern newspapers will give credentials to 
cheap outsiders who, always regarded as thin-minded do-nothings 
at home, become buffers and bummers as soon as they cross the 
plains. The colonies have been for months past afflicted with 
this sort of vermin. If you at once suspend business and give 
them a free thing on liveries, whisky shops, and hotels, they will 
write most fulsome praise of your wonderful thrift, but if you dare 
to mind your own business and let them pay their way, they 
promptly give your colony over to perdition. Greeley, Longmont 
and Evans have in this way suffered detraction. Here is Evans, 
a town that, six months ago, had forty-six inhabitants, and now, 
by a census just completed, has 650; which has 100 houses, two- 
thirds of them built this summer, which has quadrupled its station 
business since April; has laid out $10,000 in ditches and improve- 
ments, and is going ahead with substantial and swift growth — 
some eastern correspondents call it a failure. 

All the colonists are busy. Good crops have been raised by 
those who were on the ground early enough this season. Public 
improvements are noted on every hand. The square is laid out. 
A forty-acre tract for public schools and a college, has been staked 

Wenver Daily Tribune, August 29, 1871, p. 4. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



387 



off in a splendid location. Brick and lumber yards, new stores, 
and county buildings have lately been put up, and a first-class 
newspaper established. All summer new colonists have been com- 
ing. Old settlers cordially join in this improved new order of 
things, and from far down the Platte, from the Cache-a-la-Poudre 
and Big Thompson are looking upon Evans as their natural market. 
Of this year's crops already large amounts of hay and produce have 
been brought to this station and shipped to Denver and Cheyenne. 
Letters of inquiry from those who talk of joining the colony, and 
assurance from those who are making ready to come on, are daily 
received. We cannot expect a city in a day, but what has been 
accomplished in Evans during the past half year, seems proof 
enough that all is going well. 

We did not visit Greeley, but have before written of prosperity 
in that quarter. As the two towns are in a measure representative 
of the whole county, we present the statistics showing the valua- 
tion of property, etc., for the years 1870 and 1871 compared. 
(We are indebted for the information to Dr. Kram) the statement 
for 1871 having just been completed. Total valuation for 1871: 



VALUATION FOR 1871. 



47,050 acres land and improvements. 

4,000 town lots 

1,428 horses..... 

138 mules 

5,134 cows 

2,378 oxen 

8,590 calves 

3,014 sheep..._ 

399 swine 

8 goats 

37 musical instruments 

426 clocks, watches, jewelry, etc 

All other property , 



.$ 507,781 



1,647 
4,700 
509,894 



199,863 
88,282 
12,240 
141,680 
61,313 
105,480 
6,490 
2,653 



12 



Total valuation for 1871 



$1,642,035 



388 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 
Following is the table for 1870. 

VALUATION FOR 1870. 



33,133 acres improved land $ 219,863 

1,071 town and city lots 19,375 

889 horses 55,845 

94 mules 8,350 

10,294 cows 193,563 

645 oxen. 22,625 

57 calves 456 

1,747 sheep 4,726 

196 swine 1,945 

13 goats 13 

7 musical instruments 143 

Clocks, watches, etc 1,718 

All other property 325,759 



Total valuation for 1870 $ 854,381 



From a comparison of the above tables it will be seen that the 
assessed valuation of Weld county has increased over three quar- 
ters of a million, and fairly doubled in one year. This remarkable 
gain may be traced almost entirely to the accessions of the colonies 
and the improvements they have made. The estimated popula- 
tion of the county is now 3,200, against 1,478 in June, 1870. The 
enrolled voters number 780, against 336 in September, 1870. The 
new element at Evans will not be entitled to vote this Fall, but 
that at Greeley comes into full citizenship now for the first time, 
and out of their 446 registered voters all but 25 are counted Re- 
publican. Evans, with her population of 650, against 46 six 
months ago, will add not far from 100 voters to the registry next 
Spring, about three-fourths Republican. The above facts, gath- 
ered by a few hours' stay in Evans, are such as the Missouri 
Democrat's gouty special might have gained, if instead of squinting 
from the car window, he had taken the pains to alight and investi- 
gate; and are such as any fairly disposed newspaper writer could 
at any time pick up. J. A. B. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



389 



[Irrigation.] 

^SsLys the Evans Journal: ''The contract for the construction 
of the first eight miles of ditch No. 2, was awarded to I. Gonsolus. 
Work is to be pushed to completion. As soon as practicable the 
remainder of the ditch will be surveyed and a portion of it let in 
small sections, probably in half mile divisions, so as to accommo- 
date members of the colony with small means who desire to take 
contracts on the ditch, and also to give opportunity to those own- 
ing land under it to pay for a water right. This irrigating canal 
is to be taken out of the Platte about three miles north of Johnson, 
and will follow the D. P. railway for some nine miles. At this 
point it will divide and run into canals of smaller dimensions, the 
one following the line of bluffs that lie south of Evans to the eastern 
extremity of our colom^ lands, and the other following a ridge of 
land between the railroad and the Platte. The whole length of 
the ditch will be about thirty miles." 

EVANS.2 

The following items are furnished by the Journal: 
Mr. John McMillan, from near Sparta, 111., arrived yesterday 
with a car-load of stock. — A squad of soldiers from Fort Russell 
came down to Evans and gobbled up our barber, Charles Miller, 
who, it appears, was "absent without leave." — The sixteen horses 
which Mr. Geary, living thirteen miles down the Platte, thought 
were stolen from him last week, (and which the telegraph reported 
were stolen by the Indians) all came back a few days ago. 

EVANS.3 

A meeting of the electors of the Evans school district was held 
Saturday evening, in relation to providing a suitable school build- 
ing. Also to take into consideration the question of buying hose 
enough to reach from the railroad water-tank to the main street 
of Evans, to be used in case any sudden fire should break out in 
the long row of frame buildings on Denver street. Last Monday 
evening the building in which is the railroad water-tank, caught 
fire. By prompt work on the part of our citizens, it was subdued 
without much injury to the building. — Journal. 

^Denver Daily Tribune, October 2, 1871, p. 2. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, November 20, 1871, p. 4. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, November 27, 1871, p. 4. 



390 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Gate on Greeley Road.] 

^It is said that some of our people leave the gate open on the 
road to Evans, and consequently cattle get in and find their way 
to the pound. Particular care should be taken in this respect, 
for the Evans people generally are good neighbors and we ought 
to keep them so. 



By Wm. D. Kelley, Altoona, Pa. Special Correspondence to 
Phila. Press. 

COOPERATIVE COLONIES^ 



Their Growth in Colorado 



To tell the story of any one of the Colorado colonies is, with 
an allowance for some difference in details, to tell that of each of 
them. Between the St. Louis Western and all the others there 
are differences worthy of note. It does not, and the others do, 
make temperance a prerequisite to membership, or convey its lots 
subject to a covenant that intoxicating beverages shall never be 
manufactured or sold thereon. The founders of the other colonies 
hope to protect themselves against the idleness, improvidence, 
poverty and crime engendered by the ''drinking usages" of society; 
and to accomplish this end impose legal restraints upon themselves 
and those who may abide with them; but the members of the St. 
Louis Western believe in the largest liberty, and invite settlement 
and commerce by permitting every branch of manufacture and 
trade to be pursued within its territorial limits. Evans has its 
saloons and beer shops — the other towns have none; Evans has a 
billiard room or two, to which luxury the others are strangers; and 
when the circus comes along it makes its ring at Evans, and if the 
Greeleyites and Longmonters want to see its wonders they must 
for the time patronize the worldly rival, among whose people their 
"Puritanism" is a jest and a byword. If the taxes, habits of the 
people, police requirements, &c., of Evans shall differ essentially 
from those of Greeley, the contrast will be mainly ascribable to 
those few differences in the organic laws of the colonies, inasmuch 

^Gredey Tribune, November 29, 1871, p. 3. 
Greeley Tribune, December 6, 1871, p. 1. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



391 



as their location and general capacity for agriculture, manu- 
factures and commerce are, in my judgment, absolutely equal. 

Greeley has somewhat the start in numbers, but not largely. 
Which has the better location I cannot guess. The towns are, as 
have said, both on the Denver Pacific road. They are but four 
miles apart; Evans being that much nearer to Denver, and Greeley 
having the like advantage in its commerce with. Cheyenne, which, 
as you know, is a dining station and considerable town on the 
Union Pacific road; and it requires but a brief stay in each town 
to satisfy one that the people of each expect to enjoy the trade 
of a larger portion of the Platte Valley than the 'other, and to 
compete successfully for the business of the valleys of the St. 
Vrain, the Big Thompson, and the Cache la Poudre. The char- 
acteristics of the soil and climate throughout the territory of 
the two colonies are identical, as their lands must be contiguous 
at some point or points. It is not often that neighboring towns 
start with such entire coincidence of time and natural advan- 
tages, that the fact that the members of one may and those of 
the other may not manufacture or sell intoxicating beverages 
constitutes the only really essential distinction between them. 
A few years will disclose the results of each system; but I venture 
the prediction that ''King Alcohol" will prove as unruly a tyrant 
and exorbitant a tax-gatherer at Evans as he does elsewhere. 
If so, the contrasts presented by the other colonies will be easily 
traced to their cause. 

Those who contemplate the organization of a colony may be 
glad to know how much land these two have, and how and from 
whom it was acquired. That of which Evans is the town has the 
control of 60,000 acres, being part of the lands granted by Congress 
in aid of the Denver Pacific Railroad. To what portion they have 
acquired actual title I do not know. They have constructed a 
five-mile canal or ditch in time to put two thousand acres under 
crop last spring, and were making fine progress with a larger one 
in July. It is, therefore, fair to assume that they have absolute 
title to 10,000 acres. It is proper to remark in passing, that such 
associations should always, when making an original purchase, 
acquire, as they can do, the option of taking a considerable body 
of land, the value of which is to be increased by their labor and 



392 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



sacrifices; but this should be held in trust for aftercomers, whose 
CO operation in the development of the country will pay the pio- 
neers better than it would if, by violating the principles of co- 
operation, they held it for speculative prices and retarded settle- 
ment. 



[Colorado Building and Emigration Society.] 
^The Evans Journal says arrangements are completed with 
"The Colorado Building and Emigration Society of Europe and 
America," by which their members will be sent to Evans. By 
this they expect to get all the members for whom they can find 
room, either in Evans or under the forty miles of irrigating ditch. 
Each member of this Society must have at least five hundred 
dollars' w^orth of property in Evans, and a life insurance poHcy 
for at least five hundred more, so that in those cases which will 
occur occasionally where the mother and children are deprived 
by death of the husband and father and find themselves strangers 
in a strange land they are not left dependent on charity, and a 
burden upon the Colony. About one thousand city lots and eight 
thousand acres, divided into tracts of from 2}^ to 10 acres, have 
been selected and set apart for these members. The first are ex- 
pected to arrive about the first of February, and will consist of 
fifty gardeners, and laborers in proportion — together with a miller 
prepared to go at once to work in erecting a grist-mill, etc. 



[English Emigrants Expected at Evans.] 
^It is stated that the Colony at Evans is to be increased by 
the arrival of 100 families, or 1000 people from England. They 
are said to belong to the middle class, and to have both intelli- 
gence and means. The first arrivals are expected in Febmary, 
and various improvements are to commence forthwith; a grist mill 
being mentioned. If this is true, and we have no reason to doubt 
it, the news is good. What is wanted in this, and in all other parts 
of Colorado, is more people. However rich the soil may be, and 
however much precious metals may abound, they are of little con- 
sequence if the country is thinly settled. But if in any given area 

Wenver Daily Tribune, December 18, 1871, p. 2. 
Greeley Tribune, December 20, 1871, p. 2. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 



393 



of soils which produces breads and all the luxuries and comforts 
of life in abundance, as is the case here, a large population is es- 
tablished, the inevitable result must be an increase of all kinds of 
business, and a rise in the prices of land. We hold it to be a fixed 
fact, that the value of landed property depends entirely upon the 
number of people settled upon it, or in the vicinity, and that an 
immigrant never arrives without adding something to the value 
of property. We therefore welcome the new comers. 

[Evans in the Spring of 1872.] 
OUR GREELEY LETTER— A LITTLE OF EVERYTHING^ 
Greeley, March 10, 1872. 

At Evans I was captured by my genial friend, Hartman, of 
the Journal. Under his direction I strolled through the laby- 
rinths of the embryo city, and had pointed out to me its multitude 
of beauties, and its prospective greatness was advocated with 
befitting zeal. 

Although the sun is just now letting them out of the snow- 
banks, yet they are fresh and full of hope. They are taking hold 
of their building and farming interests with a determination that 
will not admit of failure. Newmeyer and Pay ton are to erect a 
two story brick building, twenty by sixty. Sam Ashcraft designs 
building a two story brick structure for a hotel, fifty by eighty, 
on the site of the old one recently burned. Positive arrangements 
have been effected, so I am informed, by which quite an English 
immigration will be added to this colony during the approaching 
spring and summer, and fifty families are expected to arrive in 
April. Mr. Board, who is operating in England in behalf of the 
colony, says he will begin sending people to Evans by the last of 
March. 

H 



EVANS.2 

This town, the capitol of Weld county, is located on the South 
Platte, 48 miles north of Denver. It was laid out in October, 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, March 12, 1872, p. 1. 
^Hand-Book of Colorado, Denver, 1872, pp. 57-67. 



394 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



1869, and named in honor of Governor Evans, the chief promoter 
of the Denver Pacific Railway, of which it was for some months 
the terminus. When the raih'oad was built on to Denver the place 
became almost deserted, though possessing some of the best natural 
attractions to be found in Colorado. The class who follow the 
fortunes of railroads, pulling up and pushing ahead to each success- 
ive terminus, are not the class to build up towns or to appreciate 
the resources of a country. It was not until the projectors of the 
St. Louis Western and New England colonies who had traveled the 
Territory and compared locations, met here, and selected this as 
their point of settlement, that the place began to change. On 
the 2d of April, 1871, when the first family of colonists arrived, 
Evans numbered but forty inhabitants. On the 1st of September, 
1872, the population was 750. The town has a new and enter- 
prising look; streets broad and named after the [p. 59. Map of 
Evans on p. 58] prominent towns of the Territory, and the inter- 
secting streets numbered; the blocks well laid out; gardens, shade 
trees, plenty of good water, healthy climate, and all the prepara- 
tions that make a place thrifty, handsome and home-like. 

The Colony has complete control of the town-site of Evans 
and of 60,000 acres of farming lands, on each side of the railroad 
and of the Platte, and immediately adjoining the town-site. 
These are conceded to be the choice lands of the territory. 

To provide plenty of water for gardens, trees and the other 
uses of the town, a ditch was taken out from the mouth of the 
Big Thompson, seven feet on the bottom with a fall of three and 
one-half feet to the mile; and to bring under cover the outlying 
lands, another was constructed from the Platte above Johnson 
Station. The main trunk of the latter is nine miles in length, 
ten feet on the bottom, with an average fall of five feet to the mile; 
and the east branch eight feet on the bottom, with a fall of five 
feet. This ditch and branches covers 55,000 acres, furnishing 
plenty of water and unfailing crops. 

Evans has a bank, three large dry-goods and grocery stores, 
a drug store, a furniture store, two blacksmith shops, a harness 
shop, two good hotels, a bakery, a butcher shop, boot and shoe 
store, one physician, two lawyers, three surveyors, one real estate 
firm, one livery, and other classes of trade. 



ST. LOUIS WESTERN COLONY 395 

The town has a fine depot, express and telegraph office, and 
daily mails. All trains stop at this station, and through the in- 
fluence of the citizens the Denver [p. 61; p. 60 advertisements] 
Pacific • Railroad company have put on a daily accommodation 
train from Evans to Denver, leaving the former place in the morn- 
ing and returning at night. 

The following is a statement of the freight business of Evans 
station for the quarter ending June 30, 1872: 

Forwarded Received 

April ...454,378 lbs.. 604,543 lbs. 

May ......247,579 " 540,377 

June 115,854 531,640 " 



Total 817,816 lbs 1,676,560 lbs. 

The monthly cash receipts w^ere as follows: April, $2,493.42; 
May, S2,869.26; June $2,541.21; total, $7,903.89. 

There is a stage to St. Louis, Larimer county, twice a week, 
and to Green City every other day. 

Bonds to the amount of $12,000 have been voted to build a 
union school house, and it is expected that the building will be 
completed by November. Two churches, Presbyterian and Cov- 
enanter, are in process of construction; and two more societies, 
the Episcopal and Methodist, are about to build, the Colonj^ hav- 
ing donated grounds for this purpose to all denominations. A 
Lyceum is well sustained. 

Among the improvements now going on and projected we 
note the building of a fine brick hotel, two stories, 60x75 feet, to 
cost $16,000, and to be ready for guests by October 1st; two 
churches, the school building, a new^ banking house, and several 
handsome residences. 

The Platte river at this place affords excellent water power; 
a fall of 12 feet to the mile can be obtained. The Colony having 
offered to donate $1,000 to the persons who would start the first 
machinery, we are glad to hear that a gentleman has already re- 
sponded and will put up a large brick flour and grist mill this fall, 
[p. 63. Page 62 advertisements] 

Evans being the county seat of Weld, the largest county in 
Colorado east of the Range, covering more area than Massachu- 



396 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



setts, from Illinois, Massachusetts and Missouri, but almost all 
the States are represented. Constant accessions are being made. 
By an arrangement recently completed with ''The Colorado 
Building and Immigration Society of Europe and America," 
whose headquarters are in London, it is probable that a large num- 
ber of industrious and intelhgent English families will join the 
Colony. 

The Evans Journal, one of the best papers in Colorado, is 
published weekly by C. F. Hartman & Co., who also have a well 
selected job office. 

Those desirous to join the Colony can do so by remitting to 
Rev. A. C. Todd, President and Local Treasurer, $155, on receipt 
of which a Colony Certifi [p. 67. Pages 64, 65, 66 advertisements] 
cate will be issued and mailed to the person applying, which will 
entitle him to reduced rates of passage from St. Louis to Evans. 
Any desiring fuller information will address the President or 
Secretary at Evans. The Board of Trustees of the Colony is as 
follows: Rev. A. C. Todd, President; Hon. J. H. Pinkerton, 
Vice-President; Major J. C. Febles, Secretary; Hon. J. M.JMc- 
Cutcheon, Treasurer; Dr. C. C. Bradbury, H. C. Sherman. 

Distances: Evans to Denver, 48 miles; to Julesburg, 150; 
to Cheyenne, 58; to Boulder, 39; to Central, 80; to Green City, 
24; to Longmont, 28; to St. Louis, 18; to Fort Collins,l22; to 
Greeley, 4; to Big Thompson Canon, 25; to Na qua (foot of the 
mountains) 23. 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



DOCUMENTS 



^Cert of Incorporation The South Western Colony Certificate 

of of Incorporation 

The South Western know all men by these presents that 
Colony We David S. Green, Lucian G. Dun- 

Filed navan and Peter B. Wills of Green 

for record at 5 oclock City, County of Weld and Territory 
P. M. May 26th 1871 of Colorado desiring to form an an 
W. J Kram incorporated company for the purpose 

Recorder of aiding, encouraging and inducing 

immigration to the Territory of Colo- 
rado, under the provisions of Chapter 18 of the Revised Statutes 
of Colorado Territory and of the amendments thereto approved 
February 10th 1870 do hereby make this our certificate in writing, 
and do state, certify and declare 

1st That the corporate name of said company shall be 
The South Western Colony 

2nd That the objects for which the said company is formed are 
for the purpose of aiding encouraging and inducing immigration 
to the Territory of Colorado, to aid generally in promoting the 
industrial and productive interests of the country, and to or- 
ganize, manage and conduct the municipal affairs of the Town 
of Green City in the County of Weld and Territory of Colorado. 

3rd. The amount of the capital stock of said company shall be 
One hundred thousand (100.000) dollars which shall be divided 
into twenty thousand (20.000) shares of Five Dollars ($5) each 

4th The term of the existence of said company shall be for the 
period of Thirty (30) years from the date of the signing of these 
presents. 

5th The number of the Trustees to manage the affairs of said 

Company shall be Three (3) 
6th David. S. Green, Lucian. G. Dunnavan and Peter. B. Wills 

shall be the said Trustees for the first year. 

iWeld County Mortgage Record, II, pp. 7-8. 



399 



400 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



7th The principal place of business of said company shall be in 
Green City, in [p. 8] the County of Weld and Territory of Colo- 
rado. 

8th The operations of said company shall be carried on in the 
County of Weld in the Territoiy of Colorado. 

9th The Tmstees of said Company shall have power to make such 
prudential by-laws as they may deem proper for the management 
and disposition of the stock and business affairs of said Company 
— for prescribing the duties of officers, agents, artificers and ser- 
vants that may be employed, and for the appointment of all 
officers and agents for carrying on all kinds of business within 
the objects and purposes of said company 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and 
seals at Denver in the Territory of Colorado, the Twenty third 
day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy one 

David. S. Green 
Lucian. G. Dunnavan 
Peter. B. Wills 

INotarial attestation] 



^Certificate of Incorporation 
of 

South Western Colony 
Ditch Company 
Filed 

for record at 5 oclock 
P. M. June 27th 1871 
W J Kram 

Recorder 



To all w^hom it may concern. Be 
it known that We David S. Green, 
D. Hansbrough, Josiah. F. Ayres, 
Frank Green and A. W. Thomp- 
son of Weld County and Terri- 
tory of Colorado, have this the 
24th day of June A. D. 1871 
formed and organized themselves 
into a Corporation hy the name 



of "The South Western Colony 
Ditch Company" to continue and exist for the benefit of them- 
selves and their associates and successors for a tenn not exceeding 
thirty (30) years from this date. The object of said Company is 
to build a Ditch for the purpose of irrigating lands on the South 
side of the Platte River, and said ditch shall be taken from said 



iWeld County Mortgage Record. II, p. 152. 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 




401i/ 



Platte River at or about the division line between towns four and 
five North and that line that shall divide the Range Sixty-three and 
sixty-four West in the County of Weld and Territory of Colorado. 

The Capital Stock of said Company shall be twenty thousand 
dollars and shall be divided into two thousand shares of ten dollars 
each 

The Office of said Company shall be at the Town of Green 
City, in the Count}- of Weld and Territory of Colorado. 
David S. Green, D. Hansbrough, Josiah F. Ayres, Frank Green, 
and A. W. Thompson have been appointed directors of said Com- 
pany for the first year of said organization. The number of Di- 
rectors of said Company shall consist of five stockholders 

Witness our hands this the 24th day of June A. D. 1871 

David S. Green 

Decatur Hansbrough 

Josiah F. Ayres 

Frank Green 

A. W. Thompson 

[Notarial Attestation] 



[Constitution of the Southw^estern Colony] 
THE SOUTHWESTERN COLONY. ^ 

This Colony is located on the Platte River Valley, about 
25 miles east of Evans, at a point on the Denver Pacific Railway, 
and about 75 miles northeast of Denver, Colorado. It has irrigable 
lands for 25 miles on either side of the Platte, and large bodies of 
lands that need no irrigation — in the Lost Spring Creek and Kiowa 
Valleys — both of which streams empty into The Platte River, near 
the town site. There are already a large number of persons on the 
ground, engaged in building, agriculture, and in constructing the 
irrigation ditch. 

Its Constitution is as follows : 

1st. The object of this colonj^ is to form a settlement in the 
Territory of Colorado, to be known as 'The Southwestern Colony'. 

2nd. Its officers consist of a President, Vice-President, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, who are elected for the term of one year, or 



Wenver Daily Tribune, March 23, 1871. 



402 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



until removed for incompetency or misconduct; whose duty it is 
to prescribe all needful rules and regulations; who constitute within 
themselves a board of general supervision, and have the power to 
choose one of their number as the Chairman and executive of their 
body. 

3rd. All persons of good moral character and temperate 
habits, desirous of emigrating to the West, can become members 
cff this colony by paying to the Treasurer, or either of its authorized 
agents, one hundred dollars; which will secure to such member 
one lot in the town-site, valued at twenty dollars; one share in the 
joint stock colony farm, together with special rates of transporta- 
tion to the colony, and the privilege of locating by pre-emption 
or homestead 160 acres of land in the vicinity of the colony. The 
remainder of the one hundred dollars is to form a fund in the hands 
of the Treasurer, to be expended in the construction of the irri- 
gating ditch, and other necessary expenses, which secures the right 
of water therefrom to each member to irrigate the land owned by 
such member to the extent of 160 acres and his town property. 
This right shall be perpetual and pass with the land. 

4th. In addition to the one lot, each member has the priv- 
ilege to purchase as many more in the town site as he may choose, 
ranging in price from $20.00 to $50.00; and also, as many shares in 
the colony farm as he may desire, not exceeding fifty. 

5th. Should the amount reserved to construct the ditch 
(and for other expenses) prove insufficient to complete the same, 
then each member is liable to a further tax, not more than $50.00, 
which can be paid in money or labor on the ditch, as may be elected, 
at customary prices. 

6th. The Capital stock of the 'Colony Farm Joint Stock 
Company' shall be $20,000.00, divided into shares of $20.00 each, 
which can be paid in money or labor on the farm, at the option of 
each member. 

7th. The management of the Colony Farm, shall be con- 
ducted by a Board of Directors, consisting of five persons, who shall 
be governed by the following rules and regulations and who are 
elected by the members of the Colony: 

1st. The Board of Directors shall elect one of their number as Chair- 
man, and general supervising agent, who shall give his attention to the man- 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



403 



agement of the farm, and who, with the advice and consent of the other 
members of the Board, shall be empowered to purchase stock, farming imple- 
ments, seed and all other things necessary' to carr\' on, in a husbandman-like 
manner, said farm. He shall also have power, with the advice and consent 
of the rest of the Board, to raise funds for the furtherance of the interests of 
said farm, if need be, which shall severally bind each shareholder of the com- 
pany, according to the amount of his investment. 

2nd. The supervising agent shall act as Treasurer and disbursing officer, 
and keep the books and accounts of said company. 

3rd. Said Board shall also manage the construction of the colony irri- 
gating ditch, and said supervising agent shall have all and singularly the 
powers in the management thereof, and the same duties shall devolve upon 
him in this, as in the management of the colony farm. 

4th. The ditch or ditches, shall be taken, one from the Platte River, a 
sufficient distance to give a fall thereto not less than 18 inches, nor more than 
5 feet to the mile; and the other Cif found necessary to irrigate the lands occu- 
pied by the Colonists in Lost Spring Creek bottom,) from the Lost Spring 
Creek, with the same conditions as to fall, &c. 

5th. The Supervising Agent shall be answerable to the Board of Di- 
rectors for the faithful performance of his several duties. 

6th. The Super-vising Agent shall have the power to call to his assistance 
a private secretary', and shall be entitled to a salary of one hundred and fifty 
dollars per month, during the continuance of the Colony Farm Joint Stock 
Company. 

8th. Each shareholder in the colony farm shall be liable, 
only to the extent of the amount subscribed, except as above pro- 
vided. 

9th. The organization, so far as the Colony Farm is con- 
cerned, shall continue only during the current year of 1871, 
(unless otherwise ordered by a majority of the stockholders) at 
the expiration of which time the stock, implements, &:c, shall be 
sold, an estimate taken of the amount of produce raised upon said 
farm, and after the payment of all necessarj^ expenses, the re- 
mainder shall be divided among the shareholders in proportion to 
the amount of stock held by each member, the dividend to be paid 
in grain or monej^ as the shareholders may elect. 

10th. The stock paid in work, as above provided, shall be 
regarded as money; and the supervising agent shaU issue to each 
member a certificate of stock, for each share, as the same is paid 
in, or upon the presentation of a certificate of membership signed 
by an authorized agent of the colony. 



404 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



11th. When the stock is issued upon the presentation of a 
certificate of membership as above provided, it shall be the duty 
of the supervising agent to endorse thereon the fact of such issu- 
ance, and keep a record of the same in the books of the company. 

12th. This organization as to the irrigating ditch, and the 
colony shall continue 20 years. 

13th. The Rev. J. Dix Mills, Major J. C. Febles and Mr. 
P. B. Wills, are hereby constituted the authorized agents for the 
colony. 

For further information examine the Rocky Mountain Di- 
rectory and Colorado Gazetteer, or address 

Col. D. S. Green President, 
Denver, Colorado. 

Or, Mr. S. P. Bernard, Vice President, 

Covington, Tennessee. 
Or, Lyman H. Colt, Treasurer and Supervising Agent, 
Green City, Colorado. 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



405 



EXCERPTS F ROM N EWSPAPERS 

[Organization of Southwestern Colony; Its Interest in 

Mining.] 

^Mr. D. S. Green, formerly of the firm of Green & Glaze of 
this city, called last night and gave us some particulars of the 
formation of a Colony for settlement in Colorado, from Tennessee, 
Virginia and North Carolina, the headquarters of the movement 
being at Memphis. Mr. Green arrived two days ago, with Mr. 
P. B. Wills, President of the Colony, and accompanied b}- twenty- 
four members of the Colony, who will remain. Mr. Green, Mr. 
Wills, and Col. Keller of the Memphis Avalanche, will return 
shortly to report as to a location. They expect to fix upon some 
place on the Platte not far from Denver, or somewhere on the 
Arkansas. 

Mr. Green informs us that they have now over two hundred 
members, and he has no doubt that the number will be increased 
to over one thousand in a few weeks. 

The formation of this Colony is a httle different from any 
other we have heard of. The first idea was to form a mining com- 
pany alone, but that idea has been modified, although mining will 
constitute a portion of their work. A portion of the money sub- 
scribed for shares in the Colony stock, has been set apart for the 
purchase of mining machinery, to work 300 feet of the Ralls 
County lode and 500 feet of the Egyptian lode on Quartz Hill. 

Mr. Green states that he has succeeded in getting the lowest 
rates of railroad fare for the Colony ever granted to a like bodj^, 
viz: from $72.25 to $26.00. 

[Locating Committee or Southwestern Colony.] 
— ^A committee representing a new Colony, from Tennessee, 
paid us a visit yesterday, consisting of D. S. Green, the originator, 
and P. B. Mills, temporary president. They proceeded in the 
afternoon to Collins and Laporte. Some 200 families are inter- 
ested, mainl}^ living in Tennessee, Mississippi and Virginia. It 



^Daily Colorado Tribune, December 16, 1870, p. 2. 
^Greeley Tribune, December 28, 1870, p. 3. 



406 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



is singular that while Northern people are proposing to colonise 
South, Southern people are proposing to come North. There is 
plent}^ of room in Colorado for colonies, providing the members 
do not want large farms — if they do they must spread themselves 
over the country in which case they will have no colony, while 
irrigation will be next to an impossibility, unless with men of 
large capital. 

[Arrival in Denver of Captain Green and Party.] 
^Captain D. S. Green, of Memphis, Tennessee, has reached 
this city accompanied by twenty-seven members of the Tennessee 
Colony, which intends locating in this territory. Several members 
of the colony are prominent business men of Memphis. 

THE TENNESSEE COLONY.^ 
The Colony, whose headquarters are at Memphis, and which 
has been organized principally by Mr. D. S. Green, formerly of 
this city, has located down the Platte, about seventy-five miles 
below Denver. They have entered about 5,000 acres of govern- 
ment land, and have about twenty-five members of the Colony 
now on the ground at work. Their town has been named "Green 
City," in honor of the founder of the Colony. About a hundred 
more members are expected to arrive on Sunday or Monday next. 

[Location of Southwestern Colony.] 
A NEW C0L0NY.3 

The Tennessee Colony has located 28 miles below us on the 
Platte, several families having arrived, and teams have been up 
to our town for lumber As we are the nearest rail road town, a 
considerable business between the two places may be expected 
henceforth; but as they are on the other side of the Platte, a 
bridge is highly important. 

This colony has two great advantages; one, in being outside 
of the rail-road limits, hence they can pre-empt or homestead land, 
and thus obtain farms for an exceedingly small sum; then, being 
in the valley proper, which is several miles wide, no irrigating 



^ Daily Rocky Mountain News, February 15, 1871, p. 4. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, March 7, 1871, p. 4. 
^Greeley Tribune, March 8, 1871, p. 2. 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



407 



canals will be required, while they will have an immense stock 
range on either side. 

Of course they are without railroad facihties, at present, but 
this will be supplied within two years at least, when they will be 
most admirably situated. If they should establish a ferry, they 
might be able to cross the Platte and reach Pine Bluff, on the 
Union Pacific, in a distance of 30 miles. It would seem, then, 
that this colony, can, at once devote what money its members 
may have, to improvements, that they can raise a good crop this 
year, and at once become self-sustaining. Of course everything 
depends on their men. They will be certain to have good health ; 
and they must have a fine view of the mountains. 



THE SOUTHWESTERN COLONY. ^ 

Arrival of the Members at Denver. 
This Colony which owes its origin and success to the energy 
and perseverance of D. S. Green, an old resident of Denver, has 
just sent a second detachment of its members, who arrived here 
on Sabbath morning by the Kansas Pacific Railw^ay, and a third 
is at Kansas City, and will be here shortly. The personnel of the 
ladies and gentlemen deserve a more extended notice than we can 
devote in our columns; but suffice it to say, that they are all a 
credit to the country from which they have emigrated, and a credit 
to the new country — the home of their adoption. The causes of 
their emigration, exists not thro' poverty and want, nor have they 
''left their country for their country's good." Several of them are 
wealthy and came to see if Colorado will not furnish them better 
investments for capital than the older States of the American 
Union. Some of them came to gain in the soft invigorating, life- 
giving air at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, that freedom from 
bronchial and lung disease, which the moisture and swamps of their 
native soil have failed to achieve. Some of them on the other hand 
are young, and just commencing on the arduous toil of life, and 
thirst with all the young Ambition's fire, to seek and behold for 
themselves the ''New Great West." Of course, as naturally 
would be expected, some of the journals of the locality from which 

^Denver Daily Tribune, March 13, 1871, p. 4. 



408 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



they came, have shown a spirit of evil, and denounced the en- 
terprise and the leaders of it, with all the bitter malignity which 
come like second nature from the malice-dipped pen of the cramped 
quilps always to be found amongst the rank and file of that 
winged Mercury of earth — the Press. Mr. Green has been de- 
nounced in unmeasured terms for his efforts to colonize and infuse 
a new element in the hfe blood of our young commonwealth. His 
reputation has been attacked through the columns of a portion 
of the Tennessee press, and letters have been written from this 
city for the purpose of giving a coloring of endorsement to their 
outrageous attacks. Such charges and such attacks have no 
foundation in fact, and no weight whatever with Denver people, 
or with those who are well acquainted with him. Well known as 
he is here, it is puerile to make such attacks in this community, 
but in a country where he is but little known, such foolish stories 
may find some credulous enough to believe them. As friends of 
Colorado, it is the province of her press, nay, even her bounden 
obligation, to fight the good fight for these crusaders to her soil, 
and welcome them with open hands and hearts on the landing in 
the new home of their adoption. Pilgrim Fathers are they, who 
come as the vanguard of an army of the like, to conquer the as yet 
undeveloped soil of Colorado, to the grand column of civilization 
and progress. As an endorsement of this enterprise, we append 
below the testimony of the first detachment of the colonists, who 
have already reached the field of their labors. The statement was 
published in the Memphis Appeal, and speaks volumes for the 
truthfulness of Col. Green's representation, and the satisfaction 
of the settlers who have thus hazarded all to find a home hun- 
dreds of miles from the hearthstones of their childhood. The 
location selected by the Colony for its operations, is in the Platte 
Valley, about seventy-five miles from Denver, a short distance 
from Fremont's Orchard, one of the most celebrated and renowned 
spots for beauty, and the unrivalled fertility of its soil. Grass 
now, when the dead of winter has passed by, is as high as a man's 
knee, and like all the rest of the grass of Colorado, is as succulent 
and nourishing, if not more so, as the carefully cured, cut and 
stacked grasses of Illinois, Ohio, and the prairies of the Western 
States. The never-dying grasses can be found in this spot more 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



409 



luxuriantly and more plentifully than in almost any other region 
in Colorado, and ere long will serve to fatten thousands of beeves 
for the eastern market, raised b}^ these enterprising Colonists. 

COLORADO. 

The Statements of M r. Green indorsed by the M emphis Emigrants. 
Greensboro', C. T., Feb. 20, 71. 
We, the undersigned, in acknowledgment to Colonel D. S. 
Green, for his gentlemanly courtesy on our journey West, and his 
prompt attention to our wants in this, a country- in which we are 
strangers, desire to incorporate this our expression of thanks in 
the books containing our constitution and by-laws; and further, 
to record the statement that we find his representations of Colo- 
rado to accord with facts, and that we are pleased with the country 
and cUmate, and especially with his selection of our location in 
Platte Valley — beautiful in scenery, and covering an extent of 
country unsurpassed for the fertihty of its soil. 
D. Hansbrough J. Dix Mills, 

H. L. Dotson, Frank Green, 

J. F. Ayres, Ithamar C. Hague, 

F. E. Williams, Wm. Thornly, 
L. G. Dunnavan, John Lord, 

A. W. Thompson, G. 0. Stevens, 

D. A. Engler, George Gumming, 

J. S. Wright, G. L. Beardsley, 

W. Birkenbenel, August Hitzfeld, 

G. W. Wilson. 



THE SOUTHWESTERN COLONY. ^ 
A number of members of the above colony arrived in this city 
on Sunday. There are more of the colony at Kansas city, who 
will reach this city soon. The selection of lands has been made, 
about seventy-five miles from Denver, near what is commonly 
known as Fremont's orchard. The members of this colony came 
chiefly from Tennessee, and we doubt not but that they will be 
highly successful in this commendable enterprise. It is to be 
hoped so, and the people of Colorado will assist them in their 
efforts to aid in the development of the territory. 

WaUy Rocky MoujUain Newt, March 14, 1871, p. 4. 



29 



410 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Greensboro.] 

— ^The Tennessee Colony which has located 28 miles below 
us on the Platte, has 50 or 60 members on the ground, and the 
town they are to build is to be called Greensboro, after Gen. Green 
the leading projector. We learn also that they have an interest of 
some kind at Evans, but we are not informed of the exact status. 
According to present prospects all these valleys are likely soon to 
be settled as thickly as choice sections in New England. Roll on 
silver moon. 

[Progress Reported in Southwestern Colony.] 
^Mr. Wills, of the Memphis or Southwestern colony, located 
twenty-five miles below the railway crossing on the South Platte, 
reports about sixty men and a considerable number of women and 
children already on the town site. They are actively at work 
and making good progress in building houses and preparing for 
a summer's crop. New colonists are arriving and the settlement 
bids fair soon to be numbered among the prominent ones of the 
territory. 

COLONY NEWS.3 
The South Western colonists, below Evans, are getting along 
well. Mr. Green, the President, left here yesterday with twenty- 
five stand of arms, furnished by the Governor, for the use of the 
colonists. Some twelve buildings are going up in the new town. 
Farmers are ploughing. A petition for tri-weekly postal service, 
signed by all the colonists, and endorsed by prominent citizens of 
Denver, has been forwarded to Washington. Accessions to the 
colony from Virginia are expected; a party of EngUshmen are en 
route. Some of the farmers are sowing beets largely, and nego- 
tiations are in progress for the introduction of suitable machinery, 
and means for beet sugar manufacture. Mr. Mills, the General 
Superintendent of the colony, has opened an office in Denver. 

THE SOUTHWESTERN COLONY.^ 
This colony, of which we made brief mention yesterday morn- 
ing is beginning to attract some attention and bids fair to become 

^Greeley Tribune, March 22, 1871. p. 2. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 21, 1871, p. 1. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, April 21, 1871, p. 4. 
*Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 22, 1871, p. 1. 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



411 



a most successful organization. The location is sixty miles north- 
east from Denver, in a most delightful and fertile section of the 
country, on the Platte river, where are water, good agricultural 
grounds, and every other natural advantage to make there a most 
prosperous settlement. Evans is the shipping point on the Den- 
ver Pacific railway, twentj-five miles down the level valley of the 
Platte, and the Southwestern is thus brought almost to the very 
doors of the large cities, to which it must be tributary for some time. 

Already a large number of persons are on the grounds and are 
busily engaged in lajang out the town site, building houses, and 
making ready for the summer's crops. They are active, indus- 
trious people, who are thoroughly imbued with the spirit and im- 
portance of the enterprise, and who will, with further help, push 
it to a successful issue. 

Mr. P. B. Wills, general superintendent of the colony, is now 
in Denver attending to its general business. It is his intention to 
remain here several weeks, and with this view he has opened an 
office at Brinker & Co.'s store at the corner of F and Blake streets. 
At this place he will be pleased to see such as may desire to join 
the colony, and he will give them all the information necessary 
to a membership. Mr. Wills attends to receiving colonists and 
freight from the east, and is ever ready to give any explanations 
regarding the colony, its requirements, advantages, and liberal in- 
ducements. The enterprise is thoroughly endorsed, is headed by 
competent and reliable gentlemen, and has every prestige to in- 
sure its success. It certainl}^ has an advantageous location, and 
with the requisite assistance will become a flourishing community 
and a successful colony. 

[An Advertisement.] 
^SOUTHWESTERN COLONY, 
P. B. Wills, General Sup'd't, 
Office at Brinker & Co.'s store, 

CORNER OF F AND BLAKE STREETS, 
DENVER, COLORADO. 

Will give information and assist 
emigrants en route. 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 23, 1871, p. 1. 



412 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



[Irrigation.] 
COLONY MATTERS. 1 
Mr. Green, president of the Southwestern colony, writes us 
the following interesting details of this association: 

The Southwestern colony is located on the Platte river, 
twenty-five miles east of Evans, and though young it has a mem- 
bership of something over four hundred, with a steady increase. 
There is of this number some sixty five or seventy on the ground 
who have been for the last two months and a-half engaged in 
planting crops, building houses, and, at present, are digging 
ditches. 

The ditch we are now digging will be, when completed, about 
twenty-two miles long, or sixteen miles long to that point where 
it passes our town site. It is six feet wide in the bottom, and one 
and a-half feet deep, with a fall of two and a-half feet to the mile, 
which will give us a flow of about thirteen hundred inches. In the 
distance this ditch will flow we will be able to irrigate in the neigh- 
borhood of twenty thousand acres of land. It will be completed 
in about two weeks, and is built for the use and benefit of the pres- 
ent crop and for the future use of the colonists along its line, the 
watering of town property, and for manufacturing and mill pur- 
poses. And especially will it be used for the later purposes, for 
we have within the limits of our town some of the finest sites for 
water power that can be found in America or in Colorado. 

But this ditch is only a commencement of the digging of 
ditches — or canals — that it is the purpose of this colony to build 
within the present year, for we are now contemplating a line of 
ditch that will be twenty feet wide, three feet deep, and sixty 
miles long, and that will encompass a quarter of a million acres 
of good farming lands, and will leave adjoining to it on the outside, 
an unboundless pasturage, where there are now herding fifty thou- 
sand stock that grow, thrive and fatten the year round at the rate 
of one thousand per mile. In other words this is the finest grazing 
field in Colorado, and, according to the decision of some of the larg- 
est stock growers that are now herding thousands of cattle on this 
range, it is the finest and best grazing field in the world. The 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, June 9, 1871, p. 1, 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



413 



third ditch that we will build will encompass a body of land on 
the north side of the river equal to about the same number of 
acres that will be irrigated on the south by the long line of ditches. 
Now, these lands are all good and will, with the assistance of water, 
produce as abundant crops as does any of the lands of Colorado. 
If this be true, thus we will have good homes within our colony for 
fifteen thousand families, besides those who will want to look after 
stock growing, merchandizing, etc. And for the purpose of build- 
ing up Colorado in general, and the Southwestern colony in par- 
ticular, we have adopted the following liberal prices for member- 
ship, and have sent out our agents through the states, and our 
Hon. George Board to England, who are now actively engaged in 
our interests. 

Any one is a member of our colony who owns one or more lots 
in the town of Greene City, and is entitled to locate lands inside 
our ditch lines and claim the water of the same at the customary 
rates of the territory, or at $60 per share, which share will give 
him water for one hundred and sixty acres of land, and one lot 
in town. This membership will also entitle him to the benefit of 
special rates of transportation for himself, and household goods 
from the state over the railroad to Evans, where teams can be had 
at reasonable rates to carry them to the colony. Any one wishing 
to join us can do so by applying to D. S. Green at the Hatten house, 
within the next two days; or after that time at Green City. 



WHAT SHALL OUR IMMIGRANTS DO?i 
Eds. Denver Tribune: — The question is often asked on the 
streets of Denver: ''What shall we do with this seventy or eighty 
people per day that are coming into our Territory?" Has it never 
occurred to those asking the above question, that we have homes 
and wealth within our Territory for such an influx, though it may 
last for a hundred years, and thus our population be less than one- 
sixth per square mile of what it is to-day in England? and have 
they failed to consider the fact that our mineral wealth has been 
proven to be greater, our agricultural products finer and more 
abundant, our grazing unequalled, our healthful climate and 



Wenver Daily Tribune, June 13, 1871, p. 2, 



414 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



beautiful scenery unsurpassed, and without comparison in the 
known world? 

Let us see why it is that this multitude of people are leaving 
their home comforts in the States and immigrating over the 
* 'Sterile Plains" to the ''Bleak Mountains" of this new Territory. 
Many of us look back over the dozen years of our "stay" in this 
country, and remember our first experiences, when we were willing 
to sell our interests in "Pike's Peak" for a three cent piece. But 
when we failed to find a man who would risk his "penny" to buy 
us out, or a generous heart wilhng to give us gruh enough to keep 
us ahve until we could reach our mother's hearthstones, when we 
knew that the comforts of that fireside and the love of friends 
would cheer us the remaining part of our lives, while we would tell 
our adventures. Disappointed in this hope, we thought of the 
next best thing to do, and with arms nerved for the conflict and 
our brains put in working order, v/e commenced with hammer, 
shovel, pick and drill to bring from the mines the shining ore, 
from which we could extract "the worshiped of earth." Our 
curiosity was excited and our anxiety heightened when we found 
that the deeper we went in this mine, the richer and heavier we 
found the ores, and taking a new reckoning we considered on this 
matter; and reviewing the surroundings, and taldng the experience 
we had in sinking a few hundred feet in the mines, our conclusion 
was unanimous that the formation of these mines was the work of 
an internal force deep seated inside of the crust of the earth, and 
was made when the mountains were thrown up, and believing as 
we were forced to, that this quartz, or ore, came from the interior 
part, where it is a molten mass. We concluded at once that our 
mines reached from the top of the mountains through the crust 
of the earth, that was thick enough to hold up the mighty moun- 
tains stretching from the North to the South Pole, with an average 
altitude of a little more than seven thousand feet above tide water, 
or in other words, a crust that scientific men say is forty miles 
thick. This gave us confidence in the permanency of our mines. 
But finding that we could not eat gold and silver — though there 
was an inexhaustible quantity of it — our thoughts were turned 
to other interests in the Territory ; and coming down the mountain 
streams that are eternally supplied from the never-failing fountains 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



415 



of melting snow, we asked the question, 'Tor what use and pur- 
poses are these mighty torrents coursing down the mountain steeps 
with Ughtning rapidity?" and the question was solved in a mo- 
ment, for looking out on a remote plain we saw that God had 
created a vast prairie, fertile and rich, but had withheld His rain; 
but in the rumbling of the waters at our feet the voice of the Cre- 
ator was heard to speak, ''These lands that you call a waste was 
made by Me adapted to irrigation. I make nothing in vain. 
Go lead this water forth, it shall regulate your season at your will, 
so that you need not complain of Me; it will fertilize your soil." 
How true have we found this promise? For twelve years the 
judicious husbandman has been reaping an abundant harvest at 
the foot of the mountains, unparalleled for quantity or quality 
on the American continent. And his lands are so productive to- 
day under this irrigating fertiUzing system, as though he had re- 
plenished it year by year from his stable yard. But is this all 
we claim for Colorado? Ages have passed, yet amid the winter 
snows and summer drouths, millions of buffalo, elk, deer and ante- 
lope, have been fed, and to-day the grass is springing up on the vast 
"American Desert" and thousand hillsides of Colorado, that will 
fatten the multiplied ten thousand cattle, horses and sheep that 
are being brought to this country. And now^ what can this multi- 
tude do that is daily arriving? Let them roll up their sleeves and 
go into the mines, build mills and manufactories on our water 
courses; herd stock and grow rich, or what is better than all, join 
the Southwestern Colony that is located on the Platte River, 
twenty-five miles below Evans, where it requires only twenty to 
one hundred dollars to give them a good home. And let no man 
go away from Colorado feehng that there is no room for him, for 
within the bounds of the above named colony there is room for 
thousands more. Let them come, and whosoever will, let him 
come and partake of the lands that will be irrigated by the water 
that we are ''leading forth." D. S. Green. 

[Advertising in England.] 
We have received from England a number of circulars re- 
lating to the Green City Colony, which is located below Greeley, 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, July 13, 1871, p. 1. 



416 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



on the Platte river. These documents are intended for circulation 
amongst the English people, and show that the colony is doing a 
good work in inducing a large immigration. They have a large 
amount of lands, favorably located, and the prospects are that the 
city will soon be substantially built, the lands occupied, and a 
prosperous colony founded. 

[An Advertisement.] 
^Southwestern Colony. — Mr. P. B. Wills has been appointed Gen- 
eral Superintendent of the Colony, and his office for the present 
will be at Brinker and Co.'s, corner F and Blake streets, where he 
may be seen on Colony business. 

D. S. Green, 

President. 

THE SOUTHWESTERN COLONY. ^ 
We judge this enterprising colony is doing well. The Evans 
Journal of Saturday, sa5^s several gentlemen from North Carolina, 
belonging to the Green colony, passed through Evans this week, 
homeward bound to get ready to come out with large flocks of 
sheep. They were delighted with the country all along the Platte, 
and will report favorably. The Green colony will receive a large 
accession from England in a week or to. 

[Inducements Held Out to English Colonists.] 
^We find the following in the Denver News, in regard to the 
colony 27 miles below us, on the Platte: 

Hon. George Board, of London, England, special commissioner 
to Europe for the Southwestern Colony of Colorado, arrived in 
Denver yesterday morning. From the outline proposed by the 
promoters of that colony, and perfected by Mr. Board in England, 
we learn the following: They propose to enroll members in 
Europe who will be required to pay £100 as the full cost of mem- 
bership. For this they are to receive transportation equivalent 
to four adults to Green City, Colorado, a city lot with house of 
four rooms in that place, and a life poHcy of $500 upon the head of 
the family. Many other advantages of minor importance are also 

Wenter Daily Tribune, September 22, 1871, p. 4. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, October 23, 1871, p. 4. 
^Greeley Tribune, November 8, 1871, p. 2. 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



417 



secured to the colonist. The route of travel will be by steamer 
from Liverpool to Norfolk, Virginia, and thence by rail on the most 
direct route to Colorado. Want of space prevents a more lengthy 
notice of the enterprise at this time. 

[Accessions From England Expected.] 
^The last heard from the Tennessee Colony, 27 miles below us, 
was that they were passing through the Winter well, and that they 
expected large accessions from England next Spring. They get 
their coal from our place, and they trade considerable at our 
stores. 

[Advertisement.] 
^A good chance for men and teams to get immediate employ- 
ment is offered by the Southwestern Colony. Also an opportunity 
to farm lands inside the colony fence and under the irrigating ditch. 
Nothing charged for the use of the land, and only one dollar per 
acre for an abundant supply of water to irrigate with. Also a 
blacksmith can get employment. Call today at the Hatten house 
for information, or on J. G. Stewart, corner of Cherry and Larimer. 
' D. S. Green, General Sup't. 

OPENING THE PLATTE VALLEY. ^ 
Southwestern Colony of Colorado — Green City and its Prospects — 

A prosperous and Highly Successful Enterprise. 
Green City, September 1. — Your well known and very commend- 
able zeal in publishing Colorado, and encouraging the develop- 
ment of its resources, is my warrant for this letter, in which I 
desire to present to your readers at home and abroad, a few items 
of interest connected with this colony, and its headquarters. Green 
City. 

In the spring of 1871, Messrs. P. B. Wills of Memphis, and 
D. S. Green of Denver, conceived the idea of founding a colony in 
Colorado, which should combine the double object of developing 
a new and rich country, and furnishing homes and a field of en- 
terprise to a large number of people, who were then struggling for 

^Greeley Tribune, December 6, 1871, p. 3. 

Waily Rocky Mountain News, February 25, 1872, p. 1. 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, September 6, 1872, p. 2. 

I 



1 



418 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



a meagre existence in the older states. A careful examination of 
the claims of different parts of Colorado, resulted in the selection 
of a point twenty-seven miles below Greeley, on the Platte river, 
at which to build the colony town. This initial step being taken, 
these gentlemen proceeded, with a zeal and energy which would 
yield to none of the inevitable disappointments incident to such 
enterprises, to organize and set in motion the machinery by which 
the ultimate success of the scheme was to be wrought. Capital 
was enlisted, colonists were enrolled, and arrangements made for 
their cheap transportation to their new homes. On the 11th of 
April, 1871, the town site was formally entered, and the colony 
organization was completed by its incorporation, with T. M. 
Barna as president, R. F. Jackson, secretary, D. S. Green, general 
superintendent, and Messrs. P. B. Wills and J. Alex. Pace, super- 
intendents of immigration and transportation. About the same 
time a ditch company was formed, with the object of constructing 
a canal to irrigate the lands adjacent to the town. The import- 
ance of this enterprise, both as an inducement to immigration, 
and to retain those who came, admitted of no delay, and a large 
force, consisting mainl}^ of an advance guard of young men, come 
to prepare for those who were to follow, was put on at once, and 
in a short time seventeen miles of ditch had been dug, (reaching 
below the town) and, except for a few flumes and one deep cut, 
made ready for the reception of water. Steps have been taken 
to complete these unfinished parts without delay. 

It would have been strange if, of the first arrivals, some had 
not been discontented; but what the refiner's furnace is to metals, 
the hardships and privations of a pioneer settlement were to the 
first immigrants. The weak minded and timid ones disappeared, 
leaving the resolute, earnest workers to lay the foundations of their 
own prosperity, as well as that of others. The first wavelets of 
the tide of immigration have been succeeded by a stronger swell, 
and the present influx taxes the capacity of the new town to its 
utmost, for even temporary entertainment. Between thirty and 
forty arrivals are noted within a week, comprising, besides farm- 
ers, mechanics, etc., several gentlemen of large means and wide 
influence. During the past four and a half months, not less than 
one hundred accessions have been made to the resident popula- 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



419 



tion, while the number of these who have enrolled themselves and 
are only waiting to close up their business in the east to join the 
colony in Colorado, will swell the total to five hundred or more. 

Green City, the nucleus of this enterprise embraces one sec- 
tion (640 acres) of land on a remarkably level plateau, a little back 
from the river, commanding a fine view of Long's peak, with a 
sketch of snowy peaks to the north. For nearer vista, the wide 
valley of the Platte, with its dark green meadows and scattered 
groves of cottonwood, with a background of green, rolHng bluffs, 
forms a pleasant picture. Elevated and open, subtle miasma can 
find no lodgment; and, as in Denver, the light, loose character of 
the soil is an effectual warrant against the bane of all low countries 
— mud. Nature has certainly done her share in supplying so 
favorable a location. It remains now that good use should be 
made of it, and the wisely liberal policy adopted by the present 
officers, will, I think, operate strongly in favor of the future pros- 
perity of the town. The prospective growth and success of Green 
City is based on its position, and the many side issues flowing 
from it. Its location is at the focal point of a vast and wonder- 
fully fertile agricultural and pastoral region, including the wide 
slopes bordering the Platte, and the valley of the Kiowa and Lost 
Creek. The immediate river bottom produces an abundance of 
excellent hay, and the uplands furnish unlimited pasturage. The 
colony ditch will soon be extended so as to cover about five thou- 
sand acres more of very desirable land. A survey is in progress 
and work will be at once begun on the ''Weldon ditch", which is 
to be fourteen feet wide, two feet deep and twenty-three miles 
long. This canal will water thirty thousand to thirty-five thou- 
sand acres of land on the north side of the river. The enterprise is 
in the hands of gentlemen of energy and means, who will un- 
doubtedly be prepared to furnish water to all who need it next 
season. Of these latter lands, nearly six thousand acres have been 
already claimed by colonists. 

All this country must be tributary to Green City, and al- 
though its commerce will be purely local, it will be sufficient to 
sustain a thriving town. These resources, in themselves intrinsic, 
only wait the developing power of an industrious population, a 
power already enlisted and speedily to be exerted. To add to 



420 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

the flattering prospects of this highly favored locaUty, it has been 
decided that the Platte valley shall be the route for the Julesburg 
and Golden railroad, and official information has been received 
of the purchase of material and the early commencement of work. 
Thus with a cheap and rapid carrying medium, linking the in- 
terests of the colony with the greater, general interests of the 
territorj" at large, greater inducements can be offered, as the ob- 
stacles now presented to settlement are removed. Other railroad 
schemes have been inaugurated, in each of which Green City must 
form an objective point. If the present inhabitants of this em- 
bryo city may be taken as indices of the coming population, its 
social status will be far above the common. Intelligent high 
minded gentlemen, cultivated and attractive ladies, with a goodly 
number of irrepressible lads and lasses, make up a delightful circle, 
in which the most refined or intelligent may find pleasurable com- 
panionship. One of the young ladies, devotes a portion of every 
day to the instruction of children, lest their improvement should 
be retarded by the unavoidable absence of proper advantages. 
Among the first improvements projected by the energetic manage- 
ment, will be a commodious hotel and a school building. 

I have just completed the re-survey of the town, and am now 
engaged upon the Weldon ditch. The foregoing notes are the 
result of observations extending over a space of four weeks. I 
have endeavored to present a candid view of the subject, and sub- 
mit it to the interest of Colorado, trusting that under the efficient 
management of the present directors we may soon see this brave 
little colony on the high road to success, and another element of 
strength be added to our growing territory. 

E. H. Kellogg, C. E. 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY.^ 
This colony, of which Green City is the town, is located on 
both sides of the South Platte river, fifty-five miles south of the 
Union Pacific, thirty-six miles north of the Kansas Pacific, and 
twenty-five miles east of the Denver Pacific railroads. The Jules- 
burg and Denver Railroad, which is now in course of construc- 



iHand-Book of Colorado, Denver, 1872, pp. 111-115 



SOUTHWESTERN COLONY 



421 



tion, and will be completed in about four months, runs directly 
through the colony lands and the town. 

There is a very large body of most choice agricultural and hay 
lands around this location, together with an abundant supply of 
water for irrigating and manufacturing purposes. The colony 
already numbers some five or six hundred, quite a number of whom 
are now on the ground. 

An irrigating canal, twenty-two miles long, is about completed, 
and another, fifteen or twenty miles in length, has been incor- 
porated, and will be built at once. Thus, under these canals, 
there will be homes and profitable industries sufficient to accom- 
modate a large population. Stock raising is an important pursuit 
in this section. The herds nearby number some 50,000 head of 
cattle, besides several herds of sheep. 

There is no initiation fee required in becoming a member of 
this colony. Membership consists in owning one or more lots in 
the town of Green City. The colonist is then entitled to take up 
his land and claim the water from the irrigating ditches at the 
customarj^ rates of the Territory. This membership will also en- 
title him to special rates of transportation for himself, family and 
household goods from the States over the railroads to his destina- 
tion. Indeed the rates effected are so exceedingly low, that, when 
compared with ordinary rates of travel, the lot costs the member 
nothing. 

By provision of the Legislature the county will soon be 
divided, placing the colony in the new county of Platte, with Green 
City as the county seat. 

A large and elegant hotel is to be put up at once. A good 
school is alread}^ in operation, and arrangements are being made 
to erect churches. 

G. M. Barna, President; P. B. Wills, Vice President; D. S. 
Green, Superintendent; R. F. Jackson, Secretary; P. B. Wills and 
J. A. Pace, General Superintendents of Transportation and Immi- 
gration. 



MISCELLAiNEOUS COLONIES 



THE GEORGIA COLONY 



[Green Russell and the Georgia Colonists.] 
^Green Russel, leader of the original Georgia Company that 
made the first gold discoveries in this region and the first settle- 
ment in Auraria — now West Denver — in 1858, has just returned 
at the head of a colony of Georgians and North Carolinians num- 
bering one hundred and fifty persons. About two-thirds of the 
number are men and the balance equally divided between women 
and children. They reached Kit Carson last Tuesday and Wed- 
nesday, and from there secured transportation to the upper 
Huerfano, in Huerfano County, where they will locate and engage 
largely in the stock raising business. Mr. Russel is an experienced 
leader and his colonization enterprise cannot but be successful. 
His address is Badito, Colorado. 

[Emigrants From Georgia.] 
We learn from the Kansas City Evening News of recent date, 
that a colony of two hundred emigrants from Georgia had arrived 
in that place en route for the upper Huerfano. The leader of this 
colony is Mr. Samuel Patterson, who has resided in Huerfano 
County for something over a year past. His experience in our 
Territory satisfied him so well that his favorable representations 
Jiave induced his friends and neighbors to the number above 
stated to try their fortunes in our midst. Mr. Patterson is the 
father of Mr. J. Decatur Patterson, of Huerfano County, long and 
favorably known through this part of the Territory by the name 
of '^Cate" Patterson. This colony is the advance guard of not 
less than four hundred more who are preparing to come out in 
the fall and settle on the upper Huerfano. 

[Georgia Settlers not on Cooperative Basis.] 
^The Georgia emigrants of whom mention was made in last 
week's Chieftain, have arrived at their destination. They do not 

Waily Rocky Mountain News, April 14, 1870, p. 4. 
'^Colorado Chieftain, April 14, 1870, p. 2. 
^Colorado Chieftain, April 21, 1870, p. 3. 

425 



426 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



purpose to settle in a body, or go upon the co-operative plan. 
Each head of a family will select his own home and be independent 
of all the others. 



ANOTHER COLONY! 
The vanguard of a party of one hundred and five persons, 
men, women, and children, from Atlanta and other parts of 
northern Georgia, under the leadership of Mr. Samuel Patterson, 
arrived by the Kansas Pacific train this morning. They propose 
to settle somewhere in Colorado, and while their locating Com- 
mittee are hunting a favorable point, the party will ''camp out" 
in the neighborhood of Denver. 



THE GEORGIA COLONY^ 
Yesterday the colony was encamped on the hill just opposite 
the depot, and attracted considerable attention. They numbered 
in all about 125, including some fifteen families. Mr. Ford, with 
accustomed generosity, gave them a free dinner, and during the 
afternoon Rev. T. R. Slicer and members of his congregation, 
went down to hold meeting, but the threatening rain prevented. 
Mr. Patterson, the leader of the colony, has arranged for trans- 
portation, and they will go south on Wednesday. They will 
settle on the Huerfano and will engage in farming and stock rais- 
ing. The members of the colony are from northwestern Georgia 
and western North Carolina. They started from Cleveland, 
Tenn., on Tuesday last, and reached here Saturday morning. . . . 



["Georgia Colonists" in Camp in Denver.] 
^The Georgia colonists are still looking for a good location. 
It is not made public, as yet, whether they have fixed upon any 
section or not. In the meantime, the colonists are living in 
camp life near the depot, and are waiting patiently for a place to 
settle. 

Wenver Daily Tribune, April 15, 1871. p. 4. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, April 17, 1871, p. 4. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 19, 1871, p. 1. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



427 



[Card of Thanks from Georgia Colonists.] 
^Mr. Samuel Patterson, captain of the Georgia colonists, who 
have for several days been encamped near Denver, addresses to 
us the following card of thanks: 

''On the part of the party of colonists whom I am conducting 
to Huerfano County, Colorado, to settle, I wish to thank the people 
of Denver for the many favors shown us since we arrived here on 
Saturday. Mr. B. L. Ford showed himself a friend to the weary 
and sick, by ordering an abundant supply of soup and a dinner on 
Sunday; Dr. Dickinson gave our sick medical services gratis; the 
Christian people came to talk on religious subjects, and every one 
who met us — especially the business men — took great pains to 
assist and make our way pleasant." 



^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 21, 1871, p. 1. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



429 



PLATTEVILLE. 



PLATTE RIVER LAND COMPANY^. 



Organized, May 27, 1871, 
Under the General Incorporation Laws of Colorado. 

B. F. JOHNSON, President and Managing Agent, Platteville, Col. 
Gen. JOHN PIERCE, Vice President, Denver, Col. 
Wm. N. Byers, Secretary, Denver, Col. 

B. F. JOHNSON, Platteville, Col., '\ 
JOHN PIERCE, Denver, Col., / 
WM. N. BYERS, Denver, Col., > Trustees. 

WM. A. BUTTERS, CMcagO, Ills., 1 

H. J. GOODRICH, Chicago, Ills., / 



COL. c. N. PRATT, General Agent National Land and Migration 
Co., Chicago, Ills., 

Passenger and Transportation Agent of the 
Company. 

JAMES CHERRY, Geologist and Consulting Engineer, Chicago, Ills. 
ALBERT JOHNSON, Survcyor, Georgetown, Col. 
AVERY & GOODRICH, Chicago Agents of the Company, 
H. J. GOODRICH, Chicago-Secretary. 



PROPERTIES. 

The Platte River Land Company purchased of the Denver 
Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, May 27, 1871, several 
thousand acres of the most desirable land belonging to that grant, 
in the valleys of the South Platte and St. Vrain rivers. Inter- 
spersed throughout this land, and contiguous to it on all sides, are 
parcels of government land, equally as good, which is open to 
settlement and the acquisition of title under the homestead and 
pre-emption laws of the United States. All of this land is easy of 



iPamphlet, 24 pages, printed by "News" Printing House, Denver, Colo. 



430 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



irrigation, free from marsh, roots and stones, and ready for the 
plow. In evidence of what it will produce, the reader is referred 
to extracts from various disinterested authors compiled in these 
pages. 

OBJECTS. 

The designs of the Company are. 

First, To make a profit upon the investment in a fair and 
legitimate way. 

Second, To secure pleasant and desirable homes for some of 
its own members. 

Third, To aid and encourage the building of a prosperous town, 
and the formation of a flourishing settlement around it, all the 
citizens of which may improve their worldly possessions and 
happiness. 

PLANS. 

To secure pleasant and comfortable accommodations for vis- 
itors; to establish facilities for trade with the people of the sur- 
rounding country; to dig ditches for the purposes of irrigation 
upon the town site, and for the farming lands upon all sides, and 
to bridge the rivers for the accommodation of all parts of the 
neighborhood. In this latter, the county will assist. There will 
be no expense for road building, except in approaches to the bridges, 
as the natural surface of the country affords good roads every- 
where. Whatever revenue may be derived from the sale of lots, 
is to be devoted to carrying out these objects and plans, and to 
beautify the town site. 

PLATTEVILLE 

Is the name chosen for the town. The site is central to the 
lands described; on both sides of the Denver Pacific Railway, 
thirty-five miles north of Denver, and on the east bank of the 
Platte river — the beautiful, wooded and verdant valley of which 
it overlooks for many miles above and below. The western front 
is about twenty feet above the river, from whence it rises grad- 
ually and evenly to the eastern side, which is one hundred and 
twenty-six feet above the stream; thus affording to all parts of the 
town an unobstructed view of the beautiful landscape and mag- 
nificent panorama of mountain scenery to the westward. On the 
opposite side of the Platte comes in the Saint Vrain ; the course of 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



431 



which, with its tributaries, can be traced by their fringes of trees, 
until lost in the mountains twenty miles distant. Thence the 
mountains rise ridge above and beyond ridge until they culminate 
in the cloud-piercing Snowy Range, visible for two hundred miles 
to the right and left — the central figure, towering and massive 
Long's Peak, which rises 15,250 feet above the sea. The mountain 
slopes are dense and dark with forests of evergreens, whilst the 
summit beyond is ever brilliant in its mantle of snow. The world 
has no finer view. 

The town is laid off into wide streets, and large lots. No 
grading will be required. A wide space along the railway is to be 
adorned with trees, and several squares are appropriated for pub- 
lic parks. The irrigating canal to supply the town, running near 
its eastern and highest boundary, will furnish facilities for foun- 
tains and reservoirs in all parts of the town. In this climate only 
water and the rudest cultivation are necessary to produce the most 
wonderful results in the growth of vegetation. 

Adjoining the town is an inexhaustible quarry of excellent 
building stone, which is now being worked for local demand and 
shipment to Denver and other points. An excellent coal mine, 
less than a mile from town, is also extensively worked for home sale 
and shipment. Excellent brick clay and beds of fire clay are 
found near by. There is considerable timber along the Platte, 
and inexhaustible supplies in the mountains twenty to forty miles 
away. Lumber comes from the mountain slopes, and by railway 
from north and south. 

The opportunities for profitable agriculture are unexcelled, 
and an idea of results may be gained from the annexed extracts. 
So of stock raising, wool growing and butter and cheese making, 
all of which find mention hereafter. No portion of Colorado offers 
greater advantages, or more encouraging inducements for engaging 
in any of these industries, than does platteville and its neigh- 
borhood. 

The famous greeley colony, located in May, 1870, is seven- 
teen miles north of Platteville, and on the same railway. 

The CHICAGO-COLORADO COLONY, locatcd in April, 1871, 
bounds the Platteville tract on the west; its town Longmont being 
fourteen miles distant. 



432 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



The SAINT-LOUIS WESTERN COLONY bounds it on the north, 
the town, Evans, being thirteen miles distant. 

The MEMPHIS-SOUTH-WESTERN COLONY, and Green City, are 
located twenty-five miles eastward. 

Newspaper readers must all be more or less familiar with the 
rise and astonishing progress of these colonies. All are flourishing 
and successful. Platte ville cannot be out of the way in the midst 
of them with equally as good land, greater v/ater supply and 
claiming superior natural advantages. 

Settlers who locate upon the vacant goverimient land have to 
pay no royalty or tax to the Company for the privilege. Those 
who choose to buy land of the Company, or of the railway, will 
get it at reasonable prices and upon easy terms. Those who in- 
vest in town propertj^ will have the satisfaction of knowing that 
the largest share of the money they pay is to be expended for the 
general improvement of the property and beautifying of the town 
itself. 

(From the Star of Empire, April, 1870) 
What it Costs to Make a Farm in Colorado, and How it Pays.^ 

[Seven paragraphs omitted.] 
The following extracts are from a circular issued by the 
National Land Company, to be used in answering the many in- 
quiries received relative to Colorado, its resources and advantages: 

THE TERRITORY. 

Colorado is bounded north by Wyoming, west by Utah, south 
by New Mexico, and east by Kansas. Its latitude is from 37° to 
41° north. The eastern one-third is plain, or rolling prairie land; 
the western two-thirds mountainous, interspersed with thousands 
of valleys, great and small — abundantly timbered, and abounding 
in precious and common minerals, salt, oil and medicinal springs. 

SOIL. 

Everywhere that there is soil — which is all of the plain country 
and most of the mountains — it is wonderfully productive, and well 
adapted to agriculture wherever water can be secured for irriga- 



iThe section omitted, two and one-fourth pages in length, is the same as the section headed "Farming 
in Colorado" in Chicago-Colorado Colony pamphlet of July, 1871; supra pp. 144-146. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



433 



tion. Some seasons this is unnecessary, but the prudent, thrifty 
farmer should always be provided with facilities for watering his 
crops. This soil has been made from the denudations of the moun- 
tains through countless centuries; carried down by the action of 
the elements upon their sides, into the valleys and out upon the 
plains; not entirely decomposed, and retaining the salts, alkalies 
and all the enriching elements of the various rocks, which remain 
measurably dormant and unwasted until released by the plow and 
irrigation to nourish growing crops. Naturally it is all superior 
grass land, producing the bunch, gramma and other grasses pe- 
culiar to dry countries. Upon these natural pastures flocks and 
herds live and thrive the year round, never requiring to be fed, 
and always keeping fat. 

The mountain valleys, varying in altitude from 6,000 to 
10,000 feet above the sea, are very fertile, and produce abundantly 
all crops suited to their elevation. The most important of these 
are the North, Middle and South Parks, which have been famous 
since the first explorations of the Rocky Mountains by trappers 
and traders a generation ago. The San Luis and Arkansas parks 
are almost as extensive. These valleys and mountain sides up to 
eleven and twelve thousand feet above the sea level, are covered 
with luxuriant grass, except where the timber growth keeps it out. 
Less irrigation is required than upon the plains. 

CLIMATE. 

The most striking peculiarities of climate are exceeding dry- 
ness ; almost perpetual sunshine ; total absence of miasmatic vapors, 
and sultry, sweltering days or nights; tonic, exhilerating air of 
wonderful transparency. The following table shows the most 
important climatic features of the last twenty-two months: 

Temperature. Rain & 

Highest. Lowest. Mean. Melted 
Degrees. Degrees. Degrees snow. 



December, 1869 .... .... .34 

January, 1870 60 5 29.4 1.15 

February, 1870... 64 1 33.5 1.70 

March, 1870..... 67 -8 32.7 .70 

April, 1870...... 80 16 48.1 2.80 

May, 1870 86 40 56.1 .35 



434 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



June, 1870 


94 


48 


68.2 


.52 


July, 1870 


98 


53 


74.2 


.51 


August, 1870 


97 


45 


64.8 


.12 


September, 1870 


89 


40 


60.1 


2.85 


October, 1870..... 


83 


27 


47.8 


.68 


November, 1870 


68 


20 


41.8 


.54 


December, 1870 


60 


-18 


23. 


.73 


January, 1871... 


67 


6 


34.5 


.46 


February, 1871 


66 


13 


38.5 


.23 


March, 1871 


67 


10 


46. 


1.81 


April, 1871...... 


80 


25 


50.1 


1.01 


May, 1871 


86 


42 


65.2 


2.56 


June, 1871 


97 


56 


74.9 


.05 


July, 1871 


97 


58 


78. 


.51 


August, 1871 


95 


54 


75.2 


.27 


September, 1871 


86 


45 


66.5 


1.18 



The total amount of rain and melted snow for the twenty- 
two months, is seen to be 21.07 inches, and for the year 1870, it 
was 12.65 inches. The average per year is believed to be from 
fifteen to eighteen inches. The fall of snow in 1870 was 48.20 
inches, which would give about five inches of water. The years 
1870 and 1871 were both unusually dry, and December was the 
coldest month since the settlement of the country. 

HEALTHFULNESS. 

Residence here has unquestionable rejuvenating effects. 
Many diseases common to most parts of the States are unknown; 
among them ague, in all its various forms; some of the fevers, and 
''milk sickness." Contagious diseases are slight in their effects 
and very rarely prove fatal. The worst cases of asthma are soon 
cured. Catarrh is almost unknown. Throat and lung diseases, 
unless deeply seated, are greatly relieved, and often cured. The 
diseases most common to the country are a slow type of typhoid 
fever (commonly called mountain fever), and inflammatory rheu- 
matism. The first is an acclimating disease, and the latter is 
generally contracted in the mines of the mountains, from working 
in water or under ground, and is relieved by coming down upon 
the plains. Hopeless cases of consumption should not come here. 
The strain upon badly diseased or partially destroyed lungs to 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



435 



withstand the larger volume of more rarified air, overtaxes and 
hastens their destruction. At earlier stages the same cause may 
effect speedy and permanent cure, 

RESOURCES. 

No other state or territory of the union has such varied and 
wonderful resources as Colorado. In its first settlement no one 
counted upon anything but gold. Five years later silver was 
found, and until recently it was universally conceded that the 
mining of those metals would always be the first and only resource 
of importance. Now they are looked upon as only relatively so; 
that vast and extensive as those interests are, and must ever be, 
they are only stimulants and supporters of other interests that 
rival them in importance. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Agriculture made slow progress in the early settlement of the 
country. The dry, dusty plains were uninviting to all and dis- 
couraging to the husbandman. Experiment, patience and in- 
dustry have proven that no part of the world can excel the crops 
of grain and vegetables here produced. The farmer's occupation 
has become one of the most lucrative and most certain in the coun- 
try. The average yield of crops, taking the country over and one 
year with another, is found to be — wheat, 28 bushels; corn, 25; 
oats and barley, 35; and potatoes 100. With especially careful 
culture, exceptional crops are not uncommon, of wheat, 60 to 75 
bushels; corn, 100 to 125; oats, 80 to 125; barley and rye, 40 to 60; 
potatoes, 200 to 300; onions, 500 to 600; cabbages, 20 to 30 tons; 
and sugar beets 150 to 175 tons to the acre. All kinds of garden 
vegetables, root crops, melons, etc., produce abundantly. 

The soil everywhere, except in the low bottoms near large 
streams, is very easily plowed. A pair of horses with a common 
steel fallow plow, easily turn over the prairie sward and it crumbles 
up as mellow as an old field. Irrigation is not near the task, either 
in labor or cost, that it is popularly supposed. In a series of years 
its total expense will not exceed two dollars per acre per annum for 
the ground cultivated, whilst its advantages are many fold; en- 
riching the ground, increasing the yield, and insuring the crop. 



436 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



STOCK, WOOL AND DAIRY. 

Stock-raising and wool-growing interests have, with rapid 
strides, grown to giant proportions. It was only natural that they 
should when it became known that almost without labor and with 
little risk, money could be made to pay therein an average of one 
hundred per cent, or more per year. Reliable statistics give the 
increase of sheep at over one hundred per cent., and cattle over 
eighty per cent, per year. The expense for taking care of sheep 
is put down at twenty cents and cattle one dollar and a half per 
head per annum. Both find their own food and shelter all the year 
and never require feed. The average production of a number of 
dairies was found to be $46.50 for each cow milked ; the reports rang- 
ing from $27.22 to $67.50 per cow. The cows lived mainly upon 
the prairie having partial feed in the winter where the range was 
restricted. 

MARKETS. 

Following the discovery of gold and silver came the finding 
of copper, lead, iron, coal, marble, gypsum, alum, nitre, fire-clay, 
and, indeed, almost every mineral substance of which man stands 
in need. All these things require labor for their extraction and 
transformation into forms for use. Connected with them are the 
largest industries of the country. For every person engaged in 
any of the various kinds of farming, there are at least half a dozen 
employed in trade, mining and consequent labor. They are non- 
producers of articles of subsistence and must be fed by the farmer. 
It is the best market in the world, and must grow with the develop- 
ment of the mining interests. There is no danger that it will ever 
be glutted or overstocked. 

A SUMMER RESORT. 

Pleasure-seekers can find no more pleasant resort in the world 
to spend the hot weeks or months of summer than in Colorado. 
Her mountains excel those of Switzerland; her charming valleys 
are in the proportion of a hundred to one, doubly enchanting in 
their primeval loveliness; her great mountain-rimmed parks have 
no peers, and her lakes, water-falls and laughing streams are beau- 
tiful as an}^ Any climate can be found; in warm, sunny valley, 
on cool mountain slope, or with perpetual frost and ice on the 
summit of the snowy range. "Camping out" along the trout 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



437 



streams and lakes, or in the deer and elk pastures, with the sport 
they give, may be safely set down as among the most rare of 
earthly pleasures. 

(From the Chicago Tribune, Oct. 24, 1870.) 

AGRICULTURE IN THE ''GREAT DESERT." 

In an article a few days since, on ''The New West," we con- 
sidered briefly the certain future of the plains of Colorado as the 
great grazing fields of the United States, whence our supply of 
animal food, of wool, and of hides is hereafter to be drawn. Of 
this result, no reasonable man who has ever visited that part of 
the country can doubt for a moment, and the facts in the case 
are such that no one who gives them a candid consideration can 
come to any other conclusion. The character of the whole region, 
level as to the whole, and yet high and undulating as to the sur- 
face of its parts: the salubrity of its climate, free from all mias- 
matic influences, giving always most healthful "entertainment for 
both man and beast"; the peculiar herbage with which nature has 
covered it, which is grass in early summer, and hay in fall and 
winter, always sweet and nourishing, and sufficient food for cattle 
without other fodder all the 3^ear round; the mildness of its win- 
ters, which renders shelter for animals unnecessary; and, finally, 
its want of water, which precludes its use for cultivation for 
many years to come, if not alwaj^s, show, both negatively and 
positively, that it is specially adapted to be the great cattle and 
sheep range of this country, and, in its natural condition, is fit 
for nothing else. It should be understood, however, that there is 
one portion of the plains admirably adapted for agricultural pur- 
poses. Along the base of the Rocky Mountains, from about 
Cheyenne, on the north, to Colorado City, on the south, is a belt 
of country, about 250 miles in length and 75 miles in width, con- 
taining not less than 10,000,000 acres, which differs from the 
pastoral plains lying east of it, inasmuch as it is immediately 
adapted to support a large agricultural population, which the 
latter is not. It lies near enough to the mountains for settlers 
to avail themselves of the abundant supply of coal, timber, iron, 
lime, and building stone, which the mountain ranges afford; its 
soil is rich in all the elements of fertility, needing water only to 
bring them into activity, and it is intersected with a multitude of 



438 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



rivers and streams from which that supply of water can be drawn. 
Colorado is, in fact, divided into three distinct sections, each the 
complement of the other, and the three together combining to 
make it the richest region on this continent, if not in the world. 
First, its mountain ranges, full of the precious and useful metals; 
second, this belt of country along their eastern slope, and, third, 
the wide extent of plain still further east, for the use of a scattered 
pastoral people, with an almost unlimited breadth of pasture land, 
capable of supporting innumerable flocks and herds. 

To make the middle region available for an agricultural pop- 
ulation, irrigation is absolutely necessary. To many Eastern 
farmers, this doubtless seems a formidable obstacle. Yet the same 
men would not be in the least appalled if told that the richest 
farming lands in the world awaited their occupation, to be had at 
a low price, but requiring, before they could be brought under 
cultivation, that they should be cleared of timber or drained of 
superfluous moisture. They would undertake the settlement of 
such lands with the utmost alacrity, counting it nothing that, with 
the arduous labor of ditching and under-draining swamps and the 
clearing of forests, they would be compelled to pay also the heavy- 
penalty of shattered health, at least for two or three seasons, and 
an average of probably not less than one death in every family 
of new settlers. Now the fact is that irrigation is easier than 
draining; that this region in which it is indispensable before the 
soil can be brought under cultivation, is not only healthful for 
those who are well, but health-giving to the invalid ; and, when the 
magic influence of water is brought to bear upon a soil abounding 
in every other element of fertihty, its returns are absolutely certain 
and rich in quality and quantity altogether beyond the experience 
of the Eastern farmers in the States, and doubtless to many of 
them almost beyond belief. This is a matter, not of speculation 
or conjecture, but of figures and experience. Wherever irrigation 
is possible, the question of productiveness is settled. A glance at 
any good map of Colorado will show that the middle belt, as we 
have termed it, is pierced by many rivers and streams running 
down from the mountains, whose fountains are in snows and rains 
as inexhaustible as the hills are everlasting. These rivers run 
through the plains with a fall of from ten to twenty feet to the mile. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



439 



Taking the base of the mountains, then, as a starting-point, it is 
evident that all the lands capable of being irrigated from these 
streams can command sufficient fall of water to cover any given 
area. By turning the requisite quantity of water into a canal, or 
series of canals, and thence again into still smaller rivulets, held 
under control by the simplest sluices, every foot of that area may 
be covered at pleasure with water, to be cut off the moment it is 
no longer needed, to be used or disused according to the needs of 
the growing crops. The smaller stream-beds which a farmer car- 
ries along and through his fields are inexpensive, in fact little else 
than plow furrows which any man can make as he needs them 
with his own team and labor. The main canals, of course, are 
comparatively expensive, according to their length and first cost, 
but an expense easily borne, where settlements are made by 
colonies, and a light tax laid upon the land for the use of the water. 
No other engineering is needed than a survey to secure the requisite 
fall at a sufficient distance; all the rest is the simple digging of 
a shallow and narrow ditch, with the requisite number of smaller 
ditches running from it. Thus, at Denver, the Platte is running 
in limpid rivulets through the streets, the surplus finding its way, 
after the work of cleansing, fertihzing, or whatever other use the 
water may be put to, back again to the parent stream. Now, the 
system is feasible for the whole of the region we are considering, 
and is absolutely simpler work than ordinary drainage, and, in- 
deed, is necessarily so, in just so much as it is easier to turn a sur- 
face stream upon lower land than it is to ditch and drain away 
the moisture and the unknown springs hidden beneath the surface 
to some lower land. To an American, irrigation seems formidable, 
because it is something to which he is unaccustomed, and of which 
he has no practical knowledge. The ''Heathen Chinee" would tell 
him that there could be no good and profitable farming without 
it, because he and his fathers have depended upon it, and by it 
have made China the Flowery Kingdom for above five thousand 
years. Governor McCook, of Colorado, in an address before the 
Colorado Agricultural Society, at its Fair, a few weeks since, in 
Denver, gave, as the average yield per acre of the irrigated lands 
of the Territory, 38 bushels of wheat, 58 bushels of oats, 150 to 
200 bushels of potatoes, and 30 bushels of beans. But there were 



440 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



on exhibition at this fair, 93 measured bushels of wheat raised on 
a single acre; 232 bushels of "English Excelsior" oats raised on 
four acres, and 166 bushels of "Black Swedish" on two acres; 
1,000 bushels of potatoes grown on three acres, 54 of which made 
a measured bushel, and weighed 593^ pounds; 1,000 bushels of 
onions, started in hot beds and grown afterward upon a single 
acre. The two statements, showing what may be done by ordi- 
nary, and what may be done by extraordinary, effort, are evidence 
enough of the fruitfulness of the land. That farming in such a 
country must be as profitable an employment as residence in a 
region four or five thousand feet above the sea, where there is 
little moisture except that coming from running streams, must be 
healthful, needs no demonstration when it is remembered how 
many miners there are in the mountains who produce no food; 
that there will soon be more, and that, in the markets of the world, 
the farmer who can raise three times as much wheat to the acre 
as his competitors, has two bushels to spend for freight before 
competition really begins. 

GREELEY UPON GREELEY. 

(The following short extracts are from the report of Hon. 
Horace Greeley after his visit to the Greeley colony in the sum- 
mer of 1870:) 

A rich, deep soil, free from bog, stick, stump, or stone, very 
easily broken up and tilled, and requiring only water to render it 
abundantly and surely productive. All these, with a pure, bracing 
atmosphere and remarkably healthy climate. 
******************** 

Wood and timber abound on the lower hills and in the gorges 
of the Rocky Mountains. * * * 

The mines of Colorado will consume all the grain and vegeta- 
bles that can be raised in that territory for the next hundred years; 
and, besides, the rancheros or cattle growers of the plains are every 
day increasing in number, while not very likely to fall away in 
appetite. Few of them grow grain, for want of irrigation, but all 
are glad to help to eat it. I judge that the price of most grains 
and vegetables will range as high here in the average as in our 
state or New Jersey. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



441 



EXPERIENCE AT GREELEY. 

(From President Meeker's correspondence to the New York 
Tribune, dated Greele}-, Colorado, November 16, 1870.) 

The Locating Committee traveled thousands of miles, having 
the whole West to choose from, and they finally selected the valley 
of Cache la Poudre, in Colorado, half way between Cheyenne and 
Denver, and on the Denver Pacific Railroad. They made the 
selection in April, 1870, and, in preference to all other locations, 
whether attainable or not, for the following reasons: 

1. Healthfulness. 

2. Rich soil. 

3. Proximity to iron, wood and coal. 

4. Strategic position in regard to railroad lines in the future. 

5. Beautiful scenery. 

After a residence of nearh' six months, it is found that the 
country is entirely exempt from agues and bilious diseases of all 
kinds, and it is the universal testimon}^ of our people that they 
like the climate better each day. 

It was impossible to do much at cultivation before the middle 
of June, when something like 100 acres were planted, and the re- 
sult w^as in the highest degree satisfactory. So large and uncom- 
monly fine were the potatoes, beets, turnips, and other vegetables, 
that specimens grown by our people have been sent to New York 
city and placed on exhibition, challenging the most successful 
cultivators of the East. The yield of wheat in Colorado is far 
beyond that of the choicest wheat-growing regions of the States, 
while the quahty of the flour is so superior that a comparison 
would hardly be proper. 

The scenery presented by the majestic foot-hills; the moun- 
tains dark with pine, and the loftly snowy range beyond, give us 
the most magnificent views in the world. Ladies of the most re- 
fined taste, and of the highest culture, who have traveled far, 
both at home and abroad, are forever enchanted with the changing 
mountain views, from purple to silver and to gold, and the at- 
mosphere of balm is inhaled with perpetual dehght. 



31 



442 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



(From the Rocky Mountain News.) 

COLORADO. 

The Dairy Business, — Its Inducements and Advantages. 

For the production of butter and cheese, Colorado offers 
most excellent advantages. It possesses in a remarkable degree 
all the requirements of a dairy country. The native grass is rich 
and nutricious, and for the making of milk, as well as flesh, is 
equal if not superior to the clover and timothy of the east. The 
water is pure and cold. The absence of extreme heat in the sum- 
mer, combined with the coolness of the nights form a climate un- 
equalled for the purpose named. The extensive pasturage which 
exists, and which for years will be almost unlimited; the fact that 
cows can Hve during winter without hay; the strength and nu- 
tritiousness of our upland hay, if cows are fed; the profusion which 
our soil produces all kinds of roots which are adapted for winter 
feed for new milch cows; — all these are items which the farmer will 
recognize as of the highest advantage, and all these Colorado 
possesses in the highest degree. If to these be added a certain 
home market, together with a foreign market, at which butter 
can be sold at all seasons with a profit, there is no reason why 
dairying, profitable in all countries, should not be especially so in 
Colorado. 

While this fact can be demonstrated by figures it should be 
noted that dairying has not yet reached any great extent or care 
as a distinct business. A great deal of butter has been made and 
that of very superior quality, but in most, and we believe in a 
majority of instances, dairying has been combined with the stock 
business. Where calves are allowed to run with the cows for two, 
four or six weeks, the number of pounds of butter which a cow will 
make during the season will be very much reduced. This is one 
item, and there are others, such as a lack of thrift and care; the 
want of attention to cows; the allowing them to go dry too early 
in the season, and much waste, all of which might be noted as 
calculated to reduce the average of the number of pounds of butter 
which a cow will produce. In short, dairj^ing has thus far been 
carried on very recklessly, and yet it has been immensely profitable, 
as we can show from a few scattering notes collected in the fall of 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



443 



1869 among some of the northern valleys. We mention no names, 
but the following table will give some idea as to what was done 



that season: 










Nn nf 

IMU. (Jl 


X. Utdil lUt5. 


ixV. lUkS. pel 


/x V . |ji ice 


A V npr 
V • pel 


v_/U Wo. 


Rnffpr 


Dow 


Liei xu« 






oouu 


1^1 

J.OX 


^1 


VUVJ O J. 






120 


o/ X2 


55 00 


20 


2000 


inn 








1 700 






38 25 


22 


2^00 


12/5 






12 


1 200 


100 


45 


45 00 




IfiOO 

J. \J\J\J 


100 

±.\J\J 








12^0 








IR 


2400 


1 f^O 


45 


67 50 


in 


y^o 




49 




10 


650 


603^ 


45 


27 22 


20 


2000 


100 




47 50 


35 


3150 


90 






28 


2100 


75 






15 


1500 


100 







*For four months. 



Taking the footings of the above and striking an average, it 
gives a gross value of about $46.50 per cow. 

We have two other illustrations which are more accurate; 
figured more closely, and a better showing of what a dair3mian 
can do. The figures are as follows : Eighteen cows from January 
1, 1869, to December 1, 1869, yielded 2,376 lbs. of butter, or an 
average of 132 lbs per cow. This sold at an average price of 483^ 
cents, giving a total of $1,146.42, or an average of $63.69 per cow. 
In addition, the calves brought $12 each, and an average of $4 
worth of chickens per cow were raised upon the sour milk giving 
a total yield of $79.94 per cow. The expense was figured as 
follows: Help, (estimated at) $600; salt, $19; 7^ tons hay, $75; 
bran and feed, $30; total, $724; average per cow, $40.22 — leaving 
a net profit per cow of $39.72. 

Another instance is as follows: Ten cows, 1,400 lbs.; aver- 
age, 140 lbs. per cow; average price, 48 cents; total per cow, $67,20. 



444 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

These cows were purchased early in the spring at $55 each, and 
their calves brought $12.50 each. 

Regarding cheese making, we have not sufficient data to pre- 
sent any figures at the present time. 

The market demand for butter has always been as great or 
greater than the supply. The average price during the last two 
years has been 40@50 cents per pound; higher, we believe, than 
during the previous season. For the present, at least, the home 
demand will increase in an equal ratio with the supply; but if 
ever the home market becomes overstocked, it can be shipped to 
California and other markets in refrigerator cars and sold at a 
profit. Fresh roll butter in San Francisco market is now quoted 
at 55@65; Eastern, 25@35. Colorado can place butter in the 
San Francisco and other California markets, which, at present 
quotations, should command at least 40 cents. Freights by the 
car load would be from three to four cents per pound. 

PROGRESS OF COLORADO. 

In regard to the general progress of Colorado, Ex-Gov. Bross, 
of the Chicago Tribune, dated in the fall of 1870, speaks as follows, 
in a letter to that paper: The opening of the Denver Pacific 
Railway to Cheyenne, giving the territory a direct connection 
east and west by the Union Pacific road; and the completion within 
the past few weeks of the Kansas Pacific road, giving a direct line 
eastward by several roads from Kansas City, will have a marked 
effect upon the rapid development of Colorado. Within the next 
two years it is claimed that a road will be opened up Clear Creek 
to Georgetown — the very heart of the rich mineral deposits, that 
even now are yielding more generous returns than ever before. 
New and most promising discoveries are made almost every month, 
and the tunneling of these metaliferious mountains is progressing 
with the most gratifying results. New and improved processes 
of reducing these refractory ores have also greatly stimulated the 
production of the precious metals, and it may safelj^ be asserted 
that mining is now placed upon a permanent and most hopeful 
basis. 

^'Five years ago, on his first crossing 'the plains,' — as that 
vast country between the Missouri river and the Rocky Moun- 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



445 



tains is commonly but not very correctly, designated — the writer 
became convinced that the region in which millions of buffalo could 
for ages live and grow fat, must, in the no distant future, become 
the great meat-producing section of the continent. The fact was 
published, and used in lectures scores of times. Little did he 
think that the prediction — for then it seemed to many to be but 
a wild fancy — would so soon be realized. Had the Indians of the 
plains, five years ago, been made 'permanently peaceable.' — let 
those afflicted with sentimental nonsense inquire of the people of 
the territories, and of the writer, privately, how that can be safely 
and surely done — Colorado would now be sending tens of thousands 
of the finest cattle to the markets of the country. Her vast rich 
plains, and her magnificent parks and mountain valleys, are prac- 
tically exhaustless in their capacity for the rearing of stock. Of 
wheat — a better quality cannot be found anywhere — and of other 
farm products, Colorado now has a large surplus. Taking her 
vast mineral and immense agricultural resources, her health-giving 
mineral springs, and her magnificent mountain scenery — sure to 
attract thousands upon thousands of visitors from all parts of the 
world — the stimulus which the opening of her railways will give 
her, and the hardy and intelligent, thrifty and enterprising popu- 
lation now there and going there in great numbers, no one can 
doubt that Colorado is soon to become one of the most influential, 
wealthy, and prosperous States in the Union." 

(From the Rocky Mountain Daily News, Oct. 1, 1870.) 
Extracts from the Address of Gov. McCook, before the Colorado 
Agricultural Society, Friday, September 30th, 1870.^ 

[Nine paragraphs omitted] 
(From Grace Greenwood's letter to the New York Times, dated 
Denver, October 4, 1871.) 

COLORADO FAIR. 

The buildings devoted to farm products and mineral speci- 
mens, were always crowded, and were to me by far the most in- 
teresting departments. I had seen elsewhere as grand-looking 

iThe section omitted is practically the same as that part of Governor McCook's address reprinted in 
pamphlet of Chicago-Colorado Colony, July, 1871 ; supra pp. 151-155. 

An excerpt from the Rocky Mountain News of November 30, 1870, headed "A Perfect Day," is also 
omitted; it may be found supra p. 157. 



446 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



stock, but nowhere had I ever beheld such immense, such Brob- 
dignagian vegetables. Think of early potatoes, sound and sweet 
to the core, w^eighing six pounds apiece ! Consider a turnip, weigh- 
ing twenty-two pounds! Bring your mind up to a cabbage of 
fifty pounds! Shudder before an awful blood-beet of sixteen 
pounds, and make obeisance before a pumpkin actually weighing 
130 pounds! I really reverence that pumpkin, that mountain 
avalanche of summer sunshine. I would make a pulpit of it, or 
the platform of a Woman's Rights Convention, or put it to some 
other sacred and dignified use. Think of Spanish cucumbers by 
the yard, and wheat, oats and barley more than six feet tall. You 
need not be surprised to have a Colorado friend write to you from 
his ranche in this wise: ''Sitting in the cool shade of a stalk of 
barley growing by my door." 

(From the Colorado Real Estate Register.) 

PLATTE VILLE. 

The newest town in Colorado is located thirty-five miles north 
of Denver, on the Denver Pacific Railway. The town is laid out 
on what we term the ''second bottom," and extends back up a 
gradual slope, so that the eastern portion is some seventy-five feet 
higher than the western; the streets are wide, with parks laid out 
throughout the town, and the irrigating ditch, not yet completed, 
will come from the Platte twenty miles above, and is capable of 
irrigating the whole of the town and surrounding country. 

The lots are large, 50x165, and on the outskirts of the town 
one-half and acre lots for residences. 

The view of the mountains from this point cannot be excelled 
in Colorado — with Long's Peak due west of it, and the great Snowy 
Range north, as far as the eye can reach, and also south, reaching 
far beyond Pike's Peak, which is one hundred and twenty-five 
miles south, presents to the view one of the most glorious mountain 
views that can be found. 

The soil is fertile, and up and down the Platte river farms of 
the richest kind can be found, raising from thirty to sixty bushels 
of wheat, barley and rye, and fifty to one hundred bushels of oats; 
potatoes to an amount unheard of in the East, and vegetables that 
would make the eyes of the gardeners of the East stare. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



447 



(From the Chicago Standard, August, 187L) 

THE PLATTE RIVER LAND COMPANY. 

This company has purchased several thousand acres of land 
in Colorado on the Denver Pacific Railway. B. F. Johnson, the 
President of the Company, is well and favorably known in Chicago 
as a man of integrity and business skill and energy. The directors 
of the company are John Pierce, Vice President of the Denver 
Pacific Railway; Wm. N. Byers, manager of National Land Com- 
pany of Denver; Wm. A. Butters, H. J. Goodrich, C. N. Pratt, 
and James Cherry, of Chicago, all well known as responsible men, 
who will carry successfully through whatever they undertake. 
We can indorse the men at the head of this enterprise, as well as 
the enterprise itself. H. J. Goodrich, 125 Dearborn street, Chi- 
cago, is the Chicago secretary of the company. 

We may add that this company has secured homes for a num- 
ber of families under the homestead act, and w^ill gladly render 
any needed assistance to those w^ho may be seeking government 
lands. Any who contemplate settling in Colorado, will do well 
to consult with some of the officers of this company. 

(From the Chicago Standard, September, 1871.) 

PLATTEVILLE, COLORADO. 

A few weeks ago we made allusion to the Platte River Land 
Company of Colorado, which article we reproduce below. We 
are now informed by B. F. Johnson, the President of the Co., that 
he expects to return to Piatt ville in a few weeks to commence an 
irrigating canal some thirty miles in length, erect a hotel and bridge 
the Platte river. Also that he expects to build a residence for 
himself, where he expects to take his family when it is completed. 

After satisfying ourselves in regard to this new town and the 
resources of the surrounding country, as also the plans intended to 
be carried out by the parties having hold of it, to make it one of 
the most beautiful and successful enterprises in the West, we have 
purchased a small interest in it. We state this fact that our friends 
may know why we seem to take so lively an interest in this new 
Eldorado near the base of the Rocky Mountains, w^here, on ac- 
count of its salubrious climate, so many go to recuperate their 
broken down health. 



448 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Persons desiring to secure government land under the home- 
stead act in the vicinity of Platteville, or of obtaining any infor- 
mation in regard to this new enterprise, can do so by calHng on 
Col. H. J. Goodrich, at the office of the company, No. 125 Dear- 
born street, or on Wm. A. Butters, Esq., No. 11 Randolph street, 
who are the Chicago Trustees of the company. 

(From the Chicago Real Estate and Builder's Journal, Sept. 

30, 1871) 

The Platte River Land Company, of Colorado, have a branch 
office at 125 Dearborn street, rooms 7 and 8, where facilities will 
be extended to parties wishing to locate in that very desirable 
section of country. The town of Platteville is a central point, 
located on the line of the Denver Pacific Railway, thirty-five miles 
north of Denver, about midway between Denver and Greeley. 
The site is a commanding one on the banks of the beautiful Platte 
river, and is surrounded by a very fertile and productive country, 
which is rapidly filling up by parties from the Eastern States, who 
have been attracted there by the extreme healthfulness of the 
climate coupled with the abundant productions of the soil. Wm. 
A. Butters and Henry J. Goodrich, are Chicago Trustees, B. F. 
Johnson, of Platteville, is President, and Wm. N. Byers, Esq., 
and John Pierce, late Vice-President of the Denver Pacific Rail- 
road, are Denver Trustees. A few hundred dollars invested in 
Platteville will lead to a fortune. The Platteville Hotel will be 
finished this fall. Also, an irrigating canal thirty miles in length, 
thus insuring an abundance of water for all agricultural purposes. 

(From the Chicago Tribune.) 
If you wish to make a safe, sure and profitable investment, 
purchase a few corner lots in Platteville, Colorado. 

PLATTEVILLE. 1 
Among new enterprises for the settlement of various portions 
of Colorado that have been inaugurated the present year there is 
one of modest pretensions about which the press has as yet said 
but little. We allude to Platteville, thirty-five miles down the 
Platte from Denver, on the Denver Pacific railway. The pro- 



^DailpRoeky Mountain News, June 8, 1871, p. 2. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



449 



motors purchased a few thousand acres of railway land, including 
a site for a station on the railway. Upon this they have laid out 
the town of Platte ville and begun making improvements. Not 
much, however, can be done until water for irrigation can be se- 
cured, and that necessarily delays all planting until another 
season. The canal to irrigate the town and neighborhood must 
be taken from the Platte some miles above, probably in the neigh- 
borhood of Lupton. 

Most of the land purchased is west of the Platte, lying be- 
tween that stream and the Saint Vrain, and running down near 
to the junction of the two. It is level, smooth and fertile; irri- 
gating ditches already in use, from Saint Vrain and Boulder creeks, 
by enlargement and extension, will cover it all. These ditches 
will be lengthened in time for next year's planting. The inter- 
mediate government sections of land are being rapidly taken up 
by pre-emption and homestead, and the prospect is good for an- 
other large and productive settlement, convenient to market, and 
with natural resources equal to any. Good coal is mined within 
half a mile of the town site, and several quarries of excellent build- 
ing stone have been opened in the neighborhood. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



451 



FOUNTAIN COLONY 



VILLA LA FONT.i 



The Fountaine colony of Colorado — A mammoth enterprise — 
Colorado Springs purchased and a city to be laid out — One of the 
most enticing spots in Colorado — Full descriptions. 

"When Fitz Hugh Ludlow visited Colorado gathering data for 
his well-known volume ''The Heart of the Continent" it was his 
good fortune to tarry for a while at the foot of Pike's peak, in- 
dulging in the exquisite luxuries of the scenery and gratifying his 
taste and thirst with the carbonated waters of the springs of the 
Fountaine-qui-Bouille. When he had recovered from the intoxi- 
cation of the scene and had gathered his sober senses to the work 
in hand, he recorded the following as a slight inkling of his enthus- 
iasm over that section of Colorado immediately to the south of us, 
which has heretofore been removed from actual contact with the 
tourist simply by isolation from the iron thoroughfare of the con- 
tinent. Says Ludlow, reviewing the efficacy of these waters and 
looking into the future: ''These springs are very highly estimated 
among the settlers of this region for their virtues in the cure of 
rheumatism, all cutaneous diseases, and the special class for which 
the practitioners' sole dependence has hitherto been mercury. 
When Colorado becomes a state, the springs of the Fountaine will 
constitute its spa. In air and scenery no more glorious summer 
residence could be imagined. The Coloradan of the future, as- 
tonishing the echoes of the Rocky foothills by a railroad from 
Denver to the Colorado springs, and running down on Saturday 
to stop over Sunday with his family, will have little cause to envy 
us easterners our Saratoga as he paces up and down the piazza 
of the Spa hotel, mingling his full-flavored Havana with that lovely 
air, quite unbreathed before, which is floating down upon him 
from the snow-peaks of the range." 

Mr. Ludlow wrote well, but Colorado will not have become a 
state when this picture which is drawn above in such vivid colors 



^ Daily Rocky Mountain News, June 23, 1871, p. 1 . 



452 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



shall have been finished. The day is drawing near, and is now, in 
fact, upon us, when the Colorado springs at the foot of Pike's peak 
shall be utilized and made to realize all that has been predicted of 
them. Their richnes? in mineral products has long been known, 
and yet no correct analysis has ever been made of them. They 
have been off the ordinary route of tourists and invalids, who, 
while desiring strongly to visit them, have been deterred from so 
doing by the tediousness of the old mode of travel by stage. The 
Denver and Rio Grande railway, however, is the entering wedge 
which is to throw that southern country with its gorgeousness of 
natural scenery and richness of natural products open to all, and 
to place the springs, the peaks, and the great rocky gardens close 
to the threshold of all other portions of the territory. This road 
is working a wonderful change, and already capital and enterprise 
are looking southward for advantageous openings. Not alone 
capital and business interests, but colonists, are tending towards 
this delightful spot of which we have just made mention. 

We have in these columns, heretofore, written in detail of the 
colonial enterprises which have been prospecting for favorable lo- 
cations on the Fountaine, the Huerfano and other southern 
streams, but it has been left for us at this time to call attention to 
an undertaking that exceeds all the others in design and boldness 
of execution, one headed by some of the most prominent gentlemen 
of this territory and the east, and which promises to develops into 
success in every particular. 

For some time past a number of gentlemen have been nego- 
tiating for a large tract of land in the vicinity of the base of Pike's 
peak, the same to include the famous Colorado springs. This 
company have purchased the springs and a large number of acres 
in the immediate vicinity, comprising some four hundred and 
eighty villa sites of one acre each, on the Fountaine, and ten thou- 
sand acres on Monument creek. They will there lay out a town 
to be known as Colorado Springs, on the line of the Denver and 
Rio Grande railway, the springs proper being about five miles 
from the road. The springs have been christened Villa la Font, 
and will be provided with a postoffice and telegraph station, as 
will also the railroad depot. From the depot to the Villa a fine 
carriage road will be constructed. Villa la Font lies in the cele- 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



453 



brated Ute pass, from which El Paso county derives its name. 
The natural scenery from this point is magnificent. In the back- 
ground and in the centre of the semicircle, rises the grand dome of 
Pike's peak; immediately in front and left, and about eight miles 
away, reaches heavenward Cheyenne mountain, the bold outline 
that completes the picture; and on the right are the gardens of 
of the gods. The company w^ill build a hotel at Colorado Springs, 
the railroad depot, (using a temporary building for the present with 
the intention of erecting one next spring to cost at least $100,000). 
They will also establish at the springs a bottling business with the 
best apparatus made for bottling the waters and saving the car- 
bonic gas. This will form one of the industrial objects of the 
colony. 

Professor Hayden, in his report on Colorado, says of these 
springs: ' 'Perhaps the feature of the greatest general interest in 
this region is the soda springs, which are located about three miles 
above Colorado City, in the valley of Fountaine creek. The scen- 
ery around them is grand beyond any I have ever seen in the vicin- 
ity of any other medicinal springs. There are four of them. The 
first one is close to the road, wuthin fifty feet of the creek. For a 
distance of sixty feet or more around the spring there is a deposit 
or incrustation in thin layers. About one hundred yards above 
the first spring is the second one, on the right side of the creek. 
This is much the largest one, and has formed a basin six or eight 
feet across, from the centre of which boils up a violent current. 
On the opposite side of the creek, not more than twenty-five feet 
from it, and located about ten feet above it, is a third small spring. 
The water is stronger than that of the others, and is used prin- 
cipally for drinking purposes. The fourth spring is perhaps fifty 
feet above the second, on the right side of the creek, and within 
four feet of the water's edge. Its waters are rather chalybeate 
than otherwise. The basin of the second spring is about four feet 
deep, and is used for bathing. The first three springs are strongly 
impregnated with carbonic acid gas, and are the true springs." 
The temperature of the springs is about 65°. 

The chief spring, christened by Professor Hayden the ''Doc- 
tor," and which is probably the richest mineral spring in the world, 
containing as it does over an ounce of medicated matter to every 



454 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



four gallons of water, will be called the ''Doctor," or ''Galen 
spring." The chalybeate spring, whose waters resemble those of 
Pyrmont, in Europe, will hereafter be known as the "Iron Ute." 
The "Great spring" will keep its present name. It will be called 
in plain EngUsh the "Boiling Fountain." Another, called by the 
Indians the "Beast," from the fact that wild beasts were wont to 
drink the water to heal their diseases, will be known as the "Nava- 
joe." 

The city of Villa la Font will be located about three miles 
northeast of Colorado city, on the Ute pass, and, as we have men- 
tioned above, about eight miles from Cheyenne mountain. In 
this connection we cannot resist the temptation to quote at this 
point Mr. Ludlow's beautiful description of Cheyenne mountain. 
He says: "Its height is several thousand feet less than Pike's; 
but its contour is so noble, and so massive, that this disadvantage 
is overlooked. There is a unity of conception in it unsurpassed 
by any mountain I have ever seen. It is full of living power. 
In the declining daylight its vast simple surface becomes the broad- 
est mass of blue and purple shadow that ever lay on the easel of 
nature." If such a spot is not the counterpart of an earthly Eden, 
where will it be found? 

The colony which has this matter in hand is composed of some 
of the most reliable parties in the country. Several have been 
identified with the Greeley colony and have done a great work in 
developing that organization and bringing it to its present state 
of perfection and success. The colony is now open to membership. 
The figures are not yet definitely settled upon, but will resemble 
in general plan those adopted for the membership of the Greeley 
colony. The stock is fixed at S300,000, of which S200,000 have 
already been subscribed, at $100 per share, by prominent parties 
in New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis and Colorado. By the time 
the Denver and Rio Grande railway is completed to Colorado 
Springs the hotel will be ready for the reception of colonists, and 
will be large enough to accommodate all. 

A brief description of the proposed workings of the colony 
plan will be pertinent at this point. The organization is to be 
known as the Fountaine colony of Colorado, to have two-thirds 
of the lands purchased at actual cost price, and all the profits made 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



455 



by the colony in these lands are to be devoted to general improve- 
ments. For instance: A piece of land which costs $15 per acre 
will be divided into eight business lots. These seUing at $100 
would leave above the average cost of each lot about $98 to be 
devoted to improvements. This is upon the plan of Greeley 
colony. Lots will be sold at $50, minimum; highest price for 
choice corner lots to members, about $200 each. The person who 
purchases one lot at the minimum price of $50 will be entitled to 
all the privileges of low transportation for his family and contract 
rate for household goods by freight. Each member will be en- 
titled to select in person at the regular drawings, the dates to be 
fixed upon hereafter, one business and one residence lot, or one 
residence lot and one outside piece of property. He will have 
four months to make improvements; if he has done nothing in 
that time, his selection will be vacated, and he will be given the 
opportunity to make a new selection. If he had done nothing 
within the first year in the way of improvements, the money is to 
be refunded by the colony. The only conditions upon the colon- 
ists are that they must improve their claims before they can obtain 
their titles. The title will be given prohibiting the manufacture 
or sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage in all places of public 
resort, as at Greeley. The officers of the colony will assist immi- 
grants from the east in pre-empting and homesteading lands out- 
side their city claims and privileges, without additional expense 
above government fees. They will also assist any colonists, in 
securing timbered land for the erection of saw mills. 

The leading business of the colony, besides the manufacture 
of lumber, for which the country of that section is bounteously 
supphed by heavy timber, and the care of invalids who will flock 
thither through the enticing influence of a health-giving climate 
and the invigorating springs, will be the raising of early vegetables 
and small fruits, including peaches, apricots, grapes, etc., for the 
Denver and northern Colorado markets. The climate of the sec- 
tion south of the Divide is much milder than the other portions of 
the territory, as it is entirely shielded, by the natural rise of land, 
from the north winds. The many orchards on the Arkansas and 
other streams have heretofore given the most flattering indications 
of success, and there is no reason to believe but that this enterprise 



456 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



of the Fountaine colony will eventuate profitably to all concerned. 
The range of mercury during the winter months is about the same 
as in Arkansas, and nature seems to have designed this for a fruit- 
producing country. 

A wagon road will be made from Villa la Font to near the 
summit of Pike's peak, and a trail route, also, up the same peak, 
for the benefit of tourists. A hotel, to be called the Tip-Top 
house, will be erected at the summit of Pike's peak. 

No person has as yet been selected for president of the colony, 
although several prominent gentlemen of the United States have 
been mentioned. General R. A. Cameron, of Greeley, formerly 
vice president and superintendent of Union colony, is vice presi- 
dent, superintendent and general manager of this colony. W. E. 
Pabor is secretary, and Mr. E. S. Nettle ton is chief engineer, both 
of these gentlemen having formerly held similar positions in Union 
colony and Mr. William P. Mellen, late of New York, and now of 
the Denver and Rio Grande railway, is treasurer. 

The city of Colorado Springs has not yet been surveyed, but 
the engineer corps of the colony will start south next week for the 
purpose of laying out the town-site and running the main canals 
for the conveyance of water. 

Those who may desire to acquire further information than 
we have been able give here, owing to the press upon our columns, 
can secure circulars, etc., by addressing the secretary of the 
Fountaine colony of Colorado, at Colorado Springs, care Colorado 
City postoffice. Pamphlets will be issued soon. 

COLONIZATION— THE OLD AND THE NEW FACE TO 

FACE.i 

Colorado Springs, Sept. 1st, '71. 
Editor Tribune: — The conflict between the old and the new, 
as a general rule, is always closely contested; every inch of ground 
relinquished by the one is eagerly occupied by the other; every 
point of vantage vaunted abroad with the noise of trumpets and 
the sound of great rejoicing. This has been the experience of 
ages, as history verifies. Whether it was a question of morals or 
physics — of nations or individuals — of religions or statecraft — it 



^Denver Daily Tribune, September 4, 1871 p. 2. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



457 



has generally been shown that the new departure must expect to 
fight manfully for and win by sheer strength of energy, every ad- 
vantage it obtains over the old estabhshed opinion, custom, rule, 
routine or edict. 

So it came about that when the apostles of colonization as a 
method of setthng new Territories, proclaimed their peculiar ten- 
ets, there were a sufficient number of the adherents of the old, 
effete method to combat the new theory, and place obstructions 
in the path of the new one. It mattered little with these men that 
what it had taken a score of years to accomplish, was brought 
about in one by the new method. Setting the solitary in famihes 
was indeed a scriptural injunction, but there were ways, and the 
old-fashioned way was their's, and they held to it, as old fogyism 
ever holds to its own. 

The leaders of the far-famed Union colony of Colorado, 
settled at Greeley, early learned this lesson. The people among 
whom they had come were at once suspicious — distrustful — 
jealous. They had no fancy for such a new, radical innovation 
on established custom. Had not they and their' s possessed the 
land for years, and was it not for an inheritance for them, their 
children, and their children's children forever? Their cattle 
roamed over the grass-covered vales, and over the fertile uplands, 
and there were none to make them afraid. There was ample room 
for new settlers, had they but come in the usual way — one by one, 
here, there and yonder, settling down to the cool springs or the 
sparkling rivulets or the rapidly running river. But when they 
became suddenly an hundred and the hundred grew to be a 
thousand in a year, why this became a burder greater than the 
burden of the grasshoppers. So it came to pass that the inevitable 
conflict arose, waged fiercely, furiously and fast. The ranchmen 
and the colonist were not friendly to each other; the one desiring 
the land as a possession in unlimited measure; the other desired 
the land likewise as a possession, but in a limited measure and with 
the distinct understanding that his possession should be fixed, 
absolute and certain. The cattle of the former were not to range 
over the cultivated fields of his neighbor, and as this entailed 
herding, and consequently an outlay, it was unwelcome to the 
one as it was a necessity to the other. 



458 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



The success of the colonial sj^stem established, it was a matter 
of course that others would follow in the steps of the Greeley 
colony ; but each alike met the same obstacle — the same opposition 
of the old to the new. 

The Fountain colony proves no exception to this general rule. 
Located within three miles of Colorado City, once boasting its 
ten thousand inhabitants, now scarce numbering three hundred, 
at once the element of opposition awoke in the bosoms of the 
dead-alive population. For years they have seen their associates 
leaving, their business declining, their town dwindling into insig- 
nificance, but they settled down into the stolid indifference of the 
age, caring nothing for these things. The fewer there were, the 
greater the range, the larger the liberty, the less the cares. Twelve 
years old, yet wearing the decrepit look of century-old, poverty 
stricken, God forsaken lands. 

Suddenly was heard the footsteps of a new civilization. The 
new wine was flowing, and forsooth, because it w^as not to be put 
into old bottles, it became at once as poison to the tongues of those 
who watched its flow into the new bottles prepared for its recep- 
tion. The Colorado Cityites were all sufficient unto themselves, 
were they not therefore sufficient unto all who might enter their 
borders? Let the new blood flow into the old veins — the young 
bride fall into the arms of the old husband; the vigor and freshness 
of youth walk arm in arm with the infirmities and incapacities of 
old age. Then, all right. Then, no ripple would run upon the 
current of public sentiment. All would go well, still stagnation 
ensued. 

But — if — You see, do you not? 

And the ''but" and the ''if" are here; hence the indignation of 
the highly moral citizens of the town has been aroused and the 
stagnant blood of the City Fathers has been set in motion, and 
vengeance dire threatens the Fountain Colony of Colorado, the 
village of La Font and the new town of Colorado Springs. These 
all are to be annihilated immediately, at once, if not sooner. 
Precisely how and why, has not yet been shown. It is threatened 
on the street corners and proclaimed from the (one-story) house- 
tops. It echoes along the foot-hills, touches the Divide and rolls 
down in sonorous volume till it touches Denver, and thence the 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



459 



country east and north. The Nation pauses — awaiting the blow. 
The would-be emigrant, sitting at the hearthstone of his eastern 
home — listens for the death knell to his hopes of health and 
happiness. 

Meanwhile the leaders of the colonial movement pause not in 
their course. If the lightning strike, it must strike them at their 
post of duty. The Surveyor is busy with his instruments, the 
Secretary with his correspondence, the Treasurer with his certifi- 
cates, the Superintendent with the thousand and one projects that 
spring Minerva-like from his ever active brain. The sound of 
hammers is heard all the day long; the music of the saw falls upon 
the air. The hasty feet of the workmen go to and fro, and as if by 
magic, new buildings and statel}^ edifices and tasty homes arise. 
Ere long the whistle of the narrow-gauge steam engine will echo 
through the suburbs, and every train will bring in expectant set- 
tlers who have left their homes on Eastern Atlantic slopes or in the 
many fair valleys of our land to build up a new home in "God's 
country," as our fair land and Territor>^ is called. 

And then— What of Colorado City? 

The dead must bury the dead, now, as in other days. The 
mourners must go about their streets bemoaning the new days 
and the strange ways. 

The New and the Old have met — fought and the story is all 
told. The New conquers. It was so in the days of Paul — in the 
days of Magna Charta — the days of the Revolution — in the hour 
when the white face met the red. The new colonial system must 
succeed; it has in it the elements of success and it has but to march 
on to victory. Its stately steppings are to be heard in the j^ears 
that are to come, and he or they who stand up to oppose it shall 
become as one who passes between the upper and the nether 
millstone — ground to powder. An Observer. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



461 



xMISCELLANEOUS 



[central KENTUCKY EMIGRATION SOCIETY.] 

We had the pleasure of meeting this morning, Captains J, H. 
Givens, and R. F. Long, of Cynthiana, Kentucky. They came in 
yesterday by the Kansas Pacific train, and after taking a look at 
Denver and surroundings, they will visit Greeley, and then go 
southward to Pueblo county, and to various points on the Ar- 
kansas. They come as the representatives of the Central Ken- 
tucky Emigration Society to 'spy out the land' . On their way they 
stopped at Kansas City, Manhattan, Junction City, and Solomon, 
their object being to find the best locality for a body of settlers 
from their State. A number of ex-soldiers of the Union army, 
residents of Harrison county, Kentucky, desirous of availing them- 
selves of the benefit of the act passed at the last session of Con- 
gress, allowing soldiers to take one hundred and sixty acres of 
government railroad lands, under the homestead act, have asso- 
ciated themselves into a company, numbering already some hun- 
dred and fifty members. They are not a colony like that of 
Greeley; they are not a co-operative society, but they thus band 
together in order to settle together. . . . 



MORE C0L0NIES.2 
There is a bill pending before congress, which if it becomes a 
law, will do a great deal to settle up this Territory. It provides 
that persons who served in the Union army during the late war 
and were honorably discharged, may secure homestead patents 
from the government, by residing on the land selected, for a period, 
which added to the time served in the army, will make the five 
years now required by law to entitle a settler to a patent. This 
is a just proposition, and is probably as near as the government 
will ever get to granting military land warrants to soldiers of the 
late war. In this connection, we find a statement in the New York 

Waily Colorado Tribune, December 10, 1870, p. 4. 
Wenver Daily Tribune, January 25, 1871, p. 4. 



462 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 

Tribune that steps have aheady been taken to organize several 
soldiers' colonies, to settle in Kansas and Colorado, as soon as this 
bill shall become a law. It is expected that two colonies will be 
organized in New England, one in New York, and one in Phila- 
delphia, to come West early in the Spring. 

^'NEWS FROM THE FAR WEST.''^ 
We are in receipt of the report of Capt. R. F. Long and James 
M. Givens, to the Central Kentucky Emigrant Society, published 
in pamphlet form under the above heading, from which we ex- 
tract : 

These gentlemen on their way to Colorado stopped at Kan- 
sas City, Manhattan, Junction City and Solomon. They were 
soon satisfied there were no large bodies of lands subject to home- 
stead in Kansas, of even a good quality, except away up on the 
Solomon River, in the extreme Northwestern Kansas, far away 
from any railroad, and that even then, hardy pioneers had taken 
possession of all the lands of the first qualit}^ accessible to wood 
and water, and the country is liable at any time to Indian depreda- 
tions; and down in the extreme of Southern Kansas, in the neigh- 
borhood of Walnut Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas, and bor- 
dering on the Indian Territory. From the best information they 
could receive, this country was rapidly fiUing up, and all the best 
lands being secured. 

The committee made a tour of inspection as far north as 
Greeley, and as far south as Pueblo, and as the sum of their ob- 
servations and conclusions, after som_e six weeks' investigation 
concerning the resources and prospects of Colorado, and more 
especially what is termed Southern Colorado, they state: 

1st. Mining is in its infancy, and the richest mines in the 
world are in the mountains of Colorado, and everything points 
to their speedy development v\^hich insures a steady and sufficient 
home market for the farmer and grazer. 

2nd. That in no portion of the United States, or perhaps in 
the world, is farming proper, more remunerative than in Colorado. 

3rd. That the stock raising facilities, including horses, cattle, 
sheep, cashmere goats, etc., is unsurpassed. We were happily here 



^Denver Daily Tribune, February 24, 1871, p. 2. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



463 



during the late unprecedented snow and cold, and have observed 
how stock wholly uncared for, passed through it, and the condition 
they are now in, and we feel warranted in making the above state- 
ment with emphasis. 

4th. Considering the relative population, there is no country 
where the citizens are richer, more intelligent or more highly 
cultivated. 

5th. That the climate is unsurpassed for healthfulness and 
general 'salubrity. These are broad statements, but we think the 
facts justify them. 

The committee are now on the Fountain, 30 miles above 
Pueblo, which is their choice of location for their colony, from 
which place they propose to make arrangements by which settlers 
from Kentucky, coming into the valley of the Fountain or Southern 
Colorado, can get a reduction in rates. 



' STILL THEY COME.^ 
An Ohio Soldiers' Colony Five Hundred Strong. 
Col. Wilson, of Sidney, Ohio, called on us last evening and 
communicated some news that will be of especial interest to our 
readers. Some weeks ago an organization was formed at Sidney 
of ex-soldiers, the object being to settle on government lands, 
either in Kansas or Colorado. Branch societies have been formed 
at Cincinnati and other points, and letters from Indiana and 
Illinois signify the desire of large numbers in those States to join 
in. About 500 are thus far enrolled. Col. Wilson represents a 
committee who have been exploring the Neosho Valley and other 
parts of Kansas, and have now come here to look over the prospects 
of Colorado; and it is probable that some part of this Territory 
will be their final location. We understand that they propose to 
start right. Some fifty famihes are coming from a single town. 
They will bring a woolen mill and newspaper along with them. 
Irrigation is the only bug bear in the way, and Col. Wilson wiU 
look at our ditches in Arapahoe County, and will go to Greeley 
and other points to fully post himself on the ways, means and cost, 
before he goes back to Ohio to report. 

Wenver Daily Tribune, March 4, 1871, p. 4. 



464 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



COLORADO COLONISTS. 1 
A late New York Standard says : "The vanguard of the Spring 
emigration left this city last night for the west. It consists of 
a colony of forty persons, mostly families. Their destination is 
Colorado. They start thus early in consequence of the greater 
facilities offered for obtaining employment. They went by the 
Erie and Lake Shore route, and at Cheyenne, will, if their present 
programme is carried out, proceed direct to Denver. At that 
point their future actions will be determined upon." 



A PENNSYLVANIA COLONY.^ 
A party of about sixty persons from Reading, Lancaster and 
neighboring towns, are now in Kansas awaiting the selection of 
colony grounds. They are mostly soldiers, and will be followed 
by about one hundred others. Col. W. L. Bear, of Lancaster, and 
Maj. H. D. Markly, of Reading, are prominent among the pro- 
moters of this enterprise. Some of the members are: Maj. 
Markly, Col. Bear, R. Ruth, J. W. Wible, B. F. Urban, J. N. Mor- 
row, E. M. Smith, Wm. Young, Jos. M. Fry, Isaac N. Bear, 
James H Clark, E. M. Herr, B. Saylor, and John P. Miller. Major 
Markly and Mr. B. Saylor of Reading, are now looking about in 
Colorado. The latter has been spending a few days in Denver. 

[The Carr Party.] 
^Mr. B. L. Carr, of Waukegan, Illinois, arrived yesterday with 
the pioneer party of a new colony organization in northern Colo- 
rado. The plan is a Uttle different from any former ones, but it is 
in able hands and gives promise of the most gratifying success. 
The party go out on the Denver Pacific railway to-day. They 
have bought several thousand acres of railway land. 

AN IOWA COLONY COMING. ^ 
Two or three families from Warren County, Iowa, with house- 
hold goods, stock and stores, arrived on Saturday, and after camp- 
ing out above the depot for a rest, and new start, moved south 

^Denver Daily Tribune, March 21, 1871, p. 4. 
"^Denver Daily Tribune, April 20, 1871, p. 4. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, April 28, 1871, p. 1. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, May 9, 1871, p. 4. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



465 



to-day, filling five large emigrant wagons. They will probably 
locate on the Arkansas, and expect to form the members of a 
large colony, if they are able to report as good a country as they 
have every hope of finding Southern Colorado to be. 

COLONY NEWS.i 
Some members of the Wisconsin colony, who lately settled at 
Fossil Station, on the Kansas Pacific east of Wallace, have become 
dissatisfied with their location, and arrived here this morning ''bag 
and baggage," resolved to join their fortunes to one of the colonies 
in this vicinity. They have portable houses, and some stock which 
they propose to bring along. It is possible the whole Fossil colony 
may follow suit. — A party of thirty English people arrived at the 
Tremont, j^esterday, and some ten or twelve at the Broadwell, 
to-day. Some of them go to Longmont, some to San Luis Valley, 
and the rest to the Cimarron. — Greeley is receiving daily additions 
to its members. — It is said that the Colfax colony in Wet Mountain 
Valley is reviving. — The colony rate between Boston and Denver, 
has been fixed at $60, a reduction of S29. Freight has been placed 
at $3 per hundred. 

ANOTHER COLONY TOWN.^ 
A new station known as Salisbury has been established south 
of Evans on the Denver Pacific road. A large house has been put 
up and several parties are on the ground. The arrivals thus far, 
some fifteen in all, are from Chicago and Waukegan, 111. St. 
Vrain post-office is only two miles away. A fine grove is within 
a few rods from the depot, affording a good chance for summer 
pic-nics. Considerable ground has been planted in the vicinity. 
Plans are in progress for quite a settlement. On Saturday there 
were four arrivals, including Mr. Salisbury, of Chicago, after 
whom the settlement is named. 



THE OHIO COLONY COMING.^ 
The colony of Ohio soldiers and their families projected some 
time ago by Col. H. Wilson, who visited Denver and vicinity, has 



iDenrer Daily Tribune, May 12. 1871, p. 4. 
Denver Daily Tribune, May 16. 1871, p. 4. 
^Denver Daily Tribune, May 23, 1871, p. 4. 



466 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



sent out its locating committee, consisting of Messrs. Nathan 
Bostwick, T. H. Ferrell, George C. Anderson, J. H. McKitrick and 
Isaac Huffman. They reached Topeka Saturday, and will stop 
at Manhattan and one or two other points in Kansas. They may 
be expected here early next week. There is hardly a question but 
they will settle in Colorado. We trust our people will talk elo- 
quently and present the full facts for our Territory. The colony 
already numbers about one thousand persons, or three or four 
hundred families, and it is expected to make the number up to 
one thousand families. The locating committee are authorized 
to select one thousand quarter-sections of land in a body, and 
including a town-site. The idea is to take possession of a county, 
or at least the count 3^-seat. 



The Locating Committee of the Ohio Soldiers' Colony, con- 
sisting of Major Bostwick, George C. Anderson, Isaac Huffman, 
J. H. McKittrick and T. H. Terrell, arrived this morning, and are 
registered at the Tremont House. They will be glad to meet any 
citizens who may be interested in the movement, in the parlor of 
the hotel between 6 and 8 o'clock this evening. We hope Colorado 
Vv^ill present attractions enough to induce this large colony which 
they represent, to settle within our borders. 



In behalf of the Ohio Soldiers' Colony, their Locating Com- 
mittee takes this method of returning their hearty thanks to the 
officers of the Denver Pacific and Kansas Pacific Railroads, the 
Santa Fe Stage Company and others for favors cheerfully bestowed, 
and also to all the people generally with whom we have come in 
contact, and we assure them that if it is ever in our power, the 
favors will be gratefull}^ reciprocated. 



OHIO COLONY COMMITTEE. 1 



A CARD.2 



N. Bostwick, 
Isaac Huffman, 
Geo. C. Anderson. 




^Denrer Daily Tribune, June 9. 1871, p. 4. 
Werner Daily Tribune, June 20 1871. p. 4. 



MISCELLANEOUS COLONIES 



467 



[Kentucky Emigration Society.] 
^The Kentucky Colony, with General Burbridge at the head, 
have located on the Little Fontaine, at its junction with the 
Fontaine. Between three and four hundred famihes contemplate 
joining the colony. Once settled, the colonists intend to introduce 
some of the finest Kentucky stock, and will make fine stock breed- 
ing their especial business. This colony will doubtless prove a 
great acquisition to our Southern section, and will receive a hearty 
welcome from all. 

[Ohio Soldiers' Colony.] 
-The Ohio soldiers' colony have gone back to organize. They 
came to Colorado reorganized on the basis of homesteading, but 
they were not able to find any place suitable for a town site with 
water, railroad convenience, etc., unobstructed b}^ settlement. 
They think of purchasing lands on the Huerfano, if possible. The 
locating committee will arrive in the territory again at an early 
day. 

FROM THE TERRITORIES.3 
On Tuesday last, a train of ten wagons reached Pueblo, each 
wagon the home of a separate family of immigrants from Illinois. 
The party have gone to southern Colorado purposing to locate in 
a body, and form another in the long list of colonies. A short 
time back a detachment of three wagons belonging to the same 
party arrived and went on to the Hardscrabble, they having 
pushed on in advance of the main body from Hays City. The 
colony, aggregating thirteen families, hails from Spring Garden, 
Jefferson county, Illinois, which place they left on April 17, having 
traversed the entire distance in wagons, and having followed the 
line of the Kansas Pacific railroad as far as possible from Topeka 
to Kit Carson. 

TERRITORIAL NEWS.^ 
Another large colonj^ town is about to be built up between 
Longmont and Greeley. The lands in part to be colonized are 

^Colorado Chieftain, June 22, 1871, p. 2. 
^Daily Rocky Mountain News, June 25, 1871, p. 1. 
Waily Rocky Mountain Neus, July 1, 1871, p. 1. 
*Daily Rocky Mountain News, July 2, 1871, p. 1. 



468 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



thirty thousand acres in the hands of D. C. Beckwith, of Denver, 
situated between the Big and Little Thompson creeks. This new 
town is to be located on the line of the proposed railroad from 
Greeley to Longmont. 



ANOTHER COLONY COMING. ^ 
Yesterday we met Messrs. George R. Hotchkins and G. H. 
Benzenberg, locating committee of the Milwaukee colony. They 
have come to Colorado in search of a desirable location, and will 
visit Greeley, Longmont, Boulder and other points north of us. 
The colony now numbers about one hundred members, the greater 
portion of whom are heads of families. Many of the members are 
mechanics, and will begin arriving in September next, so as to get 
the habitations ready for the bulk of the colony. From the con- 
stitution we gather the facts that members of the colony must be 
of strictly temperate habits; the land adjoining the town plot 
shall be divided into lots of from five to one hundred and sixty 
acres, and to be distributed among the members by right of se- 
lection; the membership fee is $150; under this plan it is proposed 
to locate and purchase fifty thousand acres of land suitable for 
agricultural, grazing and manufacturing purposes. This colony 
will not be a ''community," but simply an organization for the 
purpose of securing a large and compact body of land in order to 
its rapid improvement. The success of the Greeley colony has 
proven a strong inducement to the people of Milwaukee. The 
committee have negotiated for a large tract of land convenient 
to Denver. 



[Colony of German Baptists.] 

TERRITORIAL NOTES^ 
******************** 

The Rev. Mr. Bashor, a Tennesseean, has purchased land on 
the Purgatory, in southern Colorado, and proposes to locate there- 
on a colony of people from his own state. Most of the families 
belong to that wing of the Christian Church known as the German 
Baptists. 

^Daily Rocky Mountain News, July 4, 1871, p. 1. 
Waily Rocky Mountain News, June 20, 1872, p. 4. 



INDEX 



In this index no attempt has been made to list every subject 
mentioned in the text; topics that receive cursory treatment and 
those not relevant to the subject matter of the book have been 
omitted. An attempt has been made to include all names of per- 
sons. Names and initials in brackets have been supplied by the 
editors; those in parentheses are variants upon the correct usage. 



Abbott, T. H., 166. 

Ackelbein, W., 43. 

Acker, J. C, 161. 

Ackerman, James, 170. 

Ackerman, Richard, 170. 

Aeley, F., 43. 

Aetzel, , 326. 

Agassiz, [Louis], 263. 

Agriculture, crops, 24, 72, 146, 149, 
150, 227, 231, 235, 241, 242, 369, 
382, 435, 439, 440, 441, 446; dairy- 
ing, 442-444; general items, 3-5, 
18-19, 22-23, 144-146; irrigation, 3, 
10-11, 13-14, 18-19, 144, 145, 149, 
152, 231, 235, 438, 439; markets, 
146, 231, 436, 440; methods, 144, 
150; possibihties of, xii-xiij; soil, 
432, 435, 440; see also stock-raising. 

Aldrich, Charley, 88. 

Aldrich, E. E., 199. 

Allee, A., 162. 

Allen, A. J., vi. 

Allen, C, 195. 

Allen, L., 174. 

Allen, Mrs. M. A., 203. 

Allen, Mary A., 258, 264, 291. 

Allen, Mrs., 262. 

Allen, R. N., 264. 

Allen, R. W., 258. 

Ambrose, J. E., 161. 

Amer, R., 264. 

Anderson, George C, 466. 

Andrew, James, 258, 264. 

Andrews, A. H., 212. 

Andrews, E. H., 216, 258, 264, 269. 

Arp, P., 43. 

Ashley, A. H., 162. 

Aspin, Henry, 169. 

Ashcraft, Grant, 361. 

Ashcraft, Sam, 351, 393. 



Atwood, Newton J., 169, 195. 
Atwood, W. J., 167. 190, 201, 202, 

203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 210, 
211, 212, 214, 216, 217, 285, 303, 
322; member board of trustees, 
Chicago-Colorado Colony, 201. 

Aula, George W., 168. 

Avery, Edward R., 196, 199. 

Avery, Frank C, 196, 199. 

Avery & Goodrich, 429. 

Ayres, Josiah F., 400, 401, 409. 

Baab, Peter, 165. 

Bacon, J. W., 171. 

Badenock, Joseph, 171. 

Bailey, J. C, 258, 264. 

Baker, Alexander K., 201, 202, 203, 

204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210; 
secretary, Chicago-Colorado Col- 
ony, 201. 

Baker, D. M., 119. 

Baker, H. P., 178. 

Baker, John W., 180. 

Baker, William, 178. 

Baker, see Reed & Baker. 

Baldwin, C, 361. 

Baldwin, Charles, 325. 

Banfill, Wilham, 164. 

Barb, M. W., 170. 

Barclay, Charles, 258, 264, 291. 

Barclay, J. B., 188. 

Barcley. J. C, 204. 

Bardell, Dr., , 301. 

Bardill, C, 165. 

Barker, , 356. 

Barker, W. W., 258, 264. 
Barna, Thomas M., (G. M.), xxxv, 
418, 421. 

BarndoUar, Ferd., & Co., xxiii, 129, 
130. 



469 



470 



EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



Barnes, Burton S., xxviii, 137, 140, 
171, 182, 185, 192, 193, 197, 200, 
269, 275, 287, 289, 293, 295, 296, 
297, 300, 302, 304, 305, 311, 323; 
vice - president, Chicago-Colorado 
Colony, 137. 

Barnes, Mrs. B. S., 185. 

Barnett, A., 161. 

Bartlett, John H., 138, 190, 290, 293. 

Bashor, , 468. 

Bassell, Ed. E., 173. 

Bassett, (Basset), , 286, 287. 

Bassett, Alonzo, 258, 264. 
Bassett, J. C, 292. 

Bates, , 361. 

Bates, Edmn C, 173. 
Bates, H. P., 301. 
Bates & Slocnm, 303. 
Baumert, David, 258, 264, 307, 312, 
326. 

Baur, Grace van Sweringen, v. 
Baur, Wilham, v. 
Beall, (Beal), James, 364, 384. 
Bear, Isaac N., 464. 
Bear, W. L., 464. 
Beardsley, G. L., 409. 
Beardslev, William, 258, 264. 
Beattie, J., 384. 

Beaumert, , 212. 

Beckwith, D. C, 468. 

Beckwith, Elmer F., 193, 202, 258, 

262, 263, 284, 318, 326. 
Beckwith, Fred C, 196, 258, 264, 279, 

326. 

Beckwith, George L., 258, 264. 
Beckwith & Co., 262. 
Behrens, A., 43. 
Bellman, John, 172, 208. 
Bellman & Co., 308. 
Blake, J. A., 18. 

Bennett, , 301. 

Bennett & Parsons, 305. 
Bennett, Uri, & Co., 353. 

Benson, , 286. 

Benson, Albert, 290, 303. 
Benson, J. E., 174, 197. 
Benzenberg, G. H., 468. 
Bernard, S. P., 404. 
Bernt, Paul, 168. 
Bestlev, C. G., 329. 
Billingen, C, 173. 
BiUings, J. M., 301. 
Billings, J. N., 175. 
Billings, William W., 175. 

Billopp, , 308. 

Bingham, Albert D., 164. 
Birkenbenel, W., 409. 



Bishop, , 256. 

Bishop, F. II., 169, 197. 

Bishop, Thomas B., 167. 

Bixbv. A. F.. 165. 

Blair, James^ 258, 264. 

Blanchard, Asa L., 174, 296, 302, 306. 

Blanton, Leigh M., 163. 

Blinn, Warren, 172, 182, 207, 210. 

Bliss, , 200. 

Bliss, F. T., 176. 

Bhss, Charles L., 183, 184, 305. 

Bliss, W. H., 290. 

Bliss, see Terry & Bliss. 

Blomellev (Blomelev), Joseph (Jas.), 

174, 182, 189, 190, 197. 
Blore, W. R., 325. 
Blossom, C. E., 179. 
Blossom, E. H., 174. 
Blosson, E. J., 179. 
Blunt, M. L., 81. 
Board, George, 393, 413, 416. 

Boedeker, , 43. 

Boettcher, H., 380. 

Bond, , 207. 

Bond, Isaac L., (J. L.,) 168. 196. 
Bond, G. S., 198. 

Bontwell, , 301. 

Boot, William, 182. 

Boothrovd Bros., 287. 

Borden, Gus O., 162. 

Boston Colony, 367, 374. 

Bostwick, Nathan, 466. 

Boulder County, resources of, 252- 

253 

Bout well & Munsil, 301. 

Bowen Bros., 257. 

Bowen, E. C, 179. 

Bowen, George S., xxv, 137, 161, 219, 
232, 244, 245, 256, 257, 259, 267, 
290, 293, 300; executive council, 
Chicago-Colorado Colony, 137. 

Bowen, Hunt & Winslow, 244, 257. 

Bowen, Ira P., 244. 

Bowles, Samuel, ix, xiii. 

Boyce, (Boice), Anna, 199, 207. 

Boyd, Alexander, 352. 

Bovd, David, xxix, xxx, xxxiii, xxxv. 

Boynton, C. W., v, 137 (note). 

Bradford, A. A., 84. 

Bradbury, Cotton C, 333, 334, 335, 
365, 3*66, 367, 368, 372, 376, 379, 
381, 396. 

Bradley, Robert, 173. 

Bradner, N. T., 174, 200. 

Bramford, James T., 175. 

Bramwood, J. W., 194, 198. 

Bramwood, WiUiam, 173, 193, 198. 



INDEX 



471 



Brinkcr & Co., 411, 416. 

Broad, W. E., 376. 

Brooke, f?) E. B., 178. 

Bross, William, xxv, xxviii, IGl, 299, 
232, 233, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 
244, 245, 254, 273, 290, 293, 294, 
300, 444; executive council, Chi- 
cago-Colorado Colony, 137; treas- 
urer, 232. 

Brown, Elisha S., 170. 

Brown, Enos, & Co., 244. 

Brown, Erastus J., 166. 

Brown, G. W., 258, 264. 

Brown, Henry, 166. 

Brown, Hezikiah, 172. 

Brown, I. N., 171. 

Brown, W. S., 376. 

Brown, see Reynolds, Brown ^ Co. 

Brush, J. L., (S. L.), 364, 365, 367, 
372, 379. 

Bryan, , 262. 

Bryan, William, 258, 264. 

Buckingham, , 203, 207, 288. 

Buckingham, C, 290. 

Buckingham, P., 187, 201. 

Buckingham, W., 198. 

Buckingham, see Emerson & Buck- 
ingham. 

Buckley, John A., 166. 

Burbridge, , 467. 

Burch, R. M., 258, 264. 

Burlington, residents of, in Chicago- 
Colorado Colony, 258, 264. 

Burnett (Burnet), H., 177, 295, 296. 

Burnett & Sears, 317. 

Bury, Jabez, 171, 197. 

Busch, W., 188. 

Butler, H. T., 161. 

Butler, Wilham, 171. 

Butters, C. F., 276. 

Butters, George, 269, 276. 

Butters, William A., 160, 245, 429, 
447, 448. 

Butters, W. A. & Co., 244. 

Byers, Frank S., v, 225, 339 (note). 

Byers, William N., v, xxiv, xxvii, xxx, 
xxxi, 16, 42, 68, 69, 185, 212, 213, 
218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 
225, 226, 240, 241, 243, 267, 268, 
282, 283, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 
344, 345, 346, 348, 429, 447, 448; 
correspondence, 218-226, 339-348; 
agent National Land Co., 218 
(note); trustee, Platte River Land 
Co., 429. 

Byers, Mrs. William N., 223, 225. 

Calkin, C. C, 168. 



Cameron, R. A., xxiv, xxv, 22, 23, 24, 
220, 229, 230, 234, 237, 243, 246, 
456; vice-president Union Colony, 
xxiv. 

Carr, , 359. 

Carr, , 337, 362. 

Carr, Bvron L., 204, 205, 208, 210, 
212, 296, 301, 306, 309, 310, 322, 
464; secretary, Chicago-Colorado 
Colony, 204. 

Carr & Dav, 202, 203, 204. 

Carsel, Henry, 290. 

Carson, Mrs. Mary A., 170. 

Carv, William, 258, 264. 

Cass, Frank A., 179, 200, 301. 

Central Kentucky Emigration So- 
ciety, see Kentucky Emigration 
Society. 

Chadbourne (Chadbourn), Horace, 
184, 188, 194, 198. 

Chaffee, Clarence L., 160. 

Chapin, Frank, 178, 301. 

Chapin, Frank D., 173. 

Charlton, James, 162. 

Cheesman, Walter S., 336, 338, 361. 

Chenev, , 351. 

Cherry, James, 429, 447. 

Chicago-Colorado Colony, advertis- 
ing pamphlet, 237; agricultural 
plans, 276-278; agricultural society, 
317, 325; annuaT reports, 214-217; 
arrival of colonists, 270, 272, 279, 
280, 287, 290, 292, 296, 301, 302; 
certificate of organization, 212-213; 
colony house, xxvii, 270, 272, 275, 
284; colony pamphlet, xxix, 137- 
159; conditions of membership, 139; 
constitution and by-lav/s, xxv-xxvi, 
138-140; crops, 324, 327; difficul- 
ties of, xxix; distribution of land, 
xxvii-xxviii, 274-275, 281-282, 285- 
2S6; ditches, 146, 147, 209, 276, 
289, 313-314, 315, 322, 323, 326, 
327; excerpt from Day Book (1871), 
181-201; excerpt from Minutes of 
Board of Trustees (1872), 201-212; 
financial statements, 205-206, 282; 
first anniversary, 327-328; general 
sketch of, xxiv-xxx; joined bj'- in- 
habitants of Burlington, 254, 258, 
260, 284, 267; list of members, 160- 
180; locating committee, xxvi-xxvii, 
223-225, 243, 246, 247, 249, 250, 
256, 259, 267; moral principles, 
148, 266; officers, xxv, xxviii, 137, 
232, 239, 286, 289, 293, 300; origin 
of, xxiv, 227-235; prices current 



472 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



(1S71), 278-279, 299-300; progress 
reported. 146, 238, 244, 253. 254, 
255, 272. 279. 283-284. 288, 298- 
301, 312-314. 315, 318-319. 320- 
325: satire on colonv advertising. 
329-330; site chosen,' 142, 250-253^ 
254, 257, 259, 261. 267; see also 
Longmont. 

Childs, H. C, 170. 

Chittenden, T. S., 173. 

Chi%'ington, fjohn M.], xi. 

Church, Charles, 167. 

Clark, A., 258. 

Clark, Henrv. 169. 

Clark, James H.. 464. 

Clark, P. B., 169. 

Clark, WiUiam, 179. 

Clarke, see Woolworth. Moffat & 
Clarke. 

Claudius, M.. 43. 

Clawson, A., 189, 190. 202. 203. 207. 

208. 258. 264. 
Clawson. A., and Co., 181. 183. 185, 

186, 187. 188. 190, 195. 
Clawson, Garrett, 187, 189, 190. 258, 

264. 

Clayton. D. B.. 361. 362. 

Clegg, Thomas. 177. 

Climate of Colorado. 156. 157. 158, 

159. 433-435. 436. 441. 
Coates. Robert. 173. 
Cobb Bros.. 244. 
Coburn, see Cook, Coburn Co. 
Coffin, R.. 258. 264. 

Coffman. . 283. 

Coffman. D. S., 186. 187, 258, 264. 

326, 329. 

Coffman. Enoch J., xx^iii, 137, 140, 
186, 193, 201, 202. 203, 204. 206. 
207. 208. 210. 212. 214. 216. 217. 
258. 264, 265, 269. 275. 290. 293. 
295. 300. 326; trustee. Chicago- 
Colorado Colonv. 290. 

Coffman. Mrs. Enoch J.. 291. 

Coffman Ditch, 209. 

Coffman. J. D.. 185, 186, 200, 258, 
264. 

Cole. H. C. 366. 

Colfax Guard, 38-40. 

Colfax, town of. why so named, xx, 
34; site of, xxii; description of, 116- 
117; see also German Colonization 
Companv. 

Colfax, Scliuvler, 34, 63. 

CoUings, T.. 296. 

Collver, Robert, xxv. 161. 232. 238. 
239, 240, 241, 244, 245, 247-249, 



254. 271; president, Chicago-Colo- 
rado Colony, 232. 

Colonies, classes of. x\-i-x\'ii; miscel- 
laneous, xxxvi-xxxvii ; population 
of, 21; see also Colony Towns. 

Colonization, advantages of, xiv-xv, 
19-20, 21, 23, 141, 143, 230. 238- 
239. 265-266; agencies fostering, 
24-26; and immigration, 21-22; co- 
operative colonies suggested, 10; 
hardships encountered, xv-xvi; gen- 
eral items. 1-26; legislative sanc- 
tion. 1; opportunities for, 1-2. 

Colony Towns, see Colfax, Colorado 
Springs. Evans, Green City, Long- 
mont, Monument. New ^lemphis, 
Platteville. South Pueblo. 

Colorado Agricultural Society, 439, 
445; address before, 2-9. 

Colorado Building and Emigration 
Societv of Europe and America, 
392, 396. 

Colorado Springs, see Fountain Col- 
onv. 

Colt.'Lvman H., 404. 
Comings, Charles T., 160. 
Condit, William S., 217. 

Cook, . 360. 

Cook. Coburn <fe Co., 244. 
Cook, Matterson, 172. 
Corbett. W. W., 161. 
Cornforth. Birks. 351. 353, 380. 
Cornwell. William D., 173. 
Cotter, Dennis I.. 192, 200. 
Conrandts. W., 43. 
Cram, J. M., 179. 
Cram, see Kram. 
Crandall, E. R., 180. 

Crawford. . 212. 

Crawford. E. D., 258, 262, 264, 281. 

Crawford. John. 162. 

Crippen. Hosia. 172. 

Crispin, H., 287. 

Cronk, George. 258, 264. 

Croome. Henry J., 165. 

Cross, Samuel. 170. 

Crothers, W. D.. 162. 

Gumming. George, 409. 

Currier, Miss H., 174. 

Cushraan, A. W.; 197, 199, 202, 210. 

Cushman. Alfred. 188. 325. 

Cushman. E. J.. 197. 

Cushman. Elizabeth, 195. 

Cutler. Milton. 166. 

Cutler, N. R.. 166. 

Danforth. Josiah, 178. 

Danter, Allice, 166. 



INDEX 



473 



Danter, Annie Bella, 167. 
Danter (Dante), James F., 16C>, 2S7, 
303. 

Darninji^ton, Charles, 258. 
Davis, Frank P., 167. 
Davis, Fred H., 296. 
Davis, George F., 296, 329. 
Davis. Kittv, 296. 
Davis; M. H., 177, 201, 296. 
Davys, Herbert J., 176, 199. 
Dawson, John., 171, 186. 

Dav, , 208, 210. 

Day, Alfred, 200. 
Dav, Charles E., 216, 217. 
Day, John E., 184. 
Day, John O., Jr., 179. 
Dav, see Carr & Day. 
De'Berard, F. W., 170. 
Dedham, W., 178. 
Deem, Adam, 168, 190. 

Deitz, , 373. 

Dell, George T., 167. 
Dell, Mrs. George T., 292. 
Deli, Richard, 179. 
Dell, W., 184. 
Dell, see Moore & Dell. 
Denny, H. De Witt, 301. 
Denver and Boulder Vallev Railroad, 
143. 

Denver and Rio Grande Railwav, 22, 
452, 456. 

Denver Land Association, xxxii, 335, 
337, 342, 367, 371. 

Denver Pacific Railwaj', xii, xxiv, 
xxxi, xxxii, 13, 14, 16, 17, 22, 25, 
214, 250, 337, 338, 347, 349, 350, 
354, 359, 360, 361, 362, 371, 382, 
383, 389, 394, 429, 448, 466. 

Devereaux, John P., 223. 

Dickens. Marie E., 264. 

Dickens, William H., 187, 263, 264. 

Dickey, George, 163. 

Dickinson, , 427. 

Dietz (Diez), Frederick, 43, 120. 

Dinsmore, Theodore, 290. 

Dinsmore, Thomas. 171, 193. 

Dirk, William H., 258. 

Dixon, James, 177. 

Dodge, Julia L., 177. 

Dolton, J. P. & Co., 244. 

Dotson, H. L., 409. 

Douglas, Robert, 276. 

Douns, E. A., 162. 

Downing, , xi. 

Drake, , 353. 

Drake, see Murrin & Drake. 

Drew, J. S., 174. 



Driver, Luke, 169. 

Duncan, iMason, 181, 186, 1S8, 192. 

Dunnavan, Lucinn G., 399, 400, 409. 

Dunning, Thomas, 168. 

Dupins, Louis, 168. 

Dupree, , 307. 

Dutcher, George N., 161. 

Dwight, J. L., 258, 264. 

Dyrenfurth, ■ , 43. 

Eadie, , 224. 

Eastman, Mrs. Celia, 163. 

Eastman, Charles, 164. 

Eastman, Mrs. Clara, 164. 

Ecker, John, 194, 201, 207. 

Edsall, , 272. 

Edser, John, 184. 

Eicholtz, — -, 361. 

Elllison, William, 174. 

Ely, Douglass, 173. 

Emerson, Charles, 137, 182, 283, 288. 

Emerson & Buckingham, 184, 185, 
187, 283, 288, 305, 313, 315, 318. 

Emerson, West & Buckingham, 288. 

Emery, Henry D., xxv, xxvi, 160, 224, 
232, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 249, 
250, 256, 257, 259, 267, 273, 274; 
editor Prairie Farmer, xxv; locating 
committee, Chicago-Colorado Col- 
ony, 243. 

Engler, D. A., 409. 

Entwhistle (Entwistle), James, 169, 
181, 186. 

Esterly, George, 164, 245. 

Evans, churches in, 384, 395; com- 
pared with Greeley, xxxiii, 390-391; 
pre-colonial conditions, 349-363; 
description of, 394-396; population, 
21, 381, 386, 388; prospects of, 350, 
351, 352, 356, 357; railroad celebra- 
tion, 361-362; sale of lots in, 349, 
350, 353, 358; site of St. Louis- 
Western Colony, xxxii, 366, 368; 
see also St. Louis- Western Colony. 

Evans, John, 339, 340, 342, 347, 349, 
356, 357, 359, 361, 362, 394. 

Evans & Carr, 337, 338, 347, 366. 

Everett, M. A., 193. 

Ewing, Samuel, 373, 378, 380. 

Excelsior Ditch, 202, 203, 215, 216. 

Fake, Fred L., 161. 

Falkenberg, P., 43. 

Farris, J., 384. 

Farris, S., 384. 

Farwell, see Grannis & Far well. 
Fawcett, Richard, 137, 182, 184, 189, 
191, 254, 263, 293, 305, 306, 318, 



33 



474 EXPERIMENTS IN COLORADO COLONIZATION 



323; engineer, Chicago-Colorado 

Colony, 137. 
Febles, J. C, 396, 404. 

Felton, , 210. 

Ferroll, see Terrell. 
Fersin, Kirk, 177. 
Field, Leiter & Co., 244. 
Field, Silas C, 223. 
Fielden, Robert, 170.